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  • 1.Assignment topic. Different breeding programs for improving the performance of poultry. Submitted to. Dr Zia ur Rahman. Submitted by. Faizan Aslam Roll no#34 Regd no#2009-ag-2095

2. What is breeding. The mating and production of offspring by animals.It is a natural process. What is breeding program.? A breeding program is the planned breeding of a group of animals or plants, usually involving at least several individuals and extending over several generations. There are a couple of breeding methods, such as artificial (which is man made) and natural (it occurs on its own, which is very rare) 3. Why we develop a breeding programm for poultry? To improve the performance of poultry To improve the performance of desi breeds For the better fcr,weight gain, disease resistance birds To improve egg production For research purpose To conserve local breeds 4. Method of breeding. Pure breeding Inbreeding Out breeding 5. Pure breeding. Cross b/w registered male and female animals Essentially some pure breeds have been around for centuries, or even have royal connections. Cross bw Locally males and females birds. Aseel X Aseel Development of village chicken and ducks through pure breeding and selection. 6. Advantages of pure breeding Lots of choice in sizes and plumage More personality Can go broody Lay for more seasons than a hybrid chicken Conservation value Will breed pure 7. Disadvantages of pure breeding Need far more research -as the wrong choice can be a disaster!! Can go broody Can be expensive. Some breeds difficult to source More risk of getting a cockerel by mistake 8. Inbreeding. Mating of close related individuals. It increase homozygosity (AA). Inbreeding can be divided into following 1)Close breeding 2)Line breeding The effect of both close breeding and line breeding is similar 9. Close breeding Father x Daughter Mother x son Brother x sister These are called close breeding 10. Advantage Undesirable genes may be discovered Uniformity in flock Disadvantages Breeding problems and reproductive failure Progeny more susceptible of disease Chance of mutation 11. Line breeding Line breeding Breeding more distant relatives than inbreeding Cousin X Cousin Advantage Increased uniformity the dangers involved in close breeding can be reduced Disadvantages Selection problem some time farmer select those birds which are not close relatives 12. Out breeding Breeding of unrelated animals it consist of Out breeding consist of 1) Out-crossing 2) Cross breeding 3) Species hybridization 4) Grading up 13. Out crossing It consist of mating of pure bred animals within the same breed Consist of no common ancestors Advantages This method is highly effective for characters that are largely under the control of additive effect e.g. growth rate It is the best method for most breeders Effective system for genetic improvement 14. Cross breeding Mating of different breeds It is generally used where the crossed progeny is directly marketed It is practiced highly in hybrid chicken It is generally used for the production of new breed Method of cross breeding 1)criss-crossing 2)triple-crossing 3)back-crossing 15. Criss crossing When two breeds cross alternatively A 50% B50% A75% B25% A 37.5 A68.5 B62.5 B 31.5 16. Triple-crossing In this system three breeds cross alternatively The females used in this types on a single sire 17. AxB ABxC ABCxA A2 BCxB A2 B2 C x C A2 B2 C2 18. Back-crossing It is commonly used in genetic study Mating of a cross bred bird back to one of the pure parent races which were to produce it TT x tt Tt Tt x TT TT TT Tt Tt 19. Advantages of cross-breeding Introducing desirable characters into a breeds Extremely handy tool to study the behavior of characters in heredity transmission High in growth Better for new breed development Disadvantages Breeding merit slightly reduced because heterozygous nature of their genetic composition It requires maintenance of two or more pure breeds 20. Hetrosis hybridization By crossing two different species sometimes we get good virile individual The mules is a good example of this type of breeding 21. Hetrosis or Hybrid vigour Phenomenon in which the crosses of unrelated individuals often result in progeny with increased vigour much above their parents The progeny may be from the crossing of strains ,breeds ,verities or species E.g. WLH x DESI 22. Grading up Grading-Up Mating purebred male (sires) to unregistered or corssbred females (dams) Continuous used of pure bred sires for only a few generation the changes occur Grading process does not create anything new but it may transfer the good quality of an improved breed Hybrid Vigor Superior traits from crossbreeding Offspring are better than parents 23. Offspring % replaced % non-descript 1st generation 50 50 2nd generation 75 25 3rd generation 87.5 12.5 4th generation 93.5 6.25 5th generation 96.87 3.13 6th generation 98.44 1.56 7th generation 99.22 .78 24. Advantages pure bred can be obtain after a few generations. It helps to improve the potentialities of the sire and add to its market value little cost Disadvantages. Pure breeds are not always better Not environmentally good 25. Breeding plan of LSB LSB was evolved in 1965-66 in the department of poultry husbandry university of agriculture Faisalabad This breed produce 150 eggs per year Gain 1.4kg weight in12weeks of age 26. Desi X WLH White cornish X Newhempshire (male) ( female) (male) (female) Male Female LSB

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