Personality and ability

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<ul><li> 1. Individual Differences Personality and Abilities Chapter 3 </li> <li> 2. Learning Objectives1. Define personality and describe its role in the study of organizational behavior.2. Identify the big five dimensions of personality and describe what is meant by positive and negative affectivity.3. Describe the Type A and Type B behavior patterns and describe the nature of Machiavellianism.4. Define achievement motivation (or need for achievement) and describe the difference between learning, performance, and avoidance goal orientations.5. Describe the differences between morning and evening persons and the relevance of this individual difference to on-the-job behavior.6. Define cognitive intelligence, practical intelligence, emotional intelligence, and successful intelligence. Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 2 </li> <li> 3. Personality Concepts Personality: The unique and relatively Personality stable patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals. Interactionist Perspective: The view that Perspective behavior is a result of a complex interplay between personality and situational factors. Person-Job Fit: The extent to which Fit individuals possess the traits and competencies required to perform specific jobs. Copyright 2003, 3 </li> <li> 4. The Interactionist Perspective Copyright 2003, 4 </li> <li> 5. Measuring Personality Objective Tests: Tests Questionnaires and inventories designed to measure various aspects of personality. Reliability: The extent to which a Reliability test yields consistent scores on various occasions. Validity: The extent to which a test Validity actually measures what it claims to measure. Copyright 2003, 5 </li> <li> 6. The Big Five Dimensions of Personality Fivebasic dimensions of personality that are assumed to underlie many specific traits. Conscientiousness Extraversion-Introversion Agreeableness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience Copyright 2003, 6 </li> <li> 7. ConscientiousnessThe extent to whichindividuals arehardworking,organized, dependable,and persevering (highconscientiousness)versus lazy,disorganized, andunreliable (lowconscientiousness). Copyright 2003, 7 </li> <li> 8. Extraversion-IntroversionThe degree towhich individualsare gregarious,assertive, andsociable(extraverts) versusbeing reserved,timid, and quiet(introverts). Copyright 2003, 8 </li> <li> 9. AgreeablenessThe extent to whichindividuals arecooperative andwarm (highlyagreeable) versuscold andbelligerent (highlydisagreeable). Copyright 2003, 9 </li> <li> 10. Emotional Stability The degree to which individuals are insecure, anxious, depressed, and emotional (emotionally unstable) versus calm, self-confident, and secure (emotionally stable). Copyright 2003, 10 </li> <li> 11. Openness to ExperienceThe extent to whichindividuals arecreative, curious,and cultured (opento experience)versus practicaland with narrowinterests (closed toexperience). Copyright 2003, 11 </li> <li> 12. Affectivity Positive Affectivity: The tendency to Affectivity experience positive moods and feelings in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions. Negative Affectivity: The tendency Affectivity to experience negative moods in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions. Copyright 2003, 12 </li> <li> 13. Self-Efficacy Individualsbeliefs concerning their ability to perform specific tasks successfully. Judgments of self-efficacy consist of three components: Magnitude: The level at which an individual Magnitude believes she or he can perform. Strength: The persons confidence that she or Strength he can perform at that level. Generality: The extent to which self-efficacy in Generality one situation or for one task extends to other situations and other tasks. Copyright 2003, 13 </li> <li> 14. Self-Efficacy General Self-efficacy: Peoples Self-efficacy overall beliefs about their general capacity to perform tasks successfully. Beliefs about self-efficacy develop through: Direct Experience: Feedback from Experience performing similar tasks in the past. Vicarious Experience: Observations of Experience others performance on these tasks. Copyright 2003, 14 </li> <li> 15. Self-Monitoring A personality trait involving the extent to which individuals adapt their behavior to the demands of specific situations so as to make good impressions on others. Consequences of self-monitoring: Work Performance: High self-monitors tend to do Performance better than low self-monitors in jobs requiring boundary-spanning activities. Career Success: High self-monitors tend to obtain Success more