2. ModalsAdd meaning to the main verbAdviceAbilityObligationProbabilityFollowed by an infinitiveTwo modal verbs cant be usedtogetherI will can finish my homework.
3. Where Am I?You should reserve a ticket beforeyou arrive.You must remain seated at thebeginning and the end.You can relax by watching a movieor listening to music.You may ask the staff to bring youdrinks or snacks.You must not smoke.
4. Modals of AdvisabilitySHOULDOUGHT TOHAD BETTERITS TIME
5. ShouldTo give advice or an opinionYou should do something = It is agood thing to do or the right thing todoYou look tired. You should get somerest.The government should help thepoor.
6. Think + ShouldWe often use should with I think/Idont think/Do you think...?I think the government should helpthe poor.I dont think you should go there.Do you think we should inviteHelen to the party?
7. Should + notYou shouldnt do something = It isnta good thing to doYou shouldnt believe everythingyou read on the internet.
8. PastShould + have + V3You should have done something =you didnt do it but it would havebeen the right thing to doIt was a great party last night. Youshould have come. Why didnt you?= you didnt come to the party butyou should have.
9. Present vs. PastYou look tired. You should get somerest. [you should rest now]You look tired. You should havegotten some rest. [you should haverested in the past but you didnt]
10. Expectation (1)SHOULD is used when something isnot right or what we expectJane should be here by now. Theexam is about to begin.The result should be 10, not 100.Jack should behave. The school isabout to expel him.
11. Expectation (2)SHOULD is used to say that we expectsomething to happenShe has been studying hard, so sheshould pass. [I expect her to pass]It shouldnt be hard to find aconcert ticket. [I dont expectthat it will be hard]
12. Suggestion (1)Should after these verbsSuggest, propose, recommend,insist, demandWe insist that we should pay forour tickets.I demand that he shouldapologize.
13. Suggestion (2)After suggestion/proposal/recommendationWhat is your suggestion that Ishould do?After important/vital/necessary/essentialIts essential that you shouldbe punctual.
14. SubjunctiveYou may leave out should inSuggestion (1) and (2)I demand that he apologize.Its essential that you be punctual.
15. Regular TenseYou may also use regular presentand past tensesI demand that he apologizes.Its essential that you are punctual.
16. Attention!The usage of verb to suggestNOT used with toJack suggests that Jill (should)buy a car.NOT>>Jack suggests Jill to buy acar.What do you suggest we(should)do?NOT>> What do you suggestus to do?
17. Ought toOught to can be used instead ofshouldDo you think I ought to apply forthis position?Jack ought not to go to bed late.It was a great party last night.You ought to have come.
18. Had betterYoud better do something = itsadvisable that you do it. If you dont,there will be consequences.Should I take an umbrella? Yes,youd better. It might rain.Youd better leave now. The examstarts in 5 minutes.
19. Had better notNegative form = had better + notYoud better not go out tonight. Youhavent finished your homework.
20. WarningUse had better to warn someone thats/he must do somethingYoud better be on time.Youd better not miss the flight.
21. Attention!Had better expresses the meaning inpresent or future, not pastHad better + V1You had better arrive at 8 a.m. onthe dot.
22. Had better vs. ShouldHad better is used in a particularsituationIt implies that there will be aproblem or danger if you dontfollow the advice.Youd better not overspend.
23. Had better vs. ShouldShould is used in a general situationBoth drivers and passengers shouldwear seat belts.How do these two sentences differ?Its a great film. You should see it.The film starts in 5 minutes. Youdbetter go there now.
24. Its timeIts time for (someone) to dosomethingIts time for us to start reviewingthe lessons.Use with past tense but the meaningis present or futureIts 10 a.m. Its time he got up.Not >>its time he gets up.
25. CriticismUsually, it is used to criticize orcomplainIts time she stopped blamingothers for her mistakes.Its time you were responsiblefor your own action.
26. Its about timeIs used to make criticism strongerJack is always slacking off. Itsabout time he accomplishedsomething.Jill is self-centered. Its high timeshe put others first.