Conflict management is the process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict. The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in organizational setting. - Afzalur Rahim
Conflict is a struggle or contest between people with opposing needs, ideas, beliefs, values, or goals. - Emily Pia and Thomas Diez, Conflict and Human Rights
Elements of Conflict Power Norms Interests Perceived Worth Organizational Demands Sociocultural Alignment
The Process of Conflict Latent Conflict Perceived Conflict Felt Conflict Manifest Conflict Conflict Aftermath
Latent Conflict This is the stage in which there are differences between individuals or groups. The differences are potential areas of conflicts.
LATENT CONFLICT Expectations Capabilities Interests Wills Social Distances Awareness Meanings, Values, Norms, Status, Class SUB-PHASES TRANSFORMERS SITUATION OF CONFLICT STRUCTURE OF CONFLICT SOCIOCULTURAL SPACE STIMULATED NEEDS CONTACT, COMMUNICATION, PROPAGANDA, INDOCTRINATION ACCULTURATION AND EXPERIENCE Source: R.J. Rummel, Understanding Conflict and War
Perceived Conflict At this point, the involved parties have become reasonably aware of looming conflict as a result of tendency to obstruct goals.
Felt Conflict At this stage various parties experience indicators of emotional surge opposing their interests, giving rise to discomforting pressure for goal assurance.
Manifest Conflict Conflict becomes manifest through transformation of tension into clear confrontation, verbal and physical challenge, antagonism, indifference, submission with deep- seated reservation and voluntary withdrawal.
Conflict Aftermath At this stage the feasibility of cooperation between parties involved become vivid through clear action paths. Where the observed conflict had been successfully managed, then relative harmony shall characterize their activities. If the observed conflict was suppressed, then point of contention could be stretched beyond elastic strength of their relationship to a breaking point.
Sources of Workplace Conflict Conflicting Interest Competition for Scarce Resources Personal Identity Stability Lack of Cooperation Perceived Excessive Dependence on a Person or Bloc Mafia War Unfounded Rules Sociocognitive Limitations Codependent Tasks Fight for Dignity Fight for Values Animosity Incompatible Personalities Decision Inequity Negative Effect of Consensus in Decision-Making Expectations Blurry Job Description Communication Barrier Previous Conflict Baseline Bandwagon Syndrome
Exercise List sources of conflict in your team.
Types of General Conflicts Interest-Based Conflict Process-Based Conflict Structure-Based Conflict Data-Based Conflict Value-Based Conflict Relationship-Based Conflict Task-Based Conflict
Common Types of Team Conflicts Process-Based Conflict Relationship-Based Conflict Task-Based Conflict
Process-Based Conflict This stems from work systems, work-flow and obligations. Key Problem Areas (KPA): Commencement of Work Termination of Work Definitive Work Method Process Identity Ownership of Process Ownership of Sub-Processes Dissonance in Identity of Cross-Functional & Functional Responsibilities
Forms of Processes Cross-FunctionalProcess Intra-FunctionalProcess Intra-JobProcess
Relationship-Based Conflict This is a conflict fuelled by emotional sentiments. List Examples:..................................... ..
Task-Based Conflict This is a conflict driven by core issues about form, structure, dimensions, performance metrics and ownership of task. List Examples:.. ..
Depiction of Conflict Phases Based on Multiple Schools of Thoughts Intensity Time Latent Conflict Conflict Emergence Conflict Escalation Failed Peacemaking Efforts Institutionalization of Conflict Exacerbation of Violence (Hurting) Stalemate Complex Emergency Enmity Agitation Cutback De-escalation/ Negotiation Tentative Settlement Post-Settlement Peace Building Experimental Peace
Exercise List the effects of Enmity Agitation Cutback on De-escalation/Negotiation and Tentative Settlement Phases.
