Human prehistory to rise of agriculture

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  • 1. Human Prehistory to Rise ofAgriculture/Early Civilizations/NomadicSocietiesGUNS, GERMS, ANDSTEEL

2. Where do you start? 3. 13-14 Billion Years? 4. 4.6 Billion Years? 5. Thats 4,600,000,000! 6. The time before history 7. How do we know how old it is? 8. Archeology 9. The Paleolithic Age 10. About 3-5 million years ago in Africa, abranch of those primates became the first tostand upright. 11. Australopithecus 12. What did Lucy probably look like? 13. Great Rift Valley 14. Babies need care for a long time Opposable thumbs give dexterity Omnivores Learned to work together to tackle larger game Species able to adapt to environment 15. By 200,000 years ago, people whoseskeletons were like those of Homosapiens were already living in Africa. Between that time and about100,000 years ago, people who wereboth anatomically and geneticallylike us emerged in eastern and This is a reconstructed Homo sapiens skull,southern Africa. found in Israel. It has been dated to about 90,000 years ago.Human Origins: Homo sapiens in AfricaS.W. Asia200k yrs ago100k yrs ago Today 10k years ago 23 16. Siberia Europe 40,000 years ago40,000 years agoNorth America12,000-30,000years agoOceania1600 B.C.E.-500 C.E. Southwest Asia100,000 years agoAustralia Chile Human Originsas many as 60,000 12,000-13 ,000200,000-250,000 years ago years ago years agoPossible coastal routes of human migrationPossible landward routes of human migrationMigrations in Oceania 17. Hunter-Gatherer Family Values 18. The most tangible of allvisible mysteries - fire. ~Leigh Hunt 19. Warmth Light Cooking food Scared away larger animals Gathering place for community 20. ~300,000 years old 21. 1880S VERSION 1987 VERSION 22. Hall of Bulls Cave in Lascaux, France 23. Womans Head22,000 BCEFrance, Cro-Magnon origin 24. IF I ONLY HAD ABRAIN 25. Homo sapiens had language so they could exchange complex ideas with eachother. and they could store and add to the ideas ofprevious generations. Because they swapped ideas, they kept finding new ways of doing things. New Ideas new ways of living.Language SharedIdeas Learning 26. Storing up and building on new skills and new knowledge is what set our species on the path of continuing cultural changes that led to the world we nowTowers, Kuwait City, Today live in.Great Zimbabwe, Southern Africa, 1300-1500 Monte Alban, Oaxaca, Mexico, 200CEBCE 27. By the end of the ice ages, humanshave spread worldwide 28. Developed & Developing World 29. Which leads us to the big question 30. Why has the world dividedinto Haves and the Have Nots? 31. North America, Europe, Western AsiaSouth America, Africa, southern Asia 32. A developed country is a country that hasreached a certain standard of livingcharacterized by a high income level of itsinhabitants, advanced industry and agriculture,and a high level of sanitation. A developing country is a country that hasnot provided its inhabitants with a high standardof living. 33. DevelopedCountries 34. A developed country is a country thathas reached 35. a high incomelevel of itsinhabitants 36. advanced industry 37. agriculture 38. and sanitation. 39. DevelopingCountries 40. is a countrymarked by 41. unskilled labor 42. income disparity 43. and a generally low standardof living. 44. The world is divided up into 10 cultural regions. 45. Episode One 46. Why do some countries have an abundance of wealth and riches whileothers have remained poor for most of their history? 47. History followed different courses for differentpeoples because of differences among peoplesenvironments, not because of biologicaldifferences among the people themselves. 48. Why you white man have so much cargoand we New Guineans have so little? 49. superior superiorinf iin eri nff orerr e iio orrsuperior superior in inf fereriioror Inherent racial characteristics?superior superior iin f nfe eririoor r 50. This is the story of the Neolithic Revolution. 51. 13,000 years ago the last ice age ended. 52. Arid means dry. 53. Nomadic hunter-gather lifestyles 54. This jungle around us, you might think its acornucopia, but it isnt. 55. The average weather over a period of manyyears. Climates tend to be hot/wet along the equator(tropical climate) Cooler and drier further away Inland areas typically have wider extremes intemperature and precipitation (continentalclimates) 56. Earth is here so kind, that just tickle her with ahoe and she laughs with a harvest. -Douglas Jerrold cultivation 57. domestication 58. DogGoatsSheepPigsCowsHorsesDonkeysWater buffaloCamelsLlamas 59. Horses Cows Donkeys Goats Wa WaSheep PigsDogterter Camelsbubu ffa ffallooLlamas 60. Permanent settlements 61. More food = more population. More population more food 62. Prior to farming, populationsize in anyone area was limitedby the availability of wildgame, grain, berries, seeds,POPULATIONand nuts. INTENSIFICATIONFarming and the large,relatively dependablecrops it provides allowedThat meansforpopulation increases in certain areas.Population in those areas became both larger and denser. 84 63. At the same time,farmers in some places were, in spite ofpopulation growth, able to produce SURPLUS food.What does SURPLUS FOOD PRODUCTI ON mean for asociety?85 64. 86 65. Domestication of Plants and Animals FarmingPopulationSurplus Food SpecializationIntensification Complex Society,also known asCIVILIZATION87 66. Elements of civilization include: 1) CitiesMohenjo DaroIts the law 2) Central governments And Law codesHammurabis Law CodePharaohs 88 67. Elements of Civilization include:1) Cities2) Central governments and law codes 3) Writing and record keepingCan you identify the societyrepresentedby each of these twowriting samples? 4) Highly organized religions89 68. Elements of Civilization include:1)Cities2) Central Governments and law codes3) Writing and 5) Specialized Jobs record keeping4) Highly organized religionFull-time monk6) Social ClassesAssyrian slavesIn Egypt 90 69. Elements of Civilization include:1)Cities2) Central governments and law codes7) Complex3) Writing and record keepingTechnologies4) Highly organized religionChariot5) Specialized jobs6) Social classes Bronze Sword91