Integrated Distributed Energy Systems (IDES)

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  • Primary Focus:

    Electricity Network Infrastructure

  • with a Clean Renewable Emphasis

  • RENEWABLE CHALLENGES WIND

  • SOLAR

    WIND

    HYDRO

    BIOMASS

  • IDES-10 SIMULATION MODEL

  • WIND POWER RESULTS

    WIND POWER RESULTS

    30 year Lifecycle Cost Comparison of Wind Turbines of Various Sizes (1-9kW = 18m Tower & 10-12kW = 32m

    Tower), with an Annual Average Wind Speed of: 6.63m/s, Assuming Surplus Generation (Grid Purchase - Wind-

    power Exported) Sold at Different Fixed Prices

    $200,000

    $210,000

    $220,000

    $230,000

    $240,000

    $250,000

    $260,000

    $270,000

    $280,000

    $290,000

    $300,000

    123456789101112

    Wind-turbine system size (kW)

    Lifecycle cost over 30 years

    Grid (Lifecycle)

    No net-metering / exporting

    Net-metered + 2.0c/kWh

    Net-metered + 3.0c/kWh

    Net-metered + 4.0c/kWh

    Net-metered + 5.0c/kWh

    PV MODEL PARAMETERSMONTH,M / YEAR,Y

    SOLAR SETTING: MIN / AVG / MAX ?MINY

    GRID PRICE OVER LIFETIME C/KWHSOLAR+GRID C/KWHSOLAR ONLY C/KWH

    $0.1503$0.2443$0.3942

    Annual Electricity ConsumptionLOAD PROFILES:22,202.32kWh/year

    Maximum DemandHOUSE B8.57kW

    DEMAND VARIABLE FACTORHOUSE C1(Multiple)

    WHICH TYPE OF LOAD PROFILE ?HOUSE DBCD(Profile)

    WHICH DEMAND REGION ? HOUSES B & C & Dch(Region) - ch only

    WHICH WEATHER REGION ?REGIONS:KU(Region)

    SOLAR SYSTEM SIZE (kW)CH=CHRISTCHURCH10kW

    SOLAR SYSTEM LIFETIMEAU=AUCKLAND30Years

    SOLAR SYSTEM COST FACTORKA=KAITAIA1(%/100)

    SOLAR SYSTEM TOTAL COSTGI=GISBORNE$5,000$/kWNZ COST EST.$9,315

    SOLAR SYSTEM EFFICIENCYNP=NEW PLYMOUTH0.12(%/100): e.g. 0.15 = 15%

    GRID SUPPLY COST FACTORPN=PALMERSTON N1.00(%/100): e.g. 1.065 = 6.5% inc.

    NET-METERING RETURN FACTORWE=WELLINGTON1(%/100):{0 to 1}

    GRID SUPPLY INFLATION RATENE=NELSON1.00E-02(%/100): e.g. 0.02 = 2%, 1E-11 = 0%

    Capital Interest Rate: 0, 5, 10 or 15%WP=WESTPORT7%

    O&M Costs over lifetime: %capital costQU=QUEENSTOWN0.02(%/100): e.g. 0.02 = 2% capital cost

    Capital Cost and Interest RepaymentDU=DUNEDIN20YearsBALANCE OF PAY

    Payback Period (Fixed - calculated)IN=INVERCARGILLMORE THAN 40Years-$62,610

    Return Over Lifetime (negative = loss)KU=KUMEROA-$62,609.73$-38.5%

    TARIFF 1: DAY (07:00 - 22:30) - c/kWh10.2cents/kWh

    TARIFF 2: NGT (23:00 - 06:30) - c/kWh8.8cents/kWh

    TARIFF 3: FIXED - $/day0.745342466$/day

    TARIFF 4: VARIABLE - cents/max KVA/day0cents/max KVA/day

    TARIFF 5: EARLY PAY DISCOUNT0%

    MICRO-HYDRO MODEL PARAMETERS MONTH,M / YEAR,Y

    Hydro SETTING: MIN / AVG / MAX ?AVGY

    GRID PRICE OVER LIFETIME C/KWHHydro+GRID C/KWHHydro ONLY C/KWH

    $0.1288$0.1132$0.0733

    Annual Electricity Consumption LOAD PROFILES:22,202.32kWh/year

    Maximum Demand

    HOUSE B

    8.57kW

    DEMAND VARIABLE FACTOR

    HOUSE C

    1(Multiple)AVERAGE FLOW RATE

    WHICH TYPE OF LOAD PROFILE ?

    HOUSE D

    BCD(Profile)M3/S/YR0.068

    WHICH DEMAND REGION ?

