TRUST AND SAFETY IN THE PERSON-CENTERED APPROACH IN THE EDUCATION SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ( Research report, Orenburg State University, Russia.) CONFIANZA Y SEGURIDAD EN EL ENFOQUE CENTRADO EN LA PERSONA EN EL SISTEMA EDUCATIVO DE LA FEDERACIÓN DE RUSIA (Reporte de Investigación, Universidad del Estado de Orenburg, Rusia). CONFIANÇA E SEGURANÇA NO ABORDAGEM CENTRADA NA PESSOA NO SISTEMA DE EDUCAÇÃO DA FEDERAÇÃO DA RÚSSIA (Relatório de pesquisa, Orenburg State University, Rússia.) Iakimanskaia Irina, Head of the Department of Social Psychology of the Orenburg State University, Ph.D., Associate Professor [email protected]The article presents the author's approach to the definition of trust and safety in relationships of people as the basis for a person-centered approach. Understanding trust and safety is determined theoretically and empirically, using a survey of schoolchildren, parents and teachers regarding trust and safety in the educational system of the Russian Federation. It was found that the relationship between students, teachers, parents, violated boundaries of trust and safety, making it difficult to match the capabilities of interaction and person-centered approach. Pupils see the danger in the pressure of teachers, at the same time help and support is received from the parents and friends who are very afraid to leave, they find it difficult to build confidence in their own borders and safety, are oriented in the adults, which require them to self-sufficiency and responsible behavior . Keywords: trust, safety, interpersonal relationships. El artículo presenta el enfoque del autor a la definición de la confianza y la seguridad en las relaciones de las personas como la base de un enfoque centrado en el estudiante. Comprender la confianza y la seguridad se determina teórica y empíricamente, mediante una encuesta de escolares, padres y maestros sobre la confianza y la seguridad en el sistema educativo de la Federación de Rusia. Se encontró que la relación entre los estudiantes, los profesores, los padres, violaron los límites de la confianza y la seguridad,
Unfriendly attitude classmates, 10 - Unfriendly attitude of
Figure 2. The balance of opinions teens on dangers in the
Pupils assessed as the strongest safety risk - forced to do
anything against the wishes of teachers. Next level of hazard -
negative attitude classmates. And only then - negative attitude
of teachers. The main sources of security breaches of the
educational environment, according to the students, is a
classmate, he publicly humiliated, force to do something, is
unfriendly, the students see it, naturally react anxiety,
protest, alarm. Risks in relationships with teachers are more
connected with the fact that they are forced to do anything
against the will. Least expressed in the opinion of children as
a source of danger - danger classmates and teachers, negative
attitude of teachers. Compared with previous studies of the
negative impact of teachers decreased, and classmates -
increased. In this connection it is useful to teach children
constructive ways of resolving conflicts and solving conflicts
in interpersonal contacts not through pressure and by seeking
mutually acceptable solutions.
1 2 3 4 5 60
concerns in the life 2011
concerns in the life 2009
1 - I'm afraid of homelessness, 2 - I'm afraid of the new and unexpected after school, 3 - I'm afraid to go into a new life, to become useless, 4-I am afraid to get into the army, 5 - I'm afraid to meet with bad people, 6 - I am afraid that I will have a bad life.
Figure 3. The balance of opinions teenagers about the dangers in the next life.
Basic fears pupils outside the school associated with
unexpected events to which they are not prepared, as well as
with the expectation of meeting with the bad people. Such fears
were more pronounced in girls and senior classes is increasing.
Compared with studies in 2009 decreased fear a bad life,
children have become more confident about their prospects, but
remained high values of fear of the new and unexpected, and bad
people. Thus, already noted, the setting changes from the fear
of failure in life, she goes to the inability to build positive
and constructive relationships with different people react to
unexpected situations. Pupils increase their fears of
unexpected changes; they want predictability and measured life.
Most hinder adjustment to life outside the school longing
for old friends. The second reason for the children to specify
their own emotional stress and aggression that hinder social
relationships, and the third - the expectation that access
them, and they do not come into the conversation. This type of
reaction shows poor social activity in contacts inherent to our
students. Compared with previous studies of this plant has
shown a tendency to increase.
Perhaps in response to such results is urgently needed in
the implementation of school events (through extracurricular
activities, through elective courses) to increase social
competence and social activities of students, which not only
helps to build social ties in the new conditions of life, but
also to address for help with difficult feelings and are close
connections among the people around them.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90
adaptation difficulties outside school
1 - Do not know how to effectively communicate, 2 - I do not know
what they think, feel, experience other people, 3 - and I'm afraid I
do not like strangers, 4 - Longing for the old friends, 5 - My
emotional stress, anxiety, aggressiveness, 6 - Waiting that will
appeal to me, not I join in the conversation, 7 - Lack of social
experience with other people, 8 - Limited personal choice, lack of
initiative and independence, 9-passivity, finding approval, failure
to plan ahead.
Figure 4. The balance of opinions on the causes of the low teens
to adapt for the future.
