- 1.Session 1:Moving to WCAG 2.0 Presenter: Roger Hudson Web Usability Web Accessibility 2.0 SeminarNovember 2008
2. What is web accessibility? Site accessibility is a measure of how effectively all people, including those with disabilities, are able to access and use web pages. The power of the web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect . Tim Berners-Lee Founder of the World Wide Web Director of W3C 3.
- Can be used by people with physical and cognitive impairments
- Can be used by people in situations where they are unable to use their hands
- Can be used by people who are technically and educationally disadvantaged
- Are more effective for people who live in remote and regional areas
- Are easy for the elderly and novice users to use
- Work with the widest range of browsers and other current internet technologies
- Will migrate to future technologies
Accessible sites benefit everyone Accessible Sites: 4. The provision of information and online services through the Worldwide Web is a service covered by the DDA (Disability Discrimination Act). Equal access for people with a disability in this area is required by the DDA where it can reasonably be provided. HREOC Advisory Note Version 3.2, 2002. Accessibility requirements in Australia Section 24 of the Disability Discrimination Act (1992) says that when providing goods or services, it is unlawful to discriminate against a person because of their disability.The Act is interpreted by the Australian Human Rights Commission (formally HREOC) in advisory notes. 5. From 1 December 2000, all websites were to follow the W3C guidelines to a sufficient extent that they pass recognised tests of accessibility. Level of Compliance: The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission's view is that compliance with the W3C WCAG 1.0 guidelines to the Single-A level (Priority 1) is a minimum rather than a desirable outcome. Websites that demonstrate such compliance may still be difficult or impossible to access for many users with a disability. Australian Government Information Management Office: Guide to Minimum Website Standards Accessibility, April 2003 www.agimo.gov.au/practice/mws/accessibility Also an AGIMO requirement 6. Moving to WCAG 2.0 Reference document version: Proposed Recommendation 3 November 2008. 7. WCAG process When will WCAG 2.0 become a W3C Recommendation?
- WCAG 1.0 released May 1999
- Started Work on WCAG 2.0 in 2000
- Nine working drafts of WCAG 2.0
- Last Call draft released April 2006
- Many concerns raised in the responses to the Last Call draft
- A new second Last Call working draft released on 17 May 2007
- Revised Last Call draft released 11 December 2007
- W3C Candidate Draft released 30 April 2008 (final draft stage)
- Test WCAG 2.0 implementation process
- November 3 W3C Proposed Recommendation released
8. Time to move forward
- Development of WCAG 2 has been a long and at times contentious process
- Extensive consultation with the web industry and accessibility advocates
- Battles won, battles lost and compromises made
This presentation will not be a look back to the past. My aim is to provide an overview of the changes between WCAG 1.0 and WCAG 2.0 9. WCAG 2 Overview Checking out the features 10. WCAG 1 Recap
- 14 Guidelines, containing
WCAG 1.0 has: Priority 1 : Designersmustsatisfy this checkpoint for all people to access the content.(16 checkpoints) Priority 2 :Designersshouldsatisfy this checkpoint to remove significant barriers.(30 checkpoints) Priority 3 :Designersmayaddress this checkpoint to further improve accessibility.(19 checkpoints) Each checkpoint has a Priority Level. 11. POUR -four principles of accessibility
- Content must beP erceivable
- Interface components in the content must beO perable
- Content and controls must beU nderstandable
- Content should beR obust enough to work with current and future user agents (including assistive technologies)
WCAG 2 Structure POUR Principles Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 W3C Proposed Recommendation (3 November 2008) http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/PR-WCAG20-20081103/ 12. WCAG 2 Structure Guidelines WCAG 2 Guidelines Within the 4 Principles, 12 Guidelines provide the requirements for making content more accessible to people with different disabilities. Principle 1:Perceivable Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive. Guideline 1.1 Text Alternatives:Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language Guideline 1.2 Time-based Media:Provide alternatives for time-based media Guideline 1.3 Adaptable:Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout ) without losing information or structure. Guideline 1.4 Distinguishable:Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background 13. WCAG 2 Structure Success Criteria Success Criteria The 12 Guidelines contain a total of 61 Success Criteria.Success Criteria can be used for specifying website requirements and conformance testing. 14. WCAG 2 Success Criteria for 1.3 Principle 1:Perceivable Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive. Guideline 1.3 Adaptable:Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout ) without losing information or structure. Success Criteria 1.3.1 Info and Relationships:Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text.How to meet 1.3.1 1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence:When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined.How to meet 1.3.2 1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics:Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, size, visual location, orientation, or sound.How to meet 1.3.3 15. WCAG 2 Structure Success Criteria TechniquesTechniques Sufficient Techniques:Ways of meeting the Success Criteria. Advisory Techniques:Goes beyond what is required to help authors better address the Guideline.
- 1.3.1 Info and Relationships:Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text.How to meet 1.3.1
- 16 Sufficient Techniques for very different HTML issues, for example:
- Using caption elements to associate data table captions with data tables
- Using label elements to associate text labels with form controls
- Using ol, ul and dl for lists
- Using h1-h6 to identify headings
Guideline 1.3 16. Normative and InformativeNormative Documentis the WCAG 2.0 W3C Recommendation. It contains the Principles, Guidelines and Success Criteria that specify what is required to comply with the guidelines. Informative DocumentsUnderstanding WCAG 2.0 and Techniques for WCAG 2.0 provide advice on how to meet these requirements.Testable and Flexible Success Criteria are stable statements that can be applied to different technologies and are testable by machines and/or humans. Informative techniques are provided for different technologies and will evolve over time as new technologies emerge. 17. WCAG 1 - Technology specificWCAG 1.0 was specific to W3C formats like HTML and CSS Guideline 11. Use W3C technologies and guidelines. Checkpoint 11.4 If you cannot create an accessible page, provide a link to an alternative page that is accessible, has equivalent information (or functionality), and is updated as often as the inaccessible page. [Priority 1] 18. WCAG 2 - Technology NeutralWCAG 1.0 was specific to W3C technologies like HTML and CSS WCAG 2.0 applies to all W3C and non-W3C technologies so long as their use is accessible. Guideline 11. Use W3C technologies and guidelines. Checkpoint 11.4 If you cannot create an accessible page, provide a link to an alternative page that is accessible, has equivalent information (or functionality), and is updated as often as the inaccessible page. [Priority 1] 19. Web content technology must meet two requirements to qualify as anaccessibility-supported Web content technology :
- The way that the Web content technology is used must be supported by users' assistive technology.
Accessibility Supported # 1 Source:http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/PR-WCAG20-20081103/#accessibility-supporteddef 20.
- The technology is supported natively in widely-distributed user agents that are also accessibility supported;
- The technology is supported in a widely-distributed plug-in that is also accessibility supported;
- The content is available in a closed environment where the required technology is also accessibility supported;
- The user agent that supports the technology is accessibility supported and equally available to a person with a disability as it is for someone without a disability.
- The Web content technology must have accessibili