    HOUSES B & C & D

    ch(Region) - ch only

    WHICH WEATHER REGION ?REGIONS:KU1(Region)Hydro Size Adjustment

    Hydro SYSTEM SIZE (kW)

    CH=CHRISTCHURCH

    1.001.00009.5353Factor0%

    Hydro SYSTEM LIFETIME (YEARS)

    AU=AUCKLAND

    30MAX KW / YRPEAK POTENTIAL KW

    Hydro SYSTEM COST FACTOR

    KA=KAITAIA

    100%

    Hydro SYSTEM TOTAL COST

    GI=GISBORNE

    $10,000per kW$15,402Available Head of Water

    Average Hydro SYSTEM EFFICIENCY

    NP=NEW PLYMOUTH

    50%Total Capital CostHead (m)13.5

    GRID SUPPLY COST FACTOR

    PN=PALMERSTON N

    1(%/100): e.g. 1.065 = 6.5% increase in Grid Price

    NET-METERING RETURN FACTOR

    WE=WELLINGTON

    1(%/100):{0 to 1} CHOOSE TURBINE

    GRID SUPPLY INFLATION RATE

    NE=NELSON

    1.00E-02(%/100): e.g. 0.02 = 2%: 1E-11 = 0% inflation NZ

    Capital Interest Rate: 0, 5, 10 or 15%

    WP=WESTPORT

    7%

    100% FLOW.

    TURBINE TYPE

    O&M Costs over lifetime: %capital cost

    QU=QUEENSTOWN

    0.02(%/100): 0.02 = 2% capital cost87%K = KAPLAN

    Capital Cost and Interest Repayment

    DU=DUNEDIN

    20Years57%F = FRANCIS

    Payback Period (Fixed - calculated)

    IN=INVERCARGILL

    20.46YearsRTN ON INVEST87%PR = PROPELLOR

    Return Over Lifetime (negative = loss)

    KU1=KUMEROA BASIC

    $10,402.83$54.02%81%PE = PELTON

    TARIFF 1: DAY (07:00 - 22:30) - c/kWh

    KU2=KUMEROA DETAILED

    10.2cents/kWh78%T = TURGO

    TARIFF 2: NGT (23:00 - 06:30) - c/kWh 8.8cents/kWh79%CF = CROSSFLOW

    TARIFF 3: FIXED - $/day 0.745342466$/day92%O = OTHER

    TARIFF 4: VARIABLE - cents/max KVA/day 0cents/max KVA/day50%NZ = KIWI MAKE

    TARIFF 5: EARLY PAY DISCOUNT 0%EFF.

    % kWh (Delivered)PVWINDM/HCHPLifecycle Cost

    0.00%0000$0

    21.70%0010$21,882

    43.30%0020$39,387

    60.80%0030$52,516

    71.90%0040$61,269

    80.00%0050$65,645

    81.80%0060$78,359

    82.30%0070$90,936

    84.00%0150$99,296

    85.20%0160$112,010

    87.20%0250$120,573

    88.10%0260$133,287

    89.70%0350$138,804

    96.00%0061$155,276

    98.40%0062$166,291

    99.40%0063$174,803

    99.80%0064$182,486

    100.00%0065$189,842

    OPTIMUM DG SIMULATION RESULTS

    OPTIMUM DG SIMULATION RESULTS

    TOTAL LOAD

    HEAT-ENGINE MODEL PARAMETERSHEAT-ENGINEHEAT-ENGINE 222,023

    GRID PRICE OVER LIFETIME C/KWH & GRID C/KWHONLY C/KWHHEAT CONST.HEATING LOAD

    $0.1169$0.1140$0.21500.3192,966

    Annual Electricity ConsumptionLOAD PROFILES:DOM222,023.23kWh/yearMISC LOAD

    Maximum Demand

    HOUSE B

    85.69kW129,058

    DEMAND VARIABLE FACTOR

    HOUSE C

    10(Multiple)SYS $ / KWDIESEL(DIE)

    WHICH TYPE OF LOAD PROFILE ?

    HOUSE D

    BCD(Profile)$1,100NATURAL GAS(GAS)

    WHICH DEMAND REGION ?

