1 An Overview of Small Wind Energy Today Shawn Shaw The Cadmus Group, Inc. www.cadmusgroup.com Sierra Club Northeast Committee Fall Energy Conference 10/12-10/14/2007

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1 An Overview of Small Wind Energy Today Shawn Shaw The Cadmus Group, Inc. www.cadmusgroup.com Sierra Club Northeast Committee Fall Energy Conference 10/12-10/14/2007 Slide 2 2 The Cadmus Group Environmental Consulting firm specializing in energy, drinking water, and risk management Based in Watertown, MA 150+ employees worldwide Slide 3 3 Clean Energy Practice Field inspections of renewable energy systems >50 small wind inspections to date >100 PV inspections to date Program support and production tracking for state renewables programs Renewable energy program evaluation Energy efficiency in appliances and buildings Slide 4 4 Small Wind? Mostly 10 kW or Less Mostly 80-120 ft Tall 100 ft Tower 7 ft Blade Length 200-300 ft Tower 100 ft Blade Length Slide 5 5 Why Small Wind? Reduce energy costs Help the environment Make a statement Backup power Need batteries Slide 6 6 A Typical Wind Energy System Wind Turbine Home Circuit breaker box & Utility net meter Controller, inverter The grid DCAC Slide 7 7 Factors Affecting Energy Output Available Wind Resource Site Conditions/Terrain Tower Height Slide 8 8 Assessing the Wind Resource for Small Systems Wind maps Local clues Tree flagging Nearby weather stations Airports Schools Slide 9 9 Spotting a Potential Site Flagging vegetation Constant breeze Bodies of water Open terrain Slope Slide 10 10 The Wind Resource in Southern New England Good wind resource in coastal areas and mountainous regions Cape Cod Berkshires Marthas Vineyard Look for wind speeds > 5 m/s at 30m for good small wind potential 10% difference in wind speed ~ 33% more energy! Slide 11 11 The Importance of Wind Speed Slide 12 12 Obstacles Create Turbulence and Reduce Apparent Wind Speed Slide 13 13 Site Conditions Affect Energy Production Slide 14 14 Good Site Characteristics Open access to prevailing wind >100 ft from neighbors Downward sloping terrain Bodies of water Close to electrical interconnection point Slide 15 15 The Importance of Tower Height for Non-Ideal Sites Assumes: 6 m/s wind speed at 70m, rough terrain, 50 ft surrounding trees, 10 kW Bergey Excel-S turbine used for example calculations Slide 16 16 Basic Small Wind Economics 10 kW System, good site, 100 ft tower, utility interactive (no batteries) 15,000 kWh/yr $3,000/yr revenue Installed Cost: $60,000 MTC rebate: $22,500 (example) Simple Payback: 12.6 yrs System Lifetime: 20+ yrs Slide 17 17 The Small Renewables Initiative Provides incentive for residential scale renewable energy projects (up to 10kW) Covers solar PV, wind, and small hydro projects Approximately $3.6M available annually http://www.masstech.org/RenewableEnergy/small_renewables.htm# Slide 18 18 SRI Rebate Matrix Slide 19 19 SRI Small Wind Requirements Follow all applicable codes/standards Hub height must be 30+ ft above all surrounding obstacles Estimated capacity factor 10%+ All new equipment Wet stamped engineering plans Inspected/approved by Code officials Slide 20 20 Other Incentives/Programs in the Northeast Incentives/Rebates in: New York Massachusetts Vermont Delaware Maryland New Jersey Tax Exemptions/Credits in: Massachusetts Maryland Rhode Island Vermont Proposed federal tax credit in House and Senate HR 1772 and 2776 S. 673 $3,000 per kW tax credit for small wind systems Slide 21 21 Small Wind Applications Schools Farms Homes Businesses Public buildings Remote areas Slide 22 22 Environmental Benefits of Small Wind 16,000 lbs CO2/Yr 2 Acres of Forest Planted 1 SUV Taken Off the Road 10 Tons of Coal/Yr Not Burned Slide 23 23 Small Wind: An Ally Against Habitat loss Groundwater pollution Climate change Power plant emissions Slide 24 24 Impacts of Small Wind Turbines Wildlife Land area Noise View shed Little impact from small wind systems Slide 25 25 Small Wind Walks on the Wild Side Even a 100 fold increase in the use of wind power would produce less bird deaths than our current use of communication towers and similar structures. Small wind turbines are no more likely to harm birds than any other ~100 ft structure. Slide 26 26 But Doesnt Wind Take A Lot of Space? Typical footprint of a residential wind installation: