Chapter Eight Powerpoint Presentation

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  • 1. Chapter 8 Learning Objectives
    • After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  • make the case for global economic integration
  • understand the evolution of the GATT and the WTO, including current challenges
  • describe the advantages and disadvantages of regional economic integration
  • understand regional economic integration efforts in Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific, and Africa
  • participate in two debates on global and regional economic integration
  • draw implications for action


  • Regional economic integration-efforts to reduce trade and investment barriers within one region
  • Global economic integration-efforts to reduce trade and investment barriers around the globe
  • benefits- global economic integration raises incomes, generates jobs, and stimulates economic growth
  • flaws-environmental impact and unequal distribution of the fruits from more trade and investment among the haves and have-nots in the world

3. 4. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

  • Bretton Woods Conference introduced the idea for an organization to regulate trade as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II
  • GATT's main objective was reduction of barriers to international trade through reduction of tariff barriers, quantitative restrictions and subsidies on trade through a series of agreements.
  • GATT was a treaty, not an organization
  • The functions of the GATT were taken over by the World Trade Organization (WTO) which was established during the final round of negotiations in the early 1990s

5. 6. 7. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

  • free trade agreement between Canada, Mexico, and the United States
  • tariffs on half of the exports and imports among members removed immediately
  • remaining tariffs phased out by 2010

8. Building Blocks or Stumbling Blocks

  • In the absence of global economic integration, regional economic integration is often regarded as the next best thing to facilitate free tradeat least within a region.
  • However, another school of thought argues that regional integration has becomea stumbling block for global integration.