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9

BOOKS

YOUR TEXTB00l —lN A B IN D ER- REA D Y ED IT ION

T h is u n b o u n d three-hole p u n c h e d v e r s i o n o f you r tex tbookl e t s y o u take o n l y w h a t y o u n e e d to c l a s s a n d incorporatey o u r o w n n o te s — a ll a t a n af fo rdab le pr ice

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Edward I. Tarbuck

Frederick K. Lutgens

Illustrated by

Dennis Tasa

Prentice Hall

B o st on C o lum b us Indianapolis

N e w York S a n F r a n c i s c o Upper Saddle River

A m s terda m C a peTo wn Dubai LondonM a drid M ila n Munich P a r i s Montréa l Toronto

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Acquis i t ions Edi tor : AndrewDtmaway

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C o v e r P h o t o g r a ph : K a y a k er takes a n e a rl ymowing tour o n L a k eMoraine, A l b er ta , C a n a d a ;

© CharlieMansey/C02-bis

Credits an d acknowledgments bor rowed from o t h er sources an d reproduced, with permiss ion, int h is t e x tb o o k a p pe a r o n t h e appropr ia te page within th e text.

C o py r i g h t © 2 01 2, 2 0 09 , 2 00 6 , 2 0 0 3, 2 000 , 1997 P e a rs o n E d uca t i o n, I n c. , publishing a s Pearson

Prentice Ha l l , Upper Saddle River, Ne w Iersey 0 7 5 4 8 .

Ear l ier ed i t ions © 1 99 4, 1991 by Macmillan Publ ish ing C o m p a n y ,

a nd © 1 98 8, 1 98 5, 1 98 2, 1 97 9, an d 1976 by Merrill Publ ish ing C o m p a n y .

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To OurGrandchildren

S h a nno n, A m y, A n dy, Ali, andMichael

Allison a nd Lauren

Each is a bright promise for th e future

About O ur Sustainability Initiatives

This b o o k is carefully cra f ted to minimize e n vi ro n m e n t a l i m p a c t . Th e mate r i a l s used to m anufacture th is b o o k o r i g in a t ed from sources

committed to responsible forestry practices. Th e paper is F S C ® certif ied. Th e printing, binding, cover, a nd paper c o m e from f a c il i ti es th a tminimize waste, energy consumpt i on , a n d t h e use o f harmful chemica ls.

Pearson closes th e l o o p by recycling every out—of-date te x t returned to o ur warehouse. W e pulp th e books, a nd th e pulp is used to pro-duce i te m s s uc h as paper coffee cups an d shopping bags. In addi t ion, Pearson a im s t o b eco m e t he f ir s t c li m a t e n e ut r a l educat ional pub-

l ish ing company .

Th e fu ture h o lds great promise f o r r e du ci n g o u r i m p a c t o n Earth's environm ent, a nd Pearson is proud to be leading th e w ay . W e strive

to publish th e best books with th e m o s t u p -t o - d a te a nd accurate c o nt en t, a n d t o do so inways t h a tminimize o ur impact o n Earth .

ifFS C

M i xe d SourcesProduct group f r om w a l l- m a na g ed

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Brief Con ten ts

Introduction t o E a rt h Science 1

U N IT 0NE

2 6

Ma t t er an d M in er a ls 27

Rocks: Mater ia ls of t h e S o l id E a rt h 5 1

U N IT TW0

8 2

PW ’ r . - J~_

A i l ; W e ather in g , Soi l , a nd M a s s W a s ti ng 8 3

Running W a te r a nd Groundwater 1 1 7

" i i i Glaciers, D eserts , a nd Wind 1 5 7

UNIT THREE

Forces iigiiijrirr 1 9 2

5 ? Plate Tectonics: A S c ie nt i fi c R e vo l u t i o n

U n fo l ds 1 9 3

8 Ear thquakes a nd Earth’s Interior 2 2 7

Q V o l ca noes a nd Other IgneousActivity 2 5 7

lg Crus ta l D e f o r m a t i o n a nd Mountain

Building 2 9 7

UNIT FOUR

3 2 2

. ‘ fl E. G eo l og ic T1me 3 2 3

7 --

Earth's Evolut ion T hr o u gh G eo l og ic

T im e 3 4 6

vi

UNIT FIVE

Th e Giobai Ocean

13 Th e Ocean Fl o o r

1 5 1 Ocean W a te r a nd Ocean Li fe

'1 5 Th e D y n a m i c Ocean

UNIT SIX

i i i? T h e A t m o s p h er e: C o m p o s i t i o n ,

Structure, and Temperature

m m o o q

Mois ture , Clouds, a nd Prec ip i ta t i on

AirPressure a ndWind

W ea th er P a t ter ns a nd Severe S t o rmsW o r ld C l im a t e s a n d Gl o b a l C l im a te

C han ge

UNIT SEVEN

Earthis Place in the Universe

21 Origins ofM o d ern A s t ro n o m y

22 Touring Our S o la r S yst em

23 L igh t , A s t r o n o m i c a l Observat ions,

a nd t h e S un

24 B ey ond Our S o la r S yst em

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A .

m e G E O D e : Ear th Science v . 3G E O D e : Earth Science is nowfound within W ww. m a s t e r ing g eo l o g y . c o i n. T h i s dynamic learning a i d r e in f o rc es k ey concepts by using tutorials,

an im a t i on s , a nd interactive exercises. G E O D e : Ear th Science inMasteringGeology is easi ly assignable an d student performance i s e a s il y assessed