When describing the failure to adapt to student life
teenagers are the following qualities - hope to help others,
the inability to invest wisely, to realize their own desires,
difficulties in communication, inability to build relationships
with others. A contradiction: students realize their own
difficulties in communicating with others, and, at the same
time want to be perfectionists, to achieve the ideal in life.
When comparing data from different studies can observe an
increase in the choice of quality misfit schoolboy related to
incompetence in the field of finance and communication,
inability to choose their actions, which may indicate a
deepening of the above controversy, and, as a consequence,
lower self-esteem and self-esteem of adolescents. In connection
with these results, we can recommend teacher training
techniques and methods of self-esteem and self-esteem
adolescents, teaching accounting errors, adoption failure in
life, setting real goals in life.
In adolescents, the results of our study, is dominated by
adequate forms of reactions - they take responsibility for
their actions, look for the cause in their behavior, are
grateful for the experience. Inadequate forms of reaction
produces reactions associated with shyness, shy teenagers.
Girls also characterized by a passive protest reactions, they
are also characterized for pupils aged 15-16. That is, the most
common barriers to the development of social experience related
to the personal qualities of teenagers - shyness, shy, passive
protest reactions. Compared with the previous study found
reduced active-aggressive reactions, they are replaced by
passive. You can suggest a trend of aggression transition from
external to internal forms, students react own negative
feelings with you, alone, from whom little divided.
One can assume that since 2004 there has been some increase
in aggressive, hostile reactions from the children, they have
become not only sanctions, but also for promotions, which
generally made it difficult to control the behavior of adults
and reflected in the system of self-regulation. Currently,
aggressive reactions are falling, there is an increase of
adequate and passive-aggressive reactions, that is, and there
is a shift in the internal form. In this case, there is a high
probability of auto-aggressive tendencies, which need to be
1 2 3 4 50
General feeling of security 2011General feeling of security 2009
1 - Nothing and no one is afraid, 2 - have never faced this
danger, and 3 - Dangerous situations arise, but I deal with them, 4
- Quite often faced with danger, 5 - In the evening I prefer to stay
Figure 5. Rating teenagers general feeling of safety.
In assessing the overall safety status of the two groups of
children were found, about equal to the amount which, according
to them, to cope with the dangers or do not meet. And among the
first big boys, and among the latter - girls. Among those who
have to cope with the dangers of more younger teens and older
say that have never faced this danger. When comparing the
results from 2009 can be seen an increase in the "alarming"
teenagers. More and more students are often faced with the
danger, while somewhat less preferred to stay home.
1 2 3 40
level of independence in learning 2011level of independence in learning 2009
1 - I go to school, I try to learn everything, and 2 - I try to
understand what is being offered, and 3 - to study independently
additional materials, 4 - to take an extra teacher.
Figure 6. Rating adolescents level of autonomy in learning.
In determining the degree of independence of teenagers often
choose the way when you need to understand what is offered in
school, this is what you need to learn. Much less frequently
selected answers related to the manifestation of self-learning,
such as doing additional himself or with the teacher. And in
2009, more independent students were more.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 120
The most importanteasy to reach
1 - Active, active life, and 2 - Health 3 - Interesting work, 4 - The
beauty of nature and art (the experience of beauty in nature and art), 5
- Love, 6 - Material and secure life, 7 - Availability of good and loyal
friends; 8 - Self-confidence (no doubt), 9 - Knowledge (ability to expand
their educational horizons) 10 - Freedom of independence in the behavior
and actions, 11 - happy family life, 12 - Creativity
Figure 7. Representations of teenagers about the most important and
easy to reach values.
Pupils appreciate how important these values - health,
availability of trusted friends, happy family life. Less
important values - the beauty of nature and art, freedom and
independence in the behavior and actions. Perhaps more important
values associated with social relationships, less important differ
individualistic nature. But more important is the presence of
individual values - health, it should be noted that such
priorities are characteristic of the Russian sample for a long
time, it is important to build a quality educational environment
for them to navigate.
The most easy to reach values - active, active life, there are
good and true friends, confident, interesting work, cognition.
Less appears easy to achieve in the values of "beauty of nature
and art", "material and prosperous life." You can see that some
aspects of the quality of life for students considered easily
achievable, and may, therefore, their value decreases.
The most important characteristics are close and attainable
only for the value of "the existence of good and loyal friends"
and other important values often are not defined as easy to reach.
It's interesting that the value associated with this strong fear
of schoolchildren, it easy to reach important, but losing friends,
to part with them after school.
Boys identified as an important and easy to reach active work
life and work as an important value - a happy family life, as well
as easy to reach - the presence of good and loyal friends. Girls
identified as an important value health, the presence of good and
loyal friends, a happy family life, and as achievable - active
work life, self-confidence. You can see that for boys and girls is
important to the creation and support of the family, but it is
difficult to reach, it is interesting that it is not related to
the value of friendship, though more often she is the basis for
the construction of high-quality family relationships.
It should be noted that the importance of health admits
students of all ages, family life as more important release 13-16
year, the value of "true friends" stands out in 15-16 years. Easy
to reach in the 13-14 years of active life, 15-16 - self-
confidence and knowledge, in the 17-18 - all three values.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 120
1 - Cool heads, 2 - A school psychologist, 3 - school teachers, 4