Automobiles introduction

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Introduction to automobile

Automobile and automobile engineeringEtymology of Word AutomobileThe word Automobile derives from two French Words Auto and mobile, which translates to self moving.Definition of an AutomobileAn automobile is an wheeled vehicle carrying its own power unitWhat is Automobile Engineering?Automobile engineering is the one of the stream of mechanical engineering, which deals with the various types of automobiles, their mechanism of transmission systems and its applications

Timeline of early automobile developments

Invention of first steam powered road vehicle by French Military Engineer Nicolas Cugnot

Carl Benz invents the automobile

Bertha Benz, in an effort to popularize her husband's invention, took the very first public drive in an automobile from Mannheim to Pforzheim




Timeline of early automobile developments

FerdinandPorschedeveloped the Lohner-PorscheMixte Hybrid, the first gasoline-electric hybrid automobile in the world.

Seeking to bring the motor car to the masses, Henry Ford produced the Model T. It had a 20-horsepower, four-cylinder engine, reached a top speed of about 45 miles per hour, covered 13-21 mpg and weighed 544 kg.

Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia FerrariGrand Prix motor racing team1901



Timeline of early automobile developments

Sylvester Howard Roper invents the first motorcycle. It was a 2 cylinder, steam engine powered by coal.

Nicolaus Otto creates the first four-stroke piston cycle internal combustion engine which was put into the first motorcycle.

French firm DeDion-Buton created an engine that was easy to produce and allowed mass production of motorcycles. used by many companies including Harley-Davidson.1867



Timeline of early automobile developments

Hildebrand & Wolfmller created the first series production motorcycle. Made Travel easier, just as the car did in later years.

William Harley and Davidsons brothers launched the Harley-Davidson Motor Company, which is very popular today.



Types of AutomobilesOn the Basis of LoadHeavy transport vehicle (HTV) or heavy motor vehicle (HMV), example: trucks, buses, etc. Light transport vehicle (LTV), example: pickup, station wagon, etcLight motor vehicle (LMV), example: cars, jeeps, etc

On the basis of number of WheelsTwo wheeler vehicle, example : Scooter, motorcycle etc.Three wheeler vehicle, example : Autorickshaw, three wheeler scooter for handicaps and tempo, etc(c) Four wheeler vehicle, example : Car, jeep, trucks, buses, etc. (d) Six wheeler vehicle, example : Big trucks with two gear axles each having four wheels.

Typical pillar configurations of a sedan(three box)station wagon(two box) hatchback(two box)

Types of AutomobilesFuel Used Petrol vehicle, example : motorcycle, scooter, cars, etc.Diesel vehicle, example : trucks, buses, etc. Electric vehicle which use battery to drive. Steam vehicle, example : an engine which uses steam engineGas vehicle, e.g. LPG and CNG vehiclesHybrid Vehicles On the basis of TransmissionConventional vehicles with manual transmissionSemi-automatic Automatic

Toyota Prius, a Hybrid Vehicle

Tesla Model S, an electric Vehicle

Components of an Automobile System

Components of an AutomobileThe main components of an automobile areThe basic structureFrameSuspension systemAxlesWheels2. The Power Plant (Engine)3. The Transmission systemClutchGear BoxPropeller ShaftDifferential

4. The Auxiliaries (electrical system)Power Supply systemThe starterIgnition systemAncillary devices

5.The lubrication system 6. Cooling Systems

7. The Steering and Braking system

The Basic structure -frame

Itis the main supportingstructureof amotor vehicleto which all other components are attached, comparable to theskeletonof anorganism. FUNCTIONS OF THE CHASSIS FRAME:1. To carry load of the passengers or goods carried in the body.2. To support the load of the body, engine, gear box etc., 3. To withstand the forces caused due to the sudden braking or acceleration 4. To withstand the stresses caused due to the bad road condition. 5. To withstand centrifugal force while cornering

Conventional Chassis Frame

Integral Chassis Frame

types of frames(a)Conventional frameIt has two long side members and 5 to 6 cross members joined together with the help of rivets and bolts. The frame sections are used generally. a. Channel Section - Good resistance to bending b. Tabular Section - Good resistance to Torsion c. Box Section - Good resistance to both bending and Torsion(b) Integral frameIn this type of construction, there is no frame. It is also called unitized frame-body construction. In this case, the body shell and underbody are welded into single unit. The underbody is made of floor plates and channel and box sections welded into single unit. This assembly replaces the frame. This decreases the overall weight compared to conventional separate frame and body construction

Suspension System