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Prof E.A. Lomonova ([email protected]) Dr J.J.H. Paulides ([email protected]) … … and many MSc, PDeng and PhD students Reluctance Machines Facing the challenges of future electrical power trains Electromechanics and Power Electronics Group Eindhoven University of Technology, NL Phone: + 31 (0)40 247-3573/2310 Fax: + 31 (0)40 243-4364 e’mail: [email protected] http://www.tue.nl/epe

EMVT Reluctance Machines

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Reluctance Machines Facing the challenges of future electrical power trains Prof E.A. Lomonova Dr J.J.H. Paulides

Text of EMVT Reluctance Machines

  • 1. Electromechanics and Power Electronics GroupEindhoven University of Technology, NLPhone: + 31 (0)40 247-3573/2310Fax: + 31 (0)40 243-4364email: [email protected]://www.tue.nl/epeReluctance MachinesFacing the challengesof future electrical power trainsProf E.A. Lomonova ([email protected])Dr J.J.H. Paulides ([email protected]) and many MSc, PDeng and PhD students

2. Classification of electrical machines11 3. Synchronous reluctancemachines22 4. 3Simple salient IM-based salient structuresstructureSegmentalstructureIPM-basedstructureDouble barrierstructureSome historical developments3 5. Modern SynRM structures4Axially laminated rotor: Very high performance Complex construction Costly to manufactureTransversely laminated rotor: High performance Mass-production by punching possible Relatively cheap to manufacturePromising formass-production!4 6. Stator voltage equations in dq-reference frame(no iron losses):dv RidtvR id Phasor diagram:5sdsd s sd sq rsqsq s sq sd rdt += += +Non-linearity and position dependence:sd = f(isd,isq,r) and sq = f(isd,isq,r)Analytical modeling5 7. Numerical modeling: Finite Element (FE)Properties of FE modeling: Accurate magnetic field solution Includes non-linear soft-magnetic materials Includes leakage flux of mechanical connections Relatively long computation time66 8. Drives and controlStructure of the SynRM drive:77 9. Examples of commercial SynRM drivesABB SynRM motor-drive package: Power range: 11 kW 315 kW High efficiency (IE4) or high powerdensity Seperate drive with sensorlesscontrol8KSB SuPremE motor Power range: 0.55 kW 45 kW High efficiency (IE4) Motor mounted drive with sensorlesscontrol8 10. Permanent magnet assisted SynRMsImproving SynRM performance: Add cheap PM to barriers(e.g. Ferrite PMs) Increase torque capabilityand power factor99 11. Flux-switching machines10 12. Switched reluctance machines with assisted excitation Flux-switching machines11Reluctance machines with hybrid excitation 13. Switched reluctance machine=Low torquedensity+ RobustrotorstructureFlux-switching machinePermanentmagnetsThree-phasearmaturewindingsFerromagneticmaterialBrushless AC/DC machineComplicatedrotor structureHightorquedensity12Flux switching machine 14. With PM Excitation With DC Excitation13PM or DC excitation? 15. Advantages of DC excitation: No need of rare-earth elements Allow higher temperature Wide speed range[*][*] Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Flux-switchingmachine with DC excitation, Transaction onMagnetics, Vol. 48(11), pp. 3583-3586, Nov., 201214DC excited flux-switching machine 16. Toroidal DC windingLap DC windingAC windingsConcentratedwindingsDistributed windingsDC windings15Different winding topologies 17. Flux-switching machinesApplications16 18. Automotive industry EnergyIn-wheel traction ofelectric car Servo drivesWindMillingCutters Hydro17Application of flux switching machines 19. 18Application In-wheel traction Automotive industryIn-wheel traction ofelectric car 20. CPSRTorque Max.TorqueBasespeedPowerMax.Constant power speed Compact and light-weight High torque density Wide speed range High efficiencySpeed Requirements for the motor design19Application In-wheel traction 21. 22. inverter supply voltage!#$,%##$50 km/[email protected]%140 km/[email protected]%80 km/[email protected]%20Efficiency map based on: Copper losses Pcu, Iron losses Pfe, and Friction losses.Application example: Traction 23. Field oriented control (FOC) Controller structure Control of ' 24. () * and + Field weakening Space vector modulation21Application example: Traction controller 25. Chosen control strategy Follow the ,-./ line Calculate-./)01 26. 2* Calculate 3453) -./ 27. 456* 6 follows 3 Always on the ,-./ line789:8: ;= ?8)78*[email protected] example: Control strategy 28. 23Application of flux switching machines Servo drivesCutters Milling 29. Application example Design for fast acceleration9-10-2014 PAGE 24Back-emfTorque24 30. Application example Performance comparison Stall torques measured from the normalized de-ratingcharacteristics at a housing temperature of 60CBenchmark Prototype Torque ripple reduced by a continuous rotor skewing25 The FSPM prototype is compared to a state-of-the-art industrialbenchmark machine, i.e. a brushless PM motor. 