A social marketing website you can trust

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  • 1. A social marketing website you can trust National Social Marketing CentreSecond National Social Marketing Conference 24 September 2007 Brian Cugelman, Mike Thelwall, Phil Dawes University of Wolverhampton Statistical Cybermetrics Research Groupand the Wolverhampton Business School http://cybermetrics.wlv.ac.uk

2. Presentation overview

  • Growing Internet usage
  • Online behavioural change interventions
  • Costs on the Internet
  • Credibility, trust and behaviour
  • Enhancing e-credibility for online social marketing

3. 1. Growing Internet usage 4. Computers, hosts and users Computer Industry Almanac, Forrester, International Telecommunication Union, The Domain Survey 5. Web 2.0 Alexa using the reach measure. http://www.alexa.com/site/help/traffic_learn_more 6. 2. Online behavioural change interventions 7. Online behavioural interventions

  • Meta-analysis of 22 articles compared web-based versus non-web-based health interventions, showedonline interventions increased participants knowledge and health related behaviour (Wantland et al., 2004)
  • Continuousemail reminderscan improve participants level of physical activity and eating habits(Franklin et al., 2006)
  • Foot-in-the-doortechnique operates by email(Gueguen, 2002)
  • Personalizedweb content improves attempts to quit smoking(Dijkstra, 2006)
  • Internet applicationscan bemore persuasive : they provide anonymity, are persistent,manage vast amounts of information, can present issue in multiple ways(Fogg, 2003)
  • However , outside experimental settings,mistrust is significant .

8. 3. Costs on the Internet (crime, deception and mistrust) 9. Costs to businessesfrom e-fraud (billions) CYBERSOURCE (2007) 8th annual online fraud report. CyberSource Corporation. 10. Costs to individualsfrom e-fraud (millions) National White Collar Crime Center, Federal Bureau of Investigation (2006) Internet Crime Report 11. Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain DUTTON, W. H. & HELSPER, E. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain. Oxford Internet Institute. 12. Social and charitable risks

  • In 2007, MySpace removed29,000 convicted sex offendersfrom its service
  • In 2005, bogus charities distributed email scams designed todivert donations intended for tsunamivictims
  • After 9/11, US officials froze assets ofcharities funding terrorists organizations ; donations solicited online (HLF)

Reuters (2007); Long and Chiagouris (2006); US Government (2001); Internet Archive (2001) 13. Conclusion

  • The more people fearspammers, phishers, identity thieves, con artists, hackers, cyber stalkers, sex offenders, cyber bullies, misinformation, propaganda and hate advocates,the more it will take to build online trust

14. 4. Credibility, trust and behaviour 15. Credibility (believability)

  • Source credibility:A communicators positive characteristics that influence the receivers acceptance of a message
  • Credibility = Trustworthiness + Expertise
  • +Attractiveness

Kotler and Roberto (1989);Fogg and Tseng (1999);Ohanian (2001)Knowledgeable Competent Intelligent Capable Experienced Powerful Expertise Classy Beautiful Elegant Sexy (Cool) Attractiveness Trustworthy Good Truthful Well-intentioned Unbiased Honest Credible Believable Reputable Trustable Trustworthiness Credibility 16. Credibility and source attribution

  • Perceptions of credibility impact the degree to which audiences are likely to adopt new behaviours(Kotler and Roberto, 1989)
  • Website design may have a greater impact on consumers attitudes towards websites than their offline perceptions of the organizations(Long, Chiagouris 2006)

17. Credibility and behaviour

  • Correlations between purchase intentions and an endorsers perceived credibility

OHANIAN, R. (1990) Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers perceived expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19, 39-52. *N=265, P