Joined Industrial Training at Stan Autos, Jalandhar. Leading agency which deals with the selling and servicing of cars of Maruti-
Suzuki Company. Well known for its well standard, better infrastructure and its qualitative
features of servicing. Located at G.T road, opposite to Delhi Public School ,Jalandhar. Work culture of the organization was very enthusiastic. Source of the external was staff members of workshop. Taught the practical skills that are essential for the development of
Air filter Important part of a car's intake system, as it catches the dirt and other foreign
particles in the air, preventing them from entering and damaging the engine. Composed of fibrous materials to remove solid particulates such as dust, mold,
and bacteria from the air. Used in applications where air quality is important, especially in engines. All of the air that enters the system first passes through the air filter. Vehicles have a specific holder for this filter, a plastic or metal box. The holder
is connected to the intake manifold by a large plastic tube through which the air flows.
Affects car's performance & should be changed regularly, or the vehicle's gas mileage will suffer.
A dirty filter cause systems to run ineffectively, as emissions control system, which regulates the car's air-fuel mixture. It also cause spark plugs, which ignite the fuel to foul, as there will be too much fuel without enough air.
Type of radiator that cools the air compressed by a supercharger or turbocharger.
Compressing the air heats it, which makes it less dense,. Intercoolers are simple
radiators which decreases the temperature of intake air & increasing its density
before combustion and provides more oxygen to increase combustion.
The “inter” means between, as intercoolers are positioned between the turbo or
supercharger and the intake manifold.
Widely used in automotive for forced induction internal combustion engines to
improve their efficiency by increasing intake air charge density.
Passing a compressed and heated intake charge through an intercooler
reduces its temperature and pressure to reduce the cylinder combustion
temperature, avoid detonation, excessive wear, or heat damage to an engine
Increases system performance.
Mounted in areas of an automobile with maximum air flow i.e. in front.
Exhaust gas recirculation(EGR)
Is a nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction technique used in petrol &
Works by recirculating a portion of an engine's exhaust gas back to the
engine cylinders & this exhaust displaces the amount of combustible matter
in the cylinder.
Increases the efficiency of gasoline engines by following mechanisms:
i. Reduced throttling losses. Increase in inlet manifold pressure and reduced
ii. Reduced heat rejection. Low combustion temperatures reduces NOx
formation & reduces the loss of thermal energy to combustion chamber
surfaces, leaving more for conversion to mechanical work .
iii. Reduced chemical dissociation. Low peak temperatures result in more of
the released energy near TDC,& results in the dissociation of combustion
EGR valve cools the exhaust valves and makes them last far longer.
Located on the side of the engine block.
Circulates the oil through the engine; every time the engine oil circulates, it
passes through the oil filter.
Protects the engine by catching any large particles in the oil to avoid damage to
It also protects the engine by retaining a small amount of oil when the car is
Should be replaced within 3,000 miles (4,828 km),to
avoid it for clogging.
Heavy rotating boy that acts as reservoir of energy. Acts as an energy bank between source of power & driven machinery.
Two distinct applications: 1. Power is supplied at uniform rate, while demand for power by driven machinery
is variable e.g. punch press.2. Power is supplied at variable rate, while requirement of driven machinery is at
uniform rate e.g. internal combustion engine.
Functions:I. Store & reduce energy when needed.II. Reduce power capacity of electric motor.III. Reduce amplitude of speed fluctuation.
Mechanism by which the flow of a fluid is managed by obstruction to increase
or decrease engine's power.
In IC engine, throttle valve directly regulates the amount of air entering the
engine, indirectly controlling the charge.
Controlled with a throttle pedal or accelerator.
Throttle body is the part of the air intake system that controls the amount of air
flowing into the engine.
It is located between the air filter box and the intake manifold. The throttle plate inside the throttle body, is a butterfly valve that regulates the
airflow & is placed on the entrance of the intake manifold.
Device capable of transmitting torque and rotation through three shafts. It
receives one input and provides two outputs, in automobiles.
In an automobile,it allows each of the driving wheels to rotate at different
speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them.
Allows the driving road wheels to rotate at different speeds while cornering.
This is necessary while turning, making the wheel that
is travelling around the outside of the turning curve
roll farther and faster than the wheel that is travelling
Differential Gear Train on a Turning Car
The outer wheel traverses an arc with radius ro and the inner wheel traverses an
arc with radius ri. The lengths of the arcs traversed are so, sn, and si. The outer
arc so is larger than the inner arc si for a given traversed angle theta. Some way
of ensuring that the outer wheel is able to turn slightly faster than the inner
wheel ,in order to prevent binding and slippage of the tires on the road.
the automobile differential solves this
problem with only one transmission and
one drive shaft for both driven wheels.
Rolling Contact Bearing
Balls or rollers are introduced between surfaces that are in relative motion.
Serves the purpose of reducing rotational friction and support radial and axial
Machine tool spindles.
Automobile front & rear axles.
Deep groove ball bearing
Radii of ball is slightly less than radii of curvature of grooves.
High load carrying capacity.
Takes load in radial & axial direction.
Less friction loss & temperature rise.
Generates less noise.
Lifespan: calculated life for a bearing is based on the load it carries and its operating speed.
Failure modes: If a bearing is not rotating, maximum load is determined by force that causes
non-elastic deformation of balls. If that same bearing is rotating, that deformation tends to knead the ball into
roughly a ball shape.
Lubrication: It is needed for a bearing to operate properly. to increase lifespan of bearing, viscosity of lubricant is high.