Tablet

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  • The term tablet PC may refer to: Tablet computer, a kind of mobile computer, usually having a touchscreen or pen-enabled interface A tablet personal computer, a class of tablet which runs an adapted version of a desktop operating system Microsoft Tablet PC, a class of Microsoft Windows-based tablets TABLET PC: A tablet computer, or simply tablet, is a one-piece, mobile version of a personal computer, primarily operated by touchscreen (the users finger essentially functions as the mouse and cursor, removing the need for the physical [i.e., mouse & keyboard] hardware components necessary for a desktop or laptop computer; and, an onscreen, hideable virtual keyboard is integrated into the display). Available in a variety of sizes, even the smallests touchscreens are much larger than those of a smart phone or personal digital [1][2][3] assistant. A tablet computer may be connected to a keyboard with a wireless link or a USB port. Convertible notebook computers have an integrated keyboard that can be hidden by a swivel joint or slidejoint, exposing only the screen for touch operation. Hybrids have a detachable keyboard so that the touch screen can be used as a stand-alone tablet.Booklets include dual-touchscreens, and can be used as a notebook by displaying a virtual keyboard in one of them. Alan Kays Dynabook described an information tablet in 1972: "A Personal Computer for [4] children of all Ages". The paper proposes a touch screen as a possible alternative means of input for the device. The first commercial portable electronic tablets appeared at the end of the 20th century. In 2010,Apple Inc. released the iPad which became the first mobile computer tablet to achieve worldwide commercial success. The iPad used technology similar to Apples iPhone. Other manufacturers have produced tablets of their own including Samsung, HTC, Motorola, RIM, Sony, Amazon, HP, Microsoft, Google, Asus, Toshiba, and Archos. Tablets use a variety of operating systems such as iOS (Apple), Android (Google), Windows (Microsoft), and QNX (RIM). As of March 2012, 31% of U.S. Internet users were reported to have a tablet, which was used [5] mainly for viewing published content such as video and news. Among tablets available in the market in 2012, the top-selling device is Apples iPad with 100 million sold by mid October [6] 2012 since it was released in April 3, 2010, followed by Amazons Kindle Fire with 7 million, [7] and Barnes & Nobles Nook with 5 million.
  • History
  • 1888 telautograph patent schemaMain article: History of tablet computersThe tablet computer and the associated special operating software is an example of pencomputing technology, and thus the development of tablets has deep historical roots.Electrical devices with data input and output on a flat information display have existed as early as [8]1888 with the telautograph. Throughout the 20th century many devices with these characteristicshave been imagined and created whether as blueprints, prototypes, or commercial products. Inaddition to many academic and research systems, there were several companies with commercialproducts in the 1980s.Tablet computers appeared in a number of works of Science Fiction in the second half of the 20th [9]century, with the depiction of Arthur C. ClarkesNewsPad, in Stanley Kubricks 1968 film 2001: ASpace Odyssey, the description of Calculator Pad in the 1951 novel Foundation by Isaac Asimov,the Opton in the 1961 novel Return from the Stars by Stanislaw Lem, The Hitchhikers Guide to theGalaxy in Douglas Adams 1978 comedy of the same name, and the numerous devices depicted inGene Roddenberry 1966 Star Trek series, all helping to promote and disseminate the concept to a [10]wider audience.Alan Kay attempted to formulate his Dynabook portable computer concept as early as 1968; with his1972 paper: "A personal computer for children of all ages" detailing possible uses and functionality for [4]his Dynabook concept.The sci-fi TV series Star Trek The Next Generation featured tablet computers which were designated [citation needed]as "padds".In 1994 the European Union initiated the OMI-NewsPAD project (EP9252), requiring a consumerdevice be developed for the receipt and consumption of electronically delivered news / newspapersand associated multi-media. The NewsPad name and project goals were borrowed from and inspiredby Arthur C. Clarkes 1965 screen play and Stanley Kubricks 1968 film 2001: A Space [11]Odyssey. Acorn Computers developed and delivered an ARM based touch screen tablet computerfor this program, branded the NewsPad. The device was supplied for the duration of the Barcelonabased trial, which ended in 1997.
  • Intel announced a Strong ARM based touch screen tablet computer in 1999, under the name [12]WebPAD, the tablet was later re-branded as the "Intel Web Tablet".During the 2000s, Microsoft attempted to define with the Microsoft Tablet PC the tablet personal [13] [14]computer product concept as a mobile computer for field work in business, though their devicesfailed to achieve widespread usage mainly due to price and usability problems that made them [15]unsuitable outside of their limited intended purpose.In April 2010 Apple Inc. released the iPad, a tablet computer with an emphasis on mediaconsumption. The shift in purpose, together with increased usability, battery life, simplicity, lowerweight and cost, and overall quality with respect to previous tablets, was perceived as defining a new [16] [17]class of consumer device and shaped the commercial market for tablets in the following year.As a result, two distinctly different types of tablet computing devices exist as of 2012, the TabletPC and the Post-PC tablet, whose operating systems are of different origin.[edit]Traditional tablet PCsMain article: Early tablet computersA tablet personal computer (tablet PC) is a portable personal computer equipped with [18]a touchscreen as a primary input device, and running a modified desktop OS designed to be [19]operated and owned by an individual. The term was made popular as a concept presented by [20] [21]Microsoft in 2000 and 2001 but tablet PCs now refer to any tablet-sized personal computer [22]regardless of the (desktop) operating system. Unlike modern tablet computers, traditional tabletPCs usually had a physical keyboard. [23]Tablet personal computers are mainly based on the x86 IBM-PC architecture and are fullyfunctional personal computers employing a slightly modified personal computer OS (suchasWindows or Linux) supporting their touch-screen, instead of a traditional display, mouse andkeyboard. A typical tablet personal computer needs to be stylus driven, because operating the typicaldesktop based OS requires a high precision to select GUI widgets, such as a close window button.[edit]"Post-PC" tabletsSee also: Mobile operating systemIn 2005, an internet tablet, the Nokia 770, was introduced. This product line used the Maemo Linuxoperating system. Mobile operating systems have a different kind of interface than the [24]traditional desktop OS, and represent a new type of computing device. These "post-PC" mobileOS tablet computer devices are normally finger driven and most frequently use capacitive touchscreens with multi-touch, unlike earlier stylus-driven resistive touchscreen devices. According to JackGold, tablet computers have "a higher disruptive impact [on PCs] than smartphones do. Smartphones [25]and PCs are complementary, but tablets not as much".The most successful tablet computer is the Apple iPad using the iOS operating system. Its debut in [26][27]2010 popularized tablets into mainstream. Samsungs Galaxy Tab and others followed,continuing the now common trends towards multi-touch and other natural user interface features, aswell as flash memory solid-state storage drives and "instant on" warm-boot times; in addition,standard external USB and Bluetooth keyboards can often be used. Most frequently the operatingsystem running on a tablet computer (one not based on the traditional Windows/x86 PC architecture) [28]is a Unix-like OS, such as Darwin, Linux or QNX. Some have 3G mobile telephony capabilities.In forgoing the x86 precondition (a requisite of Windows compatibility), most tablet computersreleased since mid-2010 use a version of an ARM architecture processor for longer battery life versus
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