Woody Plants Group 7b

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Text of Woody Plants Group 7b

  • 1. Conifer ID

2. First Year Ponderosa Pine Seedling Germinated in Spring Growth at the end of summer maybe 12 or so 3. One Year Old The following spring Candles forming in May/June 4. One Year Old Candles have expanded by July/August 5. Two Years Old May/June Next set of candles are forming 6. Two Years Old July/August Candles have expanded Oldest growth loses its needles 7. Three types of conifers based on foliage structure: Single needles Spruce/Fir Bundle of needles - Pine Scaled foliage Juniper/ Arborvitae Oregon State University 8.

  • Sample #1 Spruce - should be the one that rolls easiest.
  • Square cross section like a wooden match.
  • Now, grab the branch in your hands sharp pointed ends
  • pungensmeans sharp
  • Take another needle off this sample.Hold it between your thumb and forefinger.Bend it.It should snap in half.Breaks easily.Stiff.
  • Pull another needle off and this time pay attention to the point on the stem where you took the needle off.Can you see that a little peg, or stalk, remains on the stem?
  • Also, notice how the needles spiral all the way around the stem, like the spokes of a wheel.All sides of the stem are covered with needles.

9. Spruce: Single Square Sharp Stiff Stalked Spiral 10.

  • Spruce buds
  • Golden tan, rounded, the scales peel back like an open cone.
  • Not so much in the fall, but after the holidays, is when you begin to notice this rosette shape to the buds

11. Colorado Spruce cones usually at top of tree University of Wisconsin 12. Oregon State University Colorado Spruce cone 13.

  • Theyre usually large, papery or woody.
  • When seeds are mature, 1 to 2 years, depending on the genus and species, they fall from the cone.With the cone up near the top of the tree, the seeds will fall farther from the base of the parent tree, giving the seed more room to germinate, away from its parent.
  • Male pollen cones are usually toward the bottom of the tree.Theyre usually small, papery and short-lived, disintegrating once the pollen has been dispersed.
  • Conifers are wind pollinated.Wind currents blow the male pollen away from the parent tree to the cones at the top of another tree close by so that its own tree is not self-pollinated.Makes for a stronger, more diverse forest.
  • Spruce cones are 2 4 long;with papery, thin scales.
  • Irregularly notched edges to scales.

14. Compare pungens to engelmann

  • Engelmann Spruce is the other native spruce -compared to Colorado Spruce
  • Engelmann usually not blue
  • Base of needle and young branch slightly hairy
  • Needles not as sharp as CO Spruce
  • Tips are more blunt not as sharp
  • Cones are smaller 1-2
  • Grows at a higher elevation 9,000 to timberline
  • Engelmann can live at temperatures 50 degrees below zero.
  • Also quite long-lived 400 years old at maturity

15. Colorado Spruce Engelmann Spruce Iowa State University 16. Dwarf Alberta Spruce(in Oregon!) Oregon State University Nota native is cultivated. Dense growth conical very slow grower 1 2 per year As a rule, if a plant has slow growth, itll have dense foliage. Fast growth loose, open form. 17. Fir

  • Pull a needle off flat not square in cross section
  • Another needle try to bend doesnt snap as easily flexible
  • Grasp the branch in your hands not as sharp soft as fir friendly
  • Needle not stalked no peg the needle leaves a round, flat leaf scar.
  • Needles are usually longer than spruce 1 3
  • White Fir needles usually are retained on the tree for 7-10 years.

18.

  • Needles point up they usually dont spiral around the whole branch.
  • They reach fir the sky.

19. White Fir buds rounded, tan Oregon State University

  • Buds are round and tan like Spruce buds, but they resemble a closed cone instead of an open cone.Bud scales dont peel back.

20. White Fir cones Abies concolor

  • Cones are at the top of the tree, but instead of hanging down, they point straight up, reaching fir the sky.

21. Fir: Flat Friendly soft as Fir Flexible Fir the sky cones/needles point up 22. Douglas Fir

  • False Hemlockpseudo false;tsuga hemlock
  • Not a fir, and not a hemlock.Its own genus.Has a lot of the fir characteristics:
  • Flat, Friendly, Flexible.
  • But needles are shorter than white fir, 1 or less.
  • Groove down the center of the needle.
  • Leaf scar is slightly raised, and smaller than the white fir leaf scar.
  • Cones very diagnostic.They hang down, and fall off the tree intact.
  • 3-lobed bracts like tiny mice hiding under each scale.
  • Cones are all over the tree upper and lower branches .

23. Douglasfir female cones and pointed budsOregon State University 24. Blue SpruceUniversity of Connecticut Douglasfir University of Connecticut White FirUniversity of Wisconsin 25. Woody Plants Group 7

  • Abies concolor
  • Abies lasiocarpa
  • Picea abies
  • Picea engelmanii
  • Picea pungens var. glauca
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii
  • Concolor Fir
  • Subalpine Fir
  • Norway Spruce
  • Engelmann Spruce
  • Colorado Blue Spruce
  • Douglas Fir

26. Abies concolor 27. Foliage flat Leaf scar is round White Fir Abies concolor University of Wisconsin Pull a needle off flat not square in cross section Another needle try to bend doesnt snap as easily flexible Grasp the branch in your hands not as sharp soft as fir friendly Needle not stalked no peg the needle leaves a round, flat leaf scar. Needles are usually longer than spruce 1 3 White Fir needles usually are retained on the tree for 7-10 years. 28. Abies leaf scars 29. 30. Needles point up they usually dont spiral around the whole branch. They reach fir the sky. 31. Needles are the same color (concolor) top and bottom 32. Fruit/cones

  • brown cones, green when immature
  • cylindrical
  • 4" to 5" long
  • cones shatter when mature
  • cones borne on the upper third of the tree

33. Fir

  • Flat
  • Friendly soft as Fir
  • Flexible
  • Fir the sky cones/needles point up

34. IDAbies concolor

  • ID Features
    • needles are similar in color on top and bottom
      • (concolor) = same color
      • unlike most Firs, which have solid green or blue upper surfaces, and striped silvery lower surfaces (the stomatic lines
    • smooth bark with resin blisters
    • Needles longer than spruce
    • resinous buds
    • Large cones held upright

35. Abies lasiocarpa Subalpine Fir

  • Thin gray bark and flat smooth needles distinguish the Subalpine Fir.
  • A longitudinal crease runs the length of the needle,
  • as is true for all firs, cones project upward from the top side of branches

36. Abies lasciocarpaForm

  • When mature 40 to 100 feet tall and 1 to 2 feet in diameter.
  • Very narrow crown of dense foliage
  • often spire-like with branches to the ground

http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/picts/alasiocarpaform.jpg 37. Abies lasiocarpa

  • Flower: Monoecious; male cones bluish and borne beneath the leaves; female cones purple and borne upright near the top of the crown.Fruit: Cones are 2 to 4 inches long, cylindrical, slender, and borne upright on the twig (frequently in clusters); cone scales are deciduous, falling from the cone as seeds ripen; purple when mature.

38. Abies lasiocarpa 39. Abies lasiocarpa 40. Abies lasiocarpa 41. Abies lasiocarpaBark When young, grayish green and covered with resin blisters;later turning gray to white, unbroken except near base of large trees. Resin pockets scattered throughout inner bark. 42. Abies lasciocarpaneedles

  • Flattened needles, usually about 1 inch long, thickened in the middle, bluish white bloom on all surfaces;
  • tips mostly rounded, but may be notched (or pointed near top of tree);
  • spirally arranged but uniformly upswept
  • commonly have a manicured appearance.

43. Abies lasiocarpa 44. Abies lasciocarpaTwig

  • Stiff, orange-brown, and covered with round, flat leaf scars when needles fall.
  • Buds are small, rounded, and covered with pitch
  • terminal buds usually occur in clusters of three or more

45. 46. Picea pegs and leaf scars 47. Picea abiesNorway Spruce 48. Dark

  • Form: A medium to large tree with conical form capable of reaching over 120 feet tall
  • with horizontal to