Embodied Organizations A unifying perspective in programming Agents, Organizations and Environments

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Agent Systems research pushes the notion of openness related to systems combining heterogeneous computational entities. Typically, those entities answer to different purposes and functions and their integration is a crucial issue. Starting from a comprehensive approach in developing agents, organizations and environments, this paper devises an integrated approach and describes a unifying programming model. It introduces the notion of embodied organization, which is described first focusing on the main entities as separate concerns; and, second, establishing different in- teraction styles aimed to seamlessly integrate the various entities in a co- herent system. An integration framework, built on top of Jason, CArtAgO and Moise (as programming platforms for agents, environments and or- ganizations resp.) is described as a suitable technology to build embodied organizations in practice.

Text of Embodied Organizations A unifying perspective in programming Agents, Organizations and Environments

  • 1.EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,OlivierBoissier, Jomi Embodied OrganizationsF. Hbner, A unifying perspective in programming Agents, Alessandro Ricci Organizations and EnvironmentsIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS Michele Piunti1Olivier Boissier2 Jomi F. Hbner3Programming Alessandro Ricci1EmbodiedOrganizations1 Universit degli studi di Bologna - DEIS, Bologna - Italy.ProgrammingModel{michele.piunti | a.ricci}@unibo.itConclusions 2 Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines - G2I St-Etienne - Franceboissier@emse.fr3 Federal University of Santa Catarina - DAS, Florianpolis - Brazil jomi@das.ufsc.br COIN 2010 - Lyon

2. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, OutlineOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, Alessandro Ricci1 IntroductionIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS 2 A unifying approach to MAS ProgrammingProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgramming 3 Embodied OrganizationsModelConclusions4 Programming Model5 Conclusions 3. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Current Issues in MASOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner,Programming Alessandro RicciIntroductionA unifying BELIEFS INTERNALEVENTSROLESapproach to GOALS PLANS MISSIONSMAS DUTIES ACTIONS ?ProgrammingPERCEPTIONS DEONTIC RELATIONSNORMS SANCTIONS/REWARDSEmbodiedAGENTS ORGANIZATIONSOrganizationsRESOURCESLEGACYProgramming SERVICES COMPONENTSModel ENVIRONMENTSConclusionsA seamless integration of entities and mechanisms is stillneeded 4. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,Current ApproachesOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, Alessandro RicciAgent ProgrammingIntroductionJason [Bordini et al., 2007], Jadex [Pokahr et al., 2005], 2APL [Dastani, 2008], etc.A unifyingapproach toMASProgrammingOrganization Programming: platforms and approachesEmbodiedOrganizations AGR/M AD K IT [Ferber et al., 2003], PowerJade [Baldoni et al., 2008], ElectronicProgramming Institutions [Esteva et al., 2004], S-M OISE + [Hbner et al., 2005], O PERAModel[Dignum, 2003], etc.ConclusionsEnvironment ProgrammingMASQ, AGRE [Stratulat et al., 2009, Bez-Barranco et al., 2006], NormativeObjects [Okuyama et al., 2009], Situated Electronic Institutions[Campos et al., 2008], etc.Brahms [Sierhuis, 2001] 5. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,ObjectivesOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner,Embodying Organizations in Agents Environments? Alessandro Ricci To enable agents to protably interact with bothIntroduction organizational and other environmental entities;A unifyingapproach to To enable organizational entities to control agents andMASProgrammingregiment environmental resources;EmbodiedOrganizations To allow environmental changes to affect bothProgrammingorganizational dynamics and agents activities;ModelConclusions 6. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,ObjectivesOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner,Embodying Organizations in Agents Environments? Alessandro Ricci To enable agents to protably interact with bothIntroductionorganizational and other environmental entities;A unifyingapproach to To enable organizational entities to control agents andMASProgramming regiment environmental resources;EmbodiedOrganizations To allow environmental changes to affect bothProgramming organizational dynamics and agents activities;ModelConclusionsSeveral outcomes at an application level: To reconcile agents and their work environments with institutionaldimensions (i.e. organizations); To exploit a strong notion of agency, i.e., mental attitudes(purposes, knowledge), events, perception Interoperability and Openness 7. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Embodied OrganizationOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, In human organizations infrastruc- Environment Alessandrotures are explicitly conceived for eas- Infrastructures Artifacts Ricci ing complex activities/tasks.Introduction Cross disciplinary approach:A unifyingapproach to Intelligent use of SpaceMAS[Kirsh, 1995]ProgrammingEmbodied Theory of Social ActionsOrganizations[Castelfranchi, 1998]PatientProgramming AgentsModel Environments are instrumented with Staff AgentsConclusionsspecic Infrastructures Staff Agent Visitor Aiding purposes, easing agent works AgentsTo provide a set of coherent Infrastructures instrumenting environmentsfor implementing Organizations and Environments[Piunti et al., 2009a, Piunti et al., 2009b] 8. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, OutlineOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, Alessandro Ricci1 IntroductionIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS 2 A unifying approach to MAS ProgrammingProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgramming 3 Embodied OrganizationsModelConclusions4 Programming Model5 Conclusions 9. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,Unifying approach to MASOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner,Programming Alessandro RicciIntroductionA unifying A-Eapproach toAGENT(S) ENVIRONMENTMASProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsA-OO-EProgrammingModelConclusionsORGANIZATION 10. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,Unifying approach to MASOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner,Programming Alessandro RicciIntroductionA unifying A-Eapproach toAGENT(S) ENVIRONMENTMASProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsA-OO-EProgrammingModelConclusionsORGANIZATION 11. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Environment ProgrammingOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, Alessandro RicciA&A meta-model for MAS [Omicini et al., 2008] :IntroductionA unifyingapproach to Agents Autonomous andMAS self-interested entitiesProgrammingencapsulating theirEmbodiedOrganizationscontrol.Artifacts Non-autonomous ArtifactsProgrammingModelentities.ConclusionsWorkspaces Virtual containers of Agents agents and artifacts, dening the topologyHospitalworkspace and the properties of the environment. 12. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Artifact MetamodelOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, Alessandro OBSERVABLE Ricci update ObservableEVENTSGENERATION Property OBSERVABLEnameObsPropNameValue PROPERTIESvalueIntroductionObsPropNameValueManual1 functions ......A unifyingoperatingapproach to instructions OPERATION XMASUsage InterfaceOpControlName(Params)Programming 1 1UsageControl ArtifactUSAGEOpControlName(Params)Interface nameOPERATION Yparams INTERFACE...EmbodiedtriggerOrganizations controlOperationProgramming generateObservableEvent ARTIFACTModel MANUALLINKINTERFACEConclusionsUsage Interface and Observable Properties Basic building block for decentralized MAS environments Object at an agent level of abstraction 13. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Model for A-E InteractionsOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, Alessandro RicciA-EAGENT(S) ENVIRONMENTIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMASProgramming A-OO-EEmbodiedOrganizationsProgramming ORGANIZATIONModelConclusionsActions and Perceptions Native capabilities of agents; Addressed at artifacts (and workspaces) functionalities 14. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Agent-Artifact InteractionOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, Metamodel Alessandro Ricciupdate ObservableperceiveProperty observe nameIntroduction value ManualconsultA unifying 1 functions operatingapproach toinstructionsMAS Usage InterfaceProgrammingWork1 1UsageControl useArtifact AgentEnvironmentInterface nameEmbodied params triggerOrganizationscontrol OperationProgramminggenerateObservableperceiveModelEventConclusionsjoinWorkspace quitPragmatic and Epistemic Actions Agent-Environment (A-E) interactions are based on the notion of:Usage and Perception [Piunti and Ricci, 2008] 15. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, CArtAgO InfrastructureOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, AlessandromakeArtifact Ricci paymentsfocus payIntroductionuseA unifyingBillingMachineapproach toMASProgrammingEmbodiedHospital WorkspaceOrganizations AgentProgramming + Bridge Platform(s) (i.e. c4Jason,CArtAgO nodeModelc4Jadex)ConclusionsOrthogonality Improved repertoire of agents actions: .joinWorkspace Heterogeneous agents (Jason, .makeArtifactJadex) work in artifact based .lookupArtifactsenvironments; . ... .use Integration technologies (bridges) .observeProperty[Piunti et al., 2008, Ricci et al., 2009]. .focus 16. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,Environment ManagementOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner,Infrastructures Alessandro RicciHospital ScenarioIntroductionA unifyingapproach to Artifacts are viewed as a set of re-MASProgramming sources exploitable by agents STAFFEmbodied Goal Oriented InteractionOrganizations Externalisation STAFF visits sendBillsignDocProgrammingModel Coordination sendFeeTerminalsignPat SurgeryTabletEMIConclusions ENVIRONMENT ARTIFACTSFor instance in Jason:paymentsreservations VISITOR pay bookVisit+!execute_payVISITORBillingMachine Desk: artifact_id(billing, BmId)Hospital Workspace& payment(Params)Agent apply("visitorGroupBoard","OMI.GroupBoard",EmbodiedleaveRole(Ag, "patient")).["moise/hospital.xml","visitGroup"]);Organizations make("visitorSchBoard",+op_completed("BillingMachine",Programming "OMI.SchemeBoard",Ag, pay)Model ["moise/hospital.xml","visitorSch"]);-> apply("visitorSchBoard", apply("visitorGroupBoard",setGoalAchieved(Ag, pay_visit)).Conclusions adoptRole(Ag, "patient")); include(Ag).+op_completed("Terminal",+op_completed("visitorGroupBoard", _,Ag, sendFee)adoptRole(Ag, "patient"))-> apply("monitorSchBoard",-> apply("visitorSchBoard",setGoalAchieved(Ag, send_fee)).commitMission(Ag, "mPat")). Figure: Example of count-as rules in the Hospital scenario. 36. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Hospital Scenario: EnactOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, Alessandro RicciEnact RulesIntroductionOrganization may produce a control by enacting changes upon theA unifyingapproach to environment (i.e., to promote equilibrium, avoid undesiderable states).MASProgrammingEmbodied +signal("monitorSchBoard",Organizationsgoal_non_compliance,+signal("visitorGroupBoard", obligation(Ag,Programming role_cardinality, visitor)ngoa(monitorSch,mRew,send_bill),Model : trueachieved(monitorSch,send_bill,Ag),-> disable("Desk", bookVisit).TTF)Conclusions: true -> exclude(Ag). Figure: Example of enact rules in the hospital scenario. 37. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, OutlineOlivierBoissier, JomiF. Hbner, Alessandro Ricci1 IntroductionIntroductionA unifyingapproach