31. 26Application example Performance evaluation FSPMs offer very good servo capability with loweredinertia due to PM-less rotor with a high stall torque A higher torque-to-inertia ratio is achieved for an activemotor volume under identical thermal operation A smooth torque profile combined with low noise isensured with only 0.2% rippleElectromechanics and Power Electronics GroupEindhoven University of Technology, NLPhone: + 31 (0)40 247-3573/2310Fax: + 31 (0)40 243-4364email: [email protected]://www.tue.nl/epe 32. Further readingTU/e EPE Literature27Electromechanics and Power Electronics GroupEindhoven University of Technology, NLPhone: + 31 (0)40 247-3573/2310Fax: + 31 (0)40 243-4364email: [email protected]://www.tue.nl/epe 33. 20+ publications in peer reviewed international journals IEEE Magnetics, Industry applications, Power electronics COMPEL, ETASR, IET, Springer, Elsevier30+ publications in highly ranked European and internationalconferences: INTERMAG EVER ELECTRIMACS COMPUMAG ICEM ECCE28PublicationsConferences (Overview)... 34. Journal publications Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Energy conversion in dc excited flux-switching machines, IEEETransactions on Magnetics, to be published in 2014. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Automated design of dc-excited flux-switching in-wheel motorusing magnetic equivalent circuits, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, to be published in 2014. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Topologies of flux-switching machines for in-wheel traction,COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and ElectronicEngineering, to be published in 2014. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Analytical modeling of flux-switching motor using variablemagnetic equivalent circuits, ISRN Automotive Engineering, 2014, 1-11. Y. Tang, T. E. Motoasca, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Comparison of flux-switching machines andpermanent magnet synchronous machines in an in-wheel traction application, COMPEL: The InternationalJournal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 32(1),153 165, 2013. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, T. E. Motoasca, E. A. Lomonova, Flux-switching machine with DC excitation, IEEETransactions on Magnetics, 48(11), 3583-3586, 2012. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, K. V. Kazmin, E. A. Lomonova, Investigation of winding topologies for permanentmagnet in-wheel motors, COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electricaland Electronic Engineering, 31(1), 88-107, 2012. J. J. H. Paulides, B. L. J. Gysen, K. J. Meessen, Y. Tang, E. A. Lomonova, Influence of multiple air gaps on theperformance of electrical machines with (semi) Halbach magnetization, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics,47(10), 2664-2667, 2011. E. A. Lomonova, E. V. Kazmin, E.V., Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, In-wheel PM motor : compromise between highpower density and extended speed capability, COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation andMathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 30(1), 98-116, 201129PublicationsConferences (cont) 35. Journal publications Sprangers, R.L.J., Paulides, J.J.H., Boynov, K., Waarma, J. and Lomonova, E.A., Comparison of twoanisotropic layer models applied to induction motors, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 2533-2543,July/August 2014 Ilhan, E., Kremers, M.F.J., Motoasca, T.E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2013). Nonlinear performancecharacteristics of flux-switching PM motors. Journal of Electrical Engineering, 2013:593434 Kremers, M.F.J., Paulides, J.J.H., Ilhan, E., Janssen, J.L.G.Lomonova, E. (2013). Relative permeability in a3D analytical surface charge model of permanent magnets. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 49(5), 2299-2302. Ilhan, E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2012). Fast torque estimation of in-wheel parallel flux switchingmachines for hybrid trucks. COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics inElectrical and Electronic Engineering, 31(1), 40-53. Ilhan, E., Motoasca, T.E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2012). Conformal mapping: Schwarz-Christoffelmethod for flux-switching PM machines. Journal of Mathematical Sciences, 6:37 Ilhan, E., Kremers, M.F.J., Motoasca, T.E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2012). Spatial discretizationmethods for air gap permeance calculations in double salient traction motors. IEEE Transactions on IndustryApplications, 48(6), 2165-2172. 