    HOUSES B+C+D

    ch(Region) - ch onlyCNG(CNG)

    % HEAT INCREASE / DECREASE FACTOR (KUMEROA) -19%KW / UNITLPG(LPG)

    TOTAL SIZE (kW)1kW1PETROL(PET)

    OP CAPACITY100%BIOFUEL(BIO)

    CAPITAL COST FACTOR1(%/100)HYDROGEN(HYD)

    FUEL COST: CENTS/KWH (BEFORE CONVERSION) 4.8cents/kWhBIOFUEL TYPE

    FUEL COST FACTOR1(%/100)

    % HEAT RECOVERY90%: set at 100% for HEAT-ENGINE

    HEAT RECOVERY COST$0.01$/kWh: set at 0$/kWh for HEAT-ENGINE

    GRID SUPPLY COST FACTOR1(%/100): e.g. 1.065 = 6.5% increase in Grid Price

    NET-METERING RETURN FACTOR1(%/100):{0 to 1}

    GRID SUPPLY INFLATION RATE1.00E-02(%/100): e.g. 0.02 = 2%: 1E-11 = 0% inflation

    FUEL SUPPLY INFLATION RATE1.00E-11(%/100): e.g. 0.02 = 2%: 1E-11 = 0% inflation

    HEAT RECOVERY INFLATION RATE1.00E-11(%/100): e.g. 0.02 = 2%: 1E-11 = 0% inflation

    Capital Interest Rate: 0, 5, 10 or 15% 7%20YRS LOAN REPAID

    Lifetime: (set @ 40,000hours)40,000hours31.31LIFETIME IN YRS

    Payback Period (Fixed - calculated)5.76YearsROI

    Return Over Lifetime (negative = loss)$19,799.95$2.5%

    O&M % OF CAPITAL

    TARIFF 1: DAY (07:00 - 22:30) - c/kWh 10.2cents/kWh10%

    TARIFF 2: NGT (23:00 - 06:30) - c/kWh 8.8cents/kWhNo.of UnitsCapacity

    TARIFF 3: FIXED - $/day 0.745342466$/day1100% [Total: A+B]

    TARIFF 4: VARIABLE - c/max KVA/dy 0c/max KVA/dy1100% [A capacity]

    TARIFF 5: EARLY PAY DISCOUNT 0%00% [B capacity]

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    Percentage Contribution

    towards the Load

    M/H:

    500kW

    M/H:

    200kW

    M/H: 100kWM/H:

    100kW,

    STR:

    300kWh

    WTG:

    100kW

    DSM:

    500kWh,

    WTG:

    100kW

    DSM:

    500kWh,

    WTG:

    100kW,

    SHW: 100x4

    DSM:

    500kWh,

    WTG:

    200kW,

    SHW: 100x4

    DSM:

    500kWh,

    PV: 100kW

    DSM:

    500kWh,

    PV: 100kW,

    CHP: 50kW

    Scenario

    10 Different Energy Supply and Demand Management Scenarios - Contributions to the Load

    10

    12345

    6

    789

    10

    12345

    6

    789

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    Percentage Contribution

    towards the Load

    M/H: 500kWM/H: 200kWM/H: 100kWM/H: 100kW,

    STR:

    300kWh

    WTG: 100kWDSM:

    500kWh,

    WTG: 100kW

    DSM:

    500kWh,

    WTG: 100kW,

    SHW: 100x4

    DSM:

    500kWh,

    WTG:

    200kW,

    SHW: 100x4

    DSM:

    500kWh, PV:

    100kW

    DSM:

    500kWh, PV:

    100kW, CHP:

    50kW

    Scenario

    10 Different Energy Supply and Demand Management Scenarios - Contributions to the Load

    10.Grid Electricity

    9.Energy Storage

    8.Cogen Heating

    7.Cogen Electricity

    6.PV Electricity

    5.Wind Electricity

    4.Micro-hydro Electricity

    3.Space Heating Reduction

    2.Solar Water Heating

    1.Energy Load Transfer

    IDES SCENARIOS FOR 100 HOMES

    IDES SCENARIOS FOR 100 HOMES

    M/H: M/H: M/H: M/H: WIND: WIND: WIND: WIND: PV: PV:

    500KW 200KW 100KW 100KW100KW100KW100KW200KW 100KW 100KW

    STORE: DSM: DSM: DSM: DSM: DSM:

    300KWH 500KWH 500KWH500KWH500KWH500KWH

    SHW: SHW: CHP:

    100X4m2 100X4m250KW

    COST OF EACH IDES SCENARIO

    COST OF EACH IDES SCENARIO

    $0

    $1,000,000

    $2,000,000

    $3,000,000

    $4,000,000

    $5,000,000

    $6,000,000

    $7,000,000

    Cost of Energy Contributions

    M/H: 500kWM/H: 200kWM/H: 100kWM/H: 100kW,

    STR:

    300kWh

    WTG: 100kWDSM:

    500kWh,

    WTG: 100kW

    DSM:

    500kWh,