MCIS2011: Integrating the Smartphone: Applying the U-Constructs Approach on the Case of Mobile University Services

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Presentation at the 6thMediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Cyprus, August 3-5, 2011 Abstract: Mobile technologies in general and smartphones in particular have an increasing impact on our daily lives. In contrast to other mobile devices, smartphones can be seen as new class of devices with new characteristics enabled by new forms of connectivity and built-in sensors. By the use of those new features various tasks can be supported and even new task can evolve. However, the adoption of these new possibilities and integration in an organization-wide IS-strategy is not trivial and involves several challenges for IT-departments. We use the case of mobile university services to guide the decision which tasks should be supported by smartphone applications applying the U-constructs approach. To verify our results we perform a demand survey for mobile university services at the University of St. Gallen obtaining 980 completed questionnaires. Additionally we review the current state-of-practice for mobile university services of European universities and research whether their offered functionality fits student’s needs. Results show that most of the available solutions do not fully meet student’s needs in terms of functionality but that decisions on the selection of smartphone supported tasks can be guided by the U-constructs approach. We conclude by giving new insights to guide development of mobile university services and identifying a research agenda for information systems scholars to pursue studying the use of smartphones.

Text of MCIS2011: Integrating the Smartphone: Applying the U-Constructs Approach on the Case of Mobile...

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Thomas Sammer, Fabio Armon Camichel, Andrea Back

6th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Cyprus, August 3-5, 2011

thomas.sammer@unisg.ch

Integrating the Smartphone: Applying the U-Constructs

Approach on the Case of Mobile University Services

2

Introduction

Theoretical Framework

Agenda

Research Method

Results

Discussion

3

Introduction

Theoretical Framework

Agenda

Research Method

Results

Discussion

4

Mobile Solutions: A Hype?

________: The year of mobile business!(insert year here)

5Gartner 2010; Weiss, R. 2011; 148apps 2011; Warren, C. 2011; Musil, S. 2011;

Meeker et al. 2010, 2009.

The Smartphone world in figures

139

770

2008 2014

Expected yearly smartphone

shipments in million units

Current (2011) Smartphone market penetration

for Switzerland: 38.1 %

300,000 apps available on Apple App Store

> 100 million iPhone units at the present

> 10 billion downloads of iOS apps

More mobile Internet

users than desktop

Internet users in 2015

6Pitt, L. F. Parent, M. Junglas, I. Chan, A. and Spyropoulou, S. 2010.

Smartphone: http://presse.samsung.ch/app/images/ch/146/103921_GT-I9100_ADImage_Large.jpg

Smartphone characteristics

Rich user-interaction portfolio: diverse set of media

capture and playing tools.1

Accelerometer / Recognition of movement and

motion.2

GPS / Positioning capabilities to detect the exact

position of the device.3

Mobile application market / Open for software

developed by software vendors.4

7

New Technologies influence tasks

Technology Task

8Picture: http://www.samsung.com/ch/news/picturelibrary.html

Smartphones as a technology affect

different areas

9Picture: http://www.samsung.com/ch/news/picturelibrary.html

Focus of this research: University services

10Jones 2008; Lowendahl 2010

Focus of this research: University services

Educational context / mobile learning

smartphoneE.g. media delivery (e.g., audio and video),

exploratory learning using augmented reality,

educational games, collaboration and project work,

e-books, surveys, tests, data gathering, real-time

feedback or simulations.

1

Organizational contextE.g. on-campus navigation like room or parking lot

finders, cafeteria menu pre-order or location based

appointment reminders aso.

2

Mobile University Servicesany mobile applications operated on smartphones and offered by a university to enhance or improve education or organisational processes necessary for students or university staff.

11Back and Walter 2010

Research questions

High demand for mobile servicesFirst pilot survey Spring, 2010 (N=110)

Most of the participants are interested in mobile university services

> 50 % are willing to pay for such a service

Re

se

arc

h Q

ue

sti

on

s

What is the current state-of-practice for mobile university services?1

Does the current state-of-practice fit students needs and demand?2

How should IT-departments decide which tasks-supporting

functionality to implement on smartphones?3

12

Introduction

Theoretical Framework

Agenda

Research Method

Results

Discussion

13Frohberg, D. Gth, C., and Schwabe, G. 2009. Mobile Learning projects - a critical analysis of the

state of the art. In Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 25 (4). pp. 307-331.

Minocha, S. 2010. Eduserv Symposium 2010: The Mobile University. In Ariadne (64).