2010 Gysen, B.L.J., Ilhan, E., Meessen, K.J., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2010). Modeling of flux switchingpermanent magnet machines with Fourier Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 46(6), 1499-1502. Ilhan, E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2010). Fast torque estimation of in-wheel parallel flux switchingmachines for hybrid trucks. Journal of Electrical Engineering, 10(3), 175-182. Ilhan, E., Gysen, B.L.J., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2010). Analytical hybrid model for flux switchingpermanent magnet machines. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 46(6), 1762-1765. Ilhan, E., Motoasca, T.E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2012). Energy conversion loops for flux-switchingPM machine analysis. Engineering, TechnologyApplied Science Research, 2(5), 285-290.30PublicationsConferences (cont) 36. Conference publications Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Energy conversion in dc excited flux-switching machines,Proceedings of the IEEE International Magnetics Conference, (INTERMAG 2014), Dresden, Germany, May 4-8,2014. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Automated design of dc-excited flux-switching in-wheel motorusing magnetic equivalent circuits, Proceedings of the 2014 9th International Conference on EcologicalVehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), Monaco, 26-27 March 2014. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, I. J. M. Besselink, J. R. Gardner, E. A. Lomonova, Indirect drive in-wheel system forHEV/EV traction. Proceedings of the 27th International Electric Vehicle SymposiumExhibition (EVS27),Barcelona, Spain, 17-20 November 2013. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova. Design considerations of flux-switching machines with permanentmagnet or dc excitation. Proceedings of the 2013 15th European Conference on Power Electronics andApplications (EPE), Lille, France, 3-5 September 2013. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Topologies of flux-switching machines for in-wheel traction,Proceedings Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER 2013), Monaco, 27 30 March, 2013. Y. Tang, T. E. Motoasca, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Analytical modeling of flux-switching machinesusing variable global reluctance networks, Proceedings of the 20th International conference on Electricalmachines (ICEM), pp. 2792 2789, 2-5 Sept., 2012. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, T. E. Motoasca, E. A. Lomonova, Flux-switching machine with DC excitation,Proceedings of the IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 2012), Vancouver, Canada, 7-11 May2012. Y. Tang, T. E. Motoasca, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Investigation of winding topologies for fluxswitching machines, Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Fields inMechatronics, Electrical and Electronic Engineering (ISEF-2011) Funchal, Madeira, 1-3 September 2011.31PublicationsConferences (cont) 37. Conference publications Y. Tang, J. L. Duarte, R. P. P. Smeets, T. E. Motoasca, E. A. Lomonova, Multi-stage DC hybrid switch with slowswitching, Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON2011), pp. 1462-1467, Melbourne, VIC 7-11 November 2011. Y. Tang, T. E. Motoasca, J. J. H. Paulides, E. A. Lomonova, Comparison of flux-switching machines andpermanent magnet synchronous machines in an in-wheel traction application, Proceedings EcologicalVehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER 2011), Monaco, pp. 1-10, 30 March - 3 April 2011. Y. Tang, J. J. H. Paulides, E. V. Kazmin, E. A. Lomonova, Investigation of winding topologies for permanentmagnet in-wheel motors, Proceedings Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER 2010), pp. 1-14,Monaco, 25-28 March 2010. Sprangers, R.L.J., Motoasca, T.E. and Lomonova, E.A., Development of an expert system for three-phaseinduction motors, YRS 2012, Delft, The Netherlands Sprangers, R.L.J., Motoasca, T.E. and Lomonova, E.A., Extended anisotropic layer theory for electricalmachines, CEFC 2012, Oita, Japan Sprangers, R.L.J., Paulides, J.J.H., Boynov, K., Waarma, J. and Lomonova, E.A., Design and optimizationtools for high-efficiency three-phase induction motors, EPE13 ECCE Europe, Lille, France Sprangers, R.L.J., Paulides, J.J.H., Boynov, K., Waarma, J. and Lomonova, E.A., Comparison of twoanisotropic layer models applied to induction motors, IEMDC 2013, Chicago, USA