Strategies for Managing Conflicts Applicable Styles Improving Organizational Practices Special Roles and Structure Confrontation Techniques
Focus Areas for Improving Organizational Practices as Conflict Management Strategy Job Rotation Corporate Culture Realignment Internal Communication Assessment and Repositioning Organizational Restructuring Corporate Authority and Power Restructuring Organisation-Wide Job Redesign Improving Clarity of Structural Positioning and Inter-Job Relationships Performance and Reward Realignment Employee-Employee Social Value Optimization Zero Tolerance Against Discrimination, Glass Ceiling & Antisocial Behaviours Unbiased Central Budgetary Control System Effective Team Structuring Development of Workable Policies, Procedures and Rules Establishment of Internal Dispute Resolution Model
Special Roles and Structure Empowerment of Managers to own their internal processes, lead effectual transformation towards set goals, take responsibility for compliance, and be integrators that ensure harmony. Sometimes, a particular manager can be placed to conduct critical review and ensure compliance during meetings.
Notable Areas of Differences in Team Members Age Race Gender Communication Flair Learning Flair Thinking Flair Financial Background Educational Background Professional Affiliation Ethnicity Physical Ability Work Experience Job Function Management Status Work Location Marital Status Family Status Religious Beliefs Political Beliefs Languages
The primary school of excellence in conflict management consist of mindset & understanding for identification and acceptance of differences.
From Diversity Appreciation to High Performing Organisation
Functions of Nonverbal Communication Accent: Punctuating or drawing attention to a verbal message Complement: Expressions/gestures that support but could not replace verbal message Contradict: Expressions or gestures that convey meaning opposite to that of verbal message Regulate: Expressions or gestures that control the pace or flow of communication Repeat: A gesture or expression that can be used alone to send the same meaning as verbal message Substitute: A nonverbal cue that replaces verbal message
Examples of Nonverbal Cues Accent: Touching someones shoulder in empathy Compliment: Smiling in approval or frowning with disdain Contradict: Reading paper while saying I am listening Regulate: Looking confused by too much information Repeat: A stern look or pointing along with a verbal command Substitute: Nods and shakes of the head
Types of Nonverbal Cues 1. Facial expression 2. Eye behaviour 3. Posture 4. Gesture 5. Proxemics 6. Touch 7. Personal appearance 8. Vocal features of speech
Real Nonverbal Cues Facial Expression: Happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger and disgust Eye Behaviour-Functions: Regulatory, monitoring, cognitive and expressive Posture: Indicative of attention, involvement, relative status and rapport Gestures: Speech related and independent Proxemics: Use space Touch: of self indicates emotion, and of others indicates relationship Personal Experience: Indicators of personality, values and lifestyle Vocal Features of Speech: Tone, stress, accent, loudness and rate of speech
Common Signs of Conflict in Non-Verbal Cues i. New body movements ii. Touching of self/fidgeting iii. Hesitation iv. Blinking, eye shifting and dilation of pupils v. Lack of spontaneity vi. Speech errors vii. High vocal pitch viii. Negativity ix. Bulging eyes x. Severe Frown
Common Signs of Conflict in General Behaviour Rejection Incommunicado Nastiness Vindictiveness Combativeness Indignation Disrespectfulness Animosity
Turner & Weed Profiling of Communication (Response) Styles in Conflict Management Addressers: - First Steppers - Confronters Concealers: - Feeling-Swallowers - Subject-Changers - Avoiders Attackers: - Up-Front Attackers - Behind-The-Back Attackers
In organized group situations, the art of good communication helps build trust and respect. It fosters a positive learning environment and can set the stage for the group to achieve its identified mission, vision, and goals. In any group setting, members may share a common interest and commitment, yet also may see things from a variety of perspectives. Effective communication is one means for a group of diverse individuals to share ideas, construct solutions, and make appropriate decisions. - Karla Trautman, Effective Group Communication
Poor Communication is a direct result of ignorance.people do not know what to say, when to say it, how to say it, or to whom to say it. - Peter Drucker
General Problems in Organisational Communication Bias Halo Effect Devils Horn Ambiguity Chain of command Size Technical Content Emotional Interference Personal limitations Human natu