Art Of Leadership

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Text of Art Of Leadership

  • THE ART OF LEADERSHIP

  • Learning Points Part One of this course contains answers to these questions:Which variables determine leadership effectiveness?Do you possess the 10 qualities of a leader?How susceptible are you to leadership influence?What is your level of interpersonal trust?In which situations are you likely to lead? What is your natural kind of intelligence?

  • Introduction Researchers have been trying to answer these questions for years:What does it take to be a successful leader?What is the most effective leadership style?Early studies were based on two theories:Trait Theory (focuses on leader qualities)Behavior Theory (focuses on leader actions)

  • Leadership Trait Theory Sir Francis GaltonOne of the earliest leadership theoristsWrote Hereditary Genius pub. 1869Believed leadership qualities were geneticThis theory assumes physical and psychological characteristics account for effective leadershipBasic intelligenceClear and strong valuesHigh personal energy

  • Leadership Trait Theory Edwin Gheselli identified six traits for effective leadership:Need for achievementIntelligenceDecisivenessSelf-confidenceInitiativeSupervisory ability

  • Trait Theory AppliedPaul Von HindenburgFirst Chancellor of Germany, post WWIUsed the trait theory for selecting and developing military leadersPrimary qualities for leadership abilityIntelligence (bright vs dull)Vitality (energetic vs lazy)

  • Examples of Trait TheoryBright, lazystaff officerEnergetic, dullfrontline soldierBright, energeticfield commanderLazy, dullleft to find their own level of effectiveness

  • Leadership Behavior Theory In the 1930s, emphasis on behaviorism moved researchers in the direction of leadership behaviorKurt Lewin trained assistants in behaviors indicative of three leadership styles: Autocratic: tight control of group activities, decisions made by the leaderDemocratic: group participation, majority ruleLaissez-faire: little activity of any type by the leader

  • Leadership Behavior TheoryIn the 1940s, research focused on leader behaviorsAssumed that leaders take distinct actionsRalph Stogdill at Ohio State UniversityHelped develop the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ)Respondents described leaders behavior in two dimensions:Initiating structureShowing consideration

  • Leadership Behavior TheoryFindings of a Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) study:The Democratic style was more beneficial for group performanceThe leaders behavior impacted the performance of followers

  • Initiating Structure Leaders taking action to define the:Relationship between themselves and staffRole each staff member will assume Measures of initiating structure:Trying out new ideas Encouraging slow workers to work harderMeeting deadlinesMeeting at scheduled timesMaking sure everyone works to capacity

  • Showing Consideration Showing consideration means taking action to develop trust, respect, support, and friendship with subordinates Measures of consideration:Being helpfulTreating all people as equalsWilling to make changesStanding behind subordinatesDoing things to make group membership pleasant

  • Leadership Behavior TheoryRensis Likert at the University of Michigan conducted leadership studiesStudied leaders behaviors related to worker motivation and group performanceIdentified two dimensions of behavior:Job centered (initiating structure)Employee centered (showing consideration)

  • Leadership Behavior Theory Robert Blake and Jane MoutonDeveloped a managerial grid reflecting Ohio and Michigan dimensions The ideal leader has high concern for both production and people

  • Managerial Grid Major management styles and concerns:Impoverished: low production, low peopleSweatshop: high production, low peopleCountry Club: high people, low productionStatus Quo: medium production, medium peopleFully Functioning: high production, high people

  • Managerial GridTwo additional stylesPaternalistic: high concern for production, use of rewards for compliance and loyaltyOpportunistic: promotes his/her own advancement

  • Behavior Theory AppliedMargot Morrell documented Ernest Shackletons endurance expedition and the lessons he learned: Leading by exampleCommunicating a visionKeeping morale upMaintaining a positive attitudeSuccessful leaders execute these points

  • Leadership Contingency TheoryBoth trait and behavioral theories tried to identify the one best leader or style for all situationsBy the late 1960s, it became apparent that there is no such universal answerLeadership effectiveness depends on a combination of the:Leader Followers Situational factors

  • Leadership Contingency Theory In the past 50 years, more than 65 leadership classification systems have been developedMost agree that leadership effectiveness depends on the leader, the followers, and situation variablesLeaders in different situations need different interests, values, and skillsA leader in a bank differs from one on a farmExperienced vs new followers have different needsSituational factors include the job performed, the workplace culture, and task urgency

  • Leadership Contingency TheoryLeadership results when the ideas and deeds of the leader match the needs and expectations of the follower in a particular situationExamples:Gen. George PattonNelson Mandela Adolf HitlerFor leadership to take place, the leader, followers, and situation must match

  • Transformational Leadership Charismatic leaders Inspire others and bring forth loyaltyMax Webers definition of charisma:A quality that sets an individual apart from ordinary peopleTo be treated as if endowed with exceptional powers or qualitiesCharisma is a gift or power of leadership

  • Theory of Charismatic LeadershipThis theory was published by R.J. House in 1976Charismatic leaders exhibit a combination of personal characteristics and behavior:DominantAmbitiousSelf-confidentSense of purpose

  • Behaviors of Charismatic LeadersCharismatic leadersAre role models Demonstrate ability that elicits respectHave ideological goals with moral overtonesCommunicate high expectations and show confidence in meeting themIgnite the motives of followersTypes of motivesAffiliation, power, and achievement

  • Transformational Leadership Charismatic leaders emerge in every walk of lifeFootball coach Vince Lombardi generated respect and following of others through charismaHe caredHe worked hardHe knew the right answersHe believedHe kept the bar highHe knew people

  • Transformational Leadership According to James MacGregor Burns, charisma has overlapping meanings:Leaders magical qualitiesAn emotional bond between the leader and the ledDependence on a powerful figure by the massesAssumption that a leader is omniscient and virtuousPopular support for a leader that verges on love

  • Transformational Leadership Transformational leaders raise aspirations and transform individuals through:OptimismCharmIntelligenceOther personal qualities

  • Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership was first discussed by J. V. DowntonHowever, identification of these leadership types is credited to James MacGregor Burns:Transformational leadership Transactional leadership

  • Transformational Vs Transactional Transformational leadersFocus on the potential relationship between the leader and the followersEngage the full person of the followerTap the motives of the followersTransactional leadersFocus on exchanges between leaders and followersEmphasize exchanging one thing for another