SCaLE Talk - John Curran

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John Curran's talk at the Southern California Linux Expo in February 2010.

Text of SCaLE Talk - John Curran

IPv4 Depletion and IPv6 Adoption

IPv4 Depletion &IPv6 AdoptionJohn CurranPresident & CEOARIN20 February 2010

Quick History of the Internet Protocol*Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4, or just IP)First developed for the original Internet (ARPANET) in spring 1978Deployed globally with growth of the InternetTotal of 4 billion IP addresses availableUsed by every ISP and hosting company to connect customers to the InternetAllocated based on documented need

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)Design started in 1993 when IETF forecasts showed IPv4 depletion between 2010 and 2017Completed, tested, and available for production since 1999Total of 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 IP addresses availableUsed and managed similar to IPv4

About IPv4 and IPv6*

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Deployed1981 1999 Address Size 32-bit number 128-bit number Address FormatDotted Decimal Notation: Hexadecimal Notation: 3FFE:F200:0234:AB00: 0123:4567:8901:ABCD Prefix Notation 3FFE:F200:0234::/48 Number of Addresses 232 = 4,294,967,296 2128 = 340,282,366,920, 938,463,463,374,607,431, 768,211,456

Available IPv4 /8s from IANA**as of 11 February 2010*

What We KnowRIRs allocate, on average, 10-12 /8s each year worldwideThere are 22 /8s remaining at the IANA as of 11 February 2010Demand for IPv4 continues from organizations around the world*

/8s Allocated by IANA to RIRs *IANA has allocated four /8s so far in 2010.

















Remaining IPv4 /8s from IANA*IANA has allocated four /8s so far in 2010.

What Will Happen(in no particular order)IPv4 demand continuesIPv4 free pool depletesIPv4 NAT use increasesIPv6 deployment*

The Bottom LineWere running out of IPv4 address spaceIPv6 must be adopted for continued Internet growthIPv6 is not backwards compatible with IPv4We must maintain IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously for many years*

RIRs have been allocating IPv6 address space since 1999Thousands of organizations have obtained an IPv6 allocation to dateARIN has IPv6 distribution policies for both service providers, community networks, and end-user organizations


SituationToday, the Internet is predominantly based on IPv4.The Internet must run two IP versions at the same time (IPv4 & IPv6) - this is the dual-stack approach.


SituationToday, there are organizations attempting to reach your mail, web, and application servers via IPv6.

In the near future there will be many more deployments using IPv6.*

SituationWhat requires contiguous number resources? Building out major new networks ISPs adding new customers

What does this mean for: Enterprise Customers? Internet Service Providers? Equipment Vendors? Content and Hosting Firms? *

Call to Action Enterprise CustomersMail, web, and application servers must be reachable via IPv6 in addition to IPv4.Open a dialogue with your Internet Service Provider about providing IPv6 services.Each organization must decide on timelines, and investment level will vary.*

Call to ActionInternet Service ProvidersBegin planning to connect customers via both IPv4 and IPv6 now.Communicate with your peers and vendors about IPv6.Consider IPv6 when making purchases.*

Call to ActionEquipment VendorsThere was probably limited demand for IPv6 in the past.Demand for IPv6 support will become mandatory very, very quickly.Introduce IPv6 support into your product cycle as soon as possible.


Call to ActionContent ProvidersContent clients must be reachable to newer Internet customers.Begin planning to connect hosting customers via both IPv4 and IPv6 now.Encourage customers to use IPv6 and test their applications over it as soon as possible.