Sprangers, R.L.J., Gysen, B.L.J., Paulides, J.J.H., Waarma, J. and Lomonova, E.A., A fast semi-analyticalmodel for the slotted structure of induction motors with 36/28 stator/rotor slot combination, Electrimacs2014, Valencia, Spain Sprangers, R.L.J., Gysen, B.L.J., Paulides, J.J.H., Waarma, J. and Lomonova, E.A., Calculation of inducedrotor current in induction motors using a slotted semi-analytical harmonic model, ICEM 2014, Berlin,Germany32PublicationsConferences (cont) 38. Conference publications Sprangers, R.L.J., Gysen, B.L.J., Paulides, J.J.H., Waarma, J. and Lomonova, E.A., Electric circuit coupling ofa slotted semi-analytical model for induction motors based on harmonic modeling, ECCE 2014, Pittsburgh Ilhan, E., Kremers, M.F.J., Motoasca, T.E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2013). Transient thermal analysis offlux switching PM machines. Oral : Paper presented at Proceedings of the 2013 8th International Conference andExhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), 27-30 March 2013, Monte Carlo, Monaco, (pp.1-7). Piscataway: IEEE Service Center.2012 Ilhan, E., Kremers, M.F.J., Motoasca, T.E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2012). Sensitivity analysis for phaseinductances in Flux-switching PM machine. Proceedings paper : Proceedings of the 20th InternationalConference on Electrical Machines (ICEM 2012), September 2-5 2012, Marseille, France, (pp. 763-768). Piscataway:IEEE Service Center. Ilhan, E., Motoasca, T.E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2012). Nonlinear performance characteristic of Fluxswitching PM motors. Proceedings paper : Proceedings of IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG),May 7-11 2012, Vancouver, (pp. 1-1). Kremers, M.F.J., Paulides, J.J.H., Ilhan, E., Janssen, J.L.G.Lomonova, E. (2012). Relative permeability in a 3Danalytical surface charge model of permanent magnets. Poster presented at Proceedings of the Fifteenth BiennialIEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation (CEFC 2012), November 11-14, 2012, Oita, Japan, (pp.194). Piscataway: IEEE Service Center. Kremers, M.F.J., Paulides, J.J.H., Ilhan, E., Janssen, J.L.G.Lomonova, E. (2012). Analytical field calculations ofskewed magnets. Poster presented at Proceedings of the the Fifteenth Biennial IEEE Conference onElectromagnetic Field Computation (CEFC 2012), November 11-14, 2012, Oita, Japan, (pp. 195). Piscataway: IEEE.33PublicationsConferences (cont) 39. Conference publications Kremers, M.F.J., Paulides, J.J.H., Ilhan, E., Janssen, J.L.G.Lomonova, E. (2012). Design guidelines for corelesslinear actuators. Poster presented at Proceedings of the Fifteenth Biennial IEEE Conference on ElectromagneticField Computation (CEFC 2012), November 11-14, 2012, Oita, Japan, (pp. 196). Piscataway: IEEE Service Center. Ilhan, E., Motoasca, T.E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2011). Conformal mapping: Schwarz-Christoffelmethod for flux switching PM machines. Proceedings paper : Proceedings of Computational Magnetics(COMPUMAG) 12-15 July 2011, Sydney, Australia, (pp. 1-4). COMPUMAG. Ilhan, E., Motoasca, T.E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2011). Energy conversion loops for flux-switching PMmachine analysis. Proceedings of the XV International Symposium on Electromagnetic Fields in Mechatronics,Electrical and Electronic Engineering (ISEF 2011), 1-3 September 2011, Funchal, Madeira, (pp. 1-8). ISEF. Gysen, B.L.J., Ilhan, E., Meessen, K.J., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2010). Modeling of flux switchingpermanent magnet machines with Fourier analysis. Proceedings of the 11th Joint MMM-Intermag Conference,January 18-22, 2010, Washington D.C., (pp. 741-741). Piscataway: IEEE. Ilhan, E., Paulides, J.J.H., Encica, L.Lomonova, E. (2010). Tooth contour method implementation for the Fluxswitching PM Machines. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM 2010),September 6-8, 2010, Rome, Italy, (pp. RF-010294-1/6). Piscataway: IEEE. Ilhan, E., Gysen, B.L.J., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2010). Analytical hybrid Flux switching permanentmagnet machines model. Proceedings of the 11th Joint MMM-Intermag Conference, January 18-22, 2010,Washington D.C., (pp. 1625-1625). Piscataway: IEEE. Ilhan, E., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2010). Fast torque estimation of in-wheel parallel flux switchingmachines. Proceedings of the 5th EVER Conference, 25-28 March, Monaco, (pp. 1-7). EVER. Ilhan, E., Gysen, B.L.J., Paulides, J.J.H.Lomonova, E. (2010). Analytical hybrid model for flux switchingpermanent magnet machines. Proceedings 5th IEEE, Young Researchers Symposium, 29-30-03, 2010, Leuven. ...34PublicationsConferences (cont)