Theoretical Fundament

Literature ReviewSources: EBSCO Computer Source and Business Source Premiere, ACM Portal, Gartner Advisory

Intraweb, Science Direct, Google Scholar SFX and Mendeley Literature Search

Search query: (uni* OR academic) AND (mobile service OR mobile OR smartphone)

Re

lev

an

t L

ite

ratu

re

Research focus on m-learning

Key paper

Frohberg et al. 2009. Mobile Learning projects - a critical analysis of the state of the art.

Review and rating of 102 mobile learning projects

Conclusion: the potential of mobile learning is still hidden and not fully used in present projects

Minocha 2010. Eduserv Symposium 2010: The Mobile University.

Discussion on mobile university services

Conclusion: the question whether and how mobile technology will play a role in the delivery of higher education is not answered yet.

Basic questions like if students really want to learn on the move or if it is the access to mobile services related to administration such as reminders for deadlines or

maps to reach classrooms are the functionalities that they really value remain

unanswered.

14

Theoretical FundamentR

ele

va

nt

Lit

era

ture

Research on general usage and usage patterns of mobile technologies

Mostly too general to draw conclusions on mobile university services

Cui, Y. and Roto, V. 2008. How people use the web on mobile devices.

Use of Web via mobile devices; four key contextual factors activity taxonomy: information

seeking, communication, and transaction, and personal space extension.

Lee, S. 2009. Mobile Internet Services from Consumers Perspectives.

How consumers perceived different mobile services from the consumers perspectives:

expectation, satisfaction, and fulfillment of that expectation.

Mallat, N. Rossi, M. Tuunainen, V. K., and rni, A. 2009. The impact of use context on mobile services acceptance: The case of mobile ticketing.

Behavioral theory suggests that context affects user attitude and therefore influences

acceptance; identify the contexts of both the benefits of use and in learning to use the

system.

Verkasalo, H. 2008. Contextual patterns in mobile service usage.

Usage patterns of three different context: home, office, on the move.

Mobile

University

Service

Acceptance of

mobile

technologies

General usage and

usage patterns

15

Theoretical FundamentR

ele

va

nt

Lit

era

ture

Different streams, models and theories on acceptance of mobile technologies

Mobile technology seen as information system

IS models and theories

Technology Acceptance Model

IS Success Model

Task-Technology-Fit Model

U-Constructs

E-Commerce M-Commerce U-Commerce

Theory on IS in general is missing characteristics that arise with mobile IS

Pitt et al. 2010 argue, that new IS models need to be developed

They propose the use of the U-Constructs / U-Commerce

Mobile

University

Service

Acceptance of

mobile

technologies

General usage and

usage patterns

16

Theoretical FundamentR

ele

va

nt

Lit

era

ture

97 M-Commerce

M-Banking

2009

79 E-Commerce

75 Theory of

Reasoned Action

85 TAM

2000 U-

Commerce

2003 UTAUT

2006 TAM UC

92 IS Success

Model D & McL

M-Healthcare

2009

03 IS Success

Model Update

95 Task-Techn-

Fit Model IL

98 Task-Techn-

Fit Model GL

2008 TTFM for

mobile IS 99 TTF

extended TAM

93 Ubiquitous

Computing

95 Normadic

Computing

2003 U-Comm.

and TTFM

92 Concept of

Flow

98 Dynamic

Phase Model

70s 80s-90s 2000s

TTFM: Task-Technology-Fit model

UTAUT: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

TAM: Technology Acceptance model

17

Theoretical FundamentR

ele

va

nt

Lit

era

ture

97 M-Commerce

M-Banking

2009

79 E-Commerce

75 Theory of

Reasoned Action

85 TAM

2000 U-

Commerce

2003 UTAUT

2006 TAM UC

92 IS Success

Model D & McL

M-Healthcare

2009

03 IS Success

Model Update

95 Task-Techn-

Fit Model IL

98 Task-Techn-

Fit Model GL

2008 TTFM for

mobile IS 99 TTF

extended TAM

93 Ubiquitous

Computing

95 Normadic

Computing

2003 U-Comm.

and TTFM

92 Concept of

Flow

98 Dynamic

Phase Model

70s 80s-90s 2000s

TTFM: Task-Technology-Fit model

UTAUT: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

TAM: Technology Acceptance model

18TTFM: Task-Technology-Fit model

UTAUT: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

TAM: Technology Acceptance model

Theoretical FundamentR

ele

va

nt

Lit

era

ture

70s 80s-90s 2000s

97 M-Commerce

M-Banking

2009

79 E-Commerce

75 Theory of

Reasoned Action

85 TAM

2000 U-