Growth enhancing environments in educational organizations

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)



Text of Growth enhancing environments in educational organizations

  • 1. Growth-Enhancing Environments in Educational Organizations

2. Chapter 1

  • In Search of A Paradigm
  • Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals and groups act in organizations.

3. B = f(P,E)

  • Lewin's Equation
  • It states thatBehavioris a function of thePersonand his or herEnvironment . The equation is the psychologist's most well known formula in social psychology, of which Lewin was a modern pioneer. When first presented in Lewin's bookPrinciples of Topological Psychology , published in 1936, it contradicted most popular theories in that it gave importance to a person's momentary situation in understanding his or her behavior, rather than relying entirely on the past.


  • It follows thatorganizational environmentis a key to influencingorganizational behavior .
  • The behavior of the people in an organizational life arises from the interaction between theirinner motivational needs and characteristics(temperaments, intelligences, beliefs, perceptions) and characteristics oforganizational environment.


  • Organization and its environment is a socially constructed reality. It is not tangible.
  • Building is tangible, furniture and equipment, files and other artifacts that make up the physical entity that we often call school. But this is not the organization.


  • Organization exists largely in the eye and themind of the beholder , it is in reality pretty muchwhat people think it is .

7. Two Major Perspectives on Educational Organizations

  • Bureaucratic
  • Human Resources Development (HRD)

8. Bureaucratic Views

  • Classical/traditional/ factory model of organization
  • Epitomized by the 18 thcentury army of Frederick the Great with its characteristically mechanical regimentation , top-down authority, going by the book.
  • On this view an organization is though as an old fashioned clockwith all the various parts articulated so that everything works smoothly and predictably.
  • Up to this day this is the most common ideal of an organization.

9. Bureaucratic Views

  • Five mechanisms for dealing with controlling and coordinating the behavior of people in an organization.
    • 1. Maintain firm hierarchical control of authority and close supervision of those in the lower ranks.(role of administrator as an inspector and evaluator)
    • Establish and maintain adequate vertical communication .(assure that good information will be transmitted up the hierarchy to the decision makers and orders will be clearly and quickly transmitted down the line for the implementation.)
    • Develop clear written rules and procedures to set standards and guide actions.(these includes curriculum guides, policy, handbooks, instructions, standard forms, duty rosters, rules and regulations ad standard operating procedures)

10. Bureaucratic Views

    • 4. Promulgate clear plans and schedules for participants to follow.(these includes teachers lesson plans, bell schedules, meeting schedules, budgets, special teacher schedules, lunch schedules, and many others)
    • Add supervisory and administrative positions to the hierarchy of the organization as necessary to meet problems that arise from changing conditions confronted by the organization.(new positions appeared as the need arises)


  • The overwhelming widespread acceptance of these preferred mechanism for exercising control and coordination in schools is illustrated by the reform movement that burst upon the scene in the earl 1980s in America.
  • The effectiveness of the school arose as the major theme in the agenda on education in 1980s to joined the linked duo that had been inherited from the 1970s


  • In 1982 a virtually unrelated reform movement suddenly eruptedthat seized the center stage and strongly influenced numerous efforts to improve the functioning of schools.
  • In 1983 , A Nation at Riskand other reports brought recommendations that resulted in
  • longer days, focus on time on task, more homework, career ladders, call for stronger school leadership of the principal, tougher curriculum, longer school calendar and others


  • Virtually all of the reform proposals have assumed a top-down strategy similar to this: that is, decision are made in the legislature or another place in the hierarchy, such as the state department, and handed down to be implemented by teachers in their classrooms.

14. Dennis Doyle and Terry Hartle observed;

  • It simply doesnt work that way.The impulse to reform the schools from top down is not working.
  • The model for such reform was the factory; Frederick Taylors Scientific management. It created an environment whose principal characteristics were pyramidalthe teacher was the worker on the assembly line, the student, the product; the superintendent, the chief executive, the trustees and the taxpayers are the shareholders.
  • It doesnt work because factory (business and industry) and schools are completely different organizations.

15. Dennis Doyle and Terry Hartle continue

  • To present a different set of assumptions about the organizational characteristics of schools and the behavior of teachers in their classrooms;a view that places the teacher foremost in creating instructional change.Be the cha to
  • They call it theHuman Resources Development Views.

16. Human Resources Development Views

  • Human Resources Development (HRD) views the teacher as foremost in creating instructional change.
  • HRD uses newer concepts such as loose coupling (allowing subunits autonomy) and the power of organization culture to influence behavior.
  • HRD exercises coordination and control through socialization of participants to the values and goals of the organization, rather then through written rules and close supervision.

17. Human Resources Development Views

  • On this view, close inspection and supervision are far from the only means of assuring the predictable performance of participants.
  • Personal identification with the values of the organizations culture can provide a powerful motivation for dependable performance even under conditions of great uncertainty and stress.(What is it that causes an individual to join an organization, stay in it, and work toward the organizations goals?)

18. Theory X and Theory Y

  • Douglas McGregor
  • Assumptions underlying the assumptions that one holds about the people in organization.
  • this can be use as a guide to action in dealing with employees in the organization.


  • Theory Xrests on four assumptions that an administrator holds about people in organization.
  • They dislike work, must be supervised closely, will shirk responsibility and seek formal direction, and have a little ambition.
  • Theory Yembraces four different assumptions administrators hold about the nature of people at work.
    • They view work as satisfying, exercise initiative and self direction if committed to the organization, learn to accept responsibility and seek it, and have the ability to make good decisions.

20. Comparison of Assumptions underlying Chris Argyris Behavior Pattern A and Behavior Pattern B. 21. ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING BEHAVIOR PATTERN A (Theory X- Soft) ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING BEHAVIOR PATTERN B (Theory Y) With Regard to People

  • People in our culture, teachers among them, share a common set of needs to belong, to be liked, to be respected.
  • 2.Although teachers desire individual recognition, they, more importantly, want to feel useful to the school.
  • 3. They tend to cooperate willingly and to comply with school, department, and unit goals if these important needs are fulfilled.
  • In addition to sharing common needs for belonging and respect, most people in our culture, teachers among them, desire to contribute effectively and creatively to the accomplishment of worthwhile objectives.
  • . The majority of teachers are capable of exercising far more initiative responsibility, and creativity than their present job or work circumstances require or allow.
  • These capabilities represent untapped resources which are currently being wasted.


  • The administrators basic task is to make each teacher believe that he or she is a useful and an important part of the team.
  • The administrator is willing to explain his or her decisions and to discuss teachers objections to his or her plans. On routine matters, teachers are encouraged in planning and in decision making.
  • Within narrow limits, the faculty unit or individual teachers who comprise the faculty units should be allowed to exercise self direction and self control.
  • The administrators basic task is to create an environment in which the teachers can con