Government ActionsAwarenessCoordinate with industryAdopt incentivesRegulatoryEconomicSupport and promote activitiesOfficially adopt IPv6*

IPv6 Adoption NeedsIPv6 address space IPv6 connectivity (native or tunneled)Operating systems, software, and network management tool upgradesRouter, firewall, and other hardware upgradesIT staff and customer service training*

ResourcesInformation Page at

Social Media at ARINIPv6 WikiCommunity Use Slide DeckARIN Board ResolutionLetter to CEOs

* of 23

Learn More and Get InvolvedLearn more about

Get Involved in ARINPublic Policy Mailing ListAttend a Meeting


Thank You*

This presentation describes the impending depletion of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and the importance of adopting the next version of the Internet Protocol, Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). This issue impacts everyone and must be understood and acted upon to ensure the continued growth and operation of the Internet.*IPv6 provides a much larger pool of IP addresses. IPv6 is not backwards compatible with IPv4. The much larger IPv6 numbering system is meant to one day completely replace IPv4, but this will take many years. In the meantime, much of the Internet will run IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously. This is necessary to ensure all users, regardless of the protocol version they are using, will be able to interact with all content on the Internet.***IPv4 address space has been used for decades to grow the Internet. When engineers deployed IPv4 in 1981, four billion IP addresses seemed like plenty. As the world caught on to the commercial possibilities of the Internet, though, engineers realized that the number of IP addresses simply wasnt enough for all the laptops, mobile devices, web servers, routers, and other devices coming online. The first allocation of IPv6 address space by a Regional Internet Registry (RIR) to a provider was made in April of 1999.The five RIRs each obtain IPv4 address space from the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). The RIRs then use that IPv4 address space to satisfy requests for the resource in their respective regions. This slide indicates what has already been allocated to the RIRs, what is still available to the RIRs in the coming year(s), and what is unavailable. The unavailable address space includes Class D multicast address space, Class E experimental address space, and the address space identified in RFC 1918.With anticipated increase in demand for IPv4 address space, the IANA free pool will likely be depleted around 2011. The RIRs would then only be left with their respective resource inventories that will likely be quickly depleted.This slide shows the number of /8s the IANA allocated to the RIRs each year. Each RIR holds approximately 12-18 months of inventory. Allocation rates from these inventories and the need for several RIRs to request additional /8s in a close timeframe may cause a spike in allocations from the IANA to the RIRs.IANA distributed nearly forty /8s to the RIRs over the last four years. Due to anticipated increase in demand, RIRs will likely deplete the IPv4 address pool by the end of 2011.As the RIRs continue to draw down the resource from the IANA free pool, the RIRs strongly encourage the adoption of IPv6. The RIRs will continue to distribute IPv4 address space according to current policy and will see the depletion of the free pool within the next two years. Service providers will naturally over-provision the IPv4 resources they already have and the Internet may see more Network Address Translation (NAT) devices. The rate of IPv6 adoption will accelerate as consumers realize the imminent depletion of the IPv4 resource. This impacts everyone.IPv6 provides a much larger pool of IP addresses. IPv6 is not backwards compatible with IPv4. The much larger IPv6 numbering system is meant to one day completely replace IPv4, but this will take many years. In the meantime, much of the Internet will run IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously. This is necessary to ensure all users, regardless of the protocol version they are using, will be able to interact with all content on the Internet.**The RIRs began distributing IPv6 address space in 1999. Although thousands of organizations have obtained IPv6 resources to date, IPv6 has not been widely adopted. Some people predicted in the 1990s that the only true driver for IPv6 adoption would be the depletion of the IPv4 resource. Many people would agree those assessments were accurate, as today we see increased energy to adopt IPv6 in anticipation of imminent IPv4 depletion.To ensure your web and mail servers are able to communicate with all users, regardless of the protocol version they are using, you must make them available over both IPv4 and IPv6. As the IPv4 free pool is depleted, many service providers will begin adding users to the Internet using IPv6. The already-deployed IPv4 base will remain with us for many years, however. It is important to support both versions of the protocol for many years to come.*You likely already have users attempting to reach your mail, web, and other services over the IPv6 network today. Even if those attempts are few today, they will soon be many. As the IPv4 resource depletes, providers will add new users to the Internet using IPv6.**Building new networks and adding new users to the Internet require contiguous number resources. As we move closer to the depletion of the IPv4 resource, there will soon only be contiguous IPv6 resources available for new networks and users. This impacts everyone, but in slightly different ways. It is up to all of us to make this transition to a dual-stacked Internet as transp