promotions than low self-monitors. Interpersonal Relationships: High self-monitors Relationships tend to form less stable and shallower personal relationships with others than low self-monitors. Copyright 2003, 15 </li> <li> 16. Self-Monitoring Copyright 2003, 16 </li> <li> 17. Machiavellianism A personality trait involving willingness to manipulate others for ones own purposes. Machiavellian tactics: Neglecting to share important information (e.g., claiming to forget to tell you about key meetings and assignments). Finding subtle ways of making you look bad to management (e.g., damning you with faint praise). Failing to meet obligations (e.g., not holding up their end on joint projects, thereby causing you to look bad). Spreading false rumors about you (e.g., making up things about you that embarrass you in front of others). Copyright 2003, 17 </li> <li> 18. Type A vs. Type B Type A Behavior Pattern: A pattern Pattern of behavior involving high levels of competitiveness, time urgency, and irritability. Type B Behavior Pattern: A pattern Pattern of behavior characterized by a casual, laid-back style; the opposite of the Type A behavior pattern. Copyright 2003, 18 </li> <li> 19. Type A vs. Type B Task Performance Type As tend to excel on tasks involving time pressure or solitary work. Type Bs have the advantage when it comes to tasks involving complex judgments and accuracy as opposed to speed. Interpersonal Relations Type As tend to annoy coworkers, are more likely to lose their tempers and lash out at others, are more likely to become involved in conflict, and are more likely to engage in aggressive and counterproductive behavior. Copyright 2003, 19 </li> <li> 20. Achievement Motivation The strength of an individuals desire to excel to succeed at difficult tasks and to do them better than other persons. Copyright 2003, 20 </li> <li> 21. High Need Achievers Prefer moderately difficult tasks. In terms of career success, tend to be Promoted more rapidly. Less inclined to delegate. More interested in performance feedback. More interested in merit-based pay than seniority-based pay. Copyright 2003, 21 </li> <li> 22. Goal Orientations Copyright 2003, 22 </li> <li> 23. Morning vs. Evening Persons Morning Persons Individuals who feel most energetic and alert early in the day. Evening Persons Individuals who feel most energetic and alert late in the day. Copyright 2003, 23 </li> <li> 24. Abilities Mental and physical capacities to perform various tasks. Cognitive Intelligence: The ability to Intelligence understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles by careful thought. Practical Intelligence: Adeptness at Intelligence solving the practical problems of everyday life. Copyright 2003, 24 </li> <li> 25. Tacit Knowledge Knowledge about how to get things done. Major characteristics: Tacit knowledge is action oriented; it involves oriented knowing how to do something as opposed to knowing that something is the case. Tacit knowledge is practically useful; it allows useful individuals to achieve goals they personally value. Tacit knowledge is acquired without direct help from others. others Copyright 2003, 25 </li> <li> 26. Emotional IntelligenceA cluster of skills relating to the emotional side of life. Major components: The ability to recognize and regulate our own emotions. The ability to recognize and influence others emotions. Self motivation. The ability to form effective long-term relationships with others. Copyright 2003, 26 </li> <li> 27. Successful Intelligence Intelligence that represents a good balance between cognitive intelligence (IQ), practical intelligence, and creative intelligence. Copyright 2003, 27 </li> <li> 28. Other Cognitive Abilities Perceptual Speed: The ability to quickly recognize Speed similarities and differences in visual stimuli. Example: A designer recognizing irregular patterns in a fabric. Number Aptitude: The ability to work with Aptitude numbers in a quick and accurate manner. Example: An accountant spotting an error in a financial report. Spatial Visualization: The ability to imagine how Visualization various objects will look when rotated or moved in space. Example: An architect planning a change in a building design. Copyright 2003, 28 </li> <li> 29. Physical Abilities Peoples capacities to engage in the physical tasks required to perform a job. Common types: Strength: The capacity to exert physical force Strength against various objects. Flexibility: The capacity to move ones body in Flexibility an agile manner. Stamina: The capacity to endure physical Stamina activity over prolonged periods. Speed: The ability to move quickly. Speed Copyright 2003, 29 </li> </ul>