Unit 1: Earth Materials

. Introduction t o M i n e ra l s

2 . Minera l Groups

3 . Physica l Propert ies o f M inera ls

4

B . R o c k C y cle

C . Igneous R o c k s

1 . Introduct ion t o I g ne o us Rocks

t i ‘ - 9 ° ‘ - ‘

Igneous Textures

. i g ne o u s C o m p o s it io n s

N a m i n g Igneous Rocks

5 . Q u i z : I g ne o us Rocks

D . Sedimentary R o c k s

1 . Introduction t o S e d im e n t ar y Rocks

2 . Types o f S e d im e n t a ry Rocks

3 . ReviewingVal leys and Stream—Related Features

4 . Quiz: R unning W a t er

Minerals D . Groundwater1

1 . l inportance an d Distribution

2 . Spr ings a nd W el ls

3 . Quiz : Groundwater. ' :M' l . . .

Quiz m ew S E. Glac iers and Glaciation

1 . Introduct ion

2 . Budget o f a Glacier

. R eviewing Glacia l Features

1 4 > - U 3

Quiz: Gl a c ier s a nd Glac ia t i onDeser ts andWinds

1 . Distribution a nd Causes o f D r y Lands

2 . C o m m o n M i sc o nc ep ti o ns a b o ut Deserts

i _ - l l - O J

. R e v i ew i ng L a n d fo r m s a nd L a ndsca pes

Quiz : D eserts a nd W i nd s

3 . Sedimen taryEnv i ronmen ts Un 3: FQTQ Q S

4. Q u i z: S e d im e n t a i y Rocks

E. Metamorphic R o c k s

1 . Introduction to M e t a m o r p h i c Rocks

2 . Agen ts o f M e t a m o r ph i sm

U 1 1 - l l - D J

. Textura l a nd Minera log ica l C h a ng es

. C o m m o n M e ta m o r ph ic Rocks

. Quiz : M e t a m o r p h i c Rocks

Unit 2: Sculpturing Earths SurfaceA . Weatheringand S o i l

1 . Earth ’s External Processes

U 1 i - i > - O J i \ J

Types o f 1/Veathering

. Mechan ica lW eathering

. C h e m i c a l W e a t h er in g

. Rates o f 1/Veathering

6. Quiz: l'\leatheringand Soil

B . M a s s W a s t in g : Th e Work ofGravity

1 . Con t ro l s an d Triggers o f Mass W ast ing

2 . Ma ss W ast ing Processes

3 . Quiz: Mass W ast ing

C . RunningWater

1 . Hydro log ic Cycle

2 . S t r ea m C h a r a c ter is t ics

Pla te Tectonics

1 . Introduction to Pla te Tectonics

D iv erg ent Boundar ies

m e w s

Convergent Boundar ies

Transform Fault Boundar ies

. F o r m a t i o n a nd Breakup o f Pangaea

6 . Pla te Tectonics Quiz

Earthquakes

1 . W h a t is a n Ea r th qua ke?

Se ismo logy

: i > * § * ’ \ - °

L oca t ing th e Source o f an Earthquake

E a rt h q u ak es a t P l at e Boundar ies

5 . Earthquake Quiz

Earth ’s Interior

a . Ea r th 's L a yered Structure

b. Earth’s Interior Quiz

Volcanoes and Other IgneousActivity

a . Th e Nature o f Vo lcan ic Erup ti ons

b. Mater ia ls Extruded During an Erupt ion

c . Volcanic Structures a nd Eruptive Styles

d. Intrusive Igneous Activity

e . Volcanoes Quiz

Mountain Building

a . D e f o r m a t i o n

b. Folds

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viii GEODE: Ea r th Science V.3

C

d.

e

f.

U n i t 4 : Deciphering Earths History

GeologicTime Sca le

W O W ?

Faults and Fractures C . Temperature Data a nd the Controls ofTemperature

Cont inenta l Col l is ions 1 . Basic Temperature D a t a

C r u st a l F ra g m e n ts a n dMountainBuilding 2 , Conn-015 o f Temperature

M O L 1 1 1 t a i 1 1 BuildillgQuiz 3 . Quiz : Temperature D a t a a nd C o n t ro l s

R e la t i ve Dating—I(ey Principles

Datingwith Radioactivity

Quiz: Geologic T i m e

U n i t 5: The Global OceanA . Floor of th e Ocean

1 . Mapping t h e O ce a n Floor

2. Features o f th e Ocean Floor

3 . Quiz : Ocean Floor

B . C o a s t a l Processes

1 . W ave s a nd Beaches

2 . W a v e Erosion

3 . Quiz : C o a s ta l Processes

Unit 6 : Earthis DynamicAtmosphere

1

O \ U 1 s - i i - O - 7 | \ 3

O \ U l» - l l - U ~ J I \

A. Introduction to th e Atmosphere

Th e I m p o r t a nc e o f W eather

W e at he r a nd C l im a t eC o m p o si ti o n o f th e Atmosphere

Extent o f th e Atmosphere

Temperature Structure o f t he A tmosph ere

Quiz : Introduct ion to th e A t m o s p h e r e

In t he L a b: Read ing W e at h er M a p s

Understanding Seasons, Par t 1

Understanding Seasons, Par t2

S o l a r Rad ia t i on

I/Vhat Happens to Incom ing S o l a r R a d ia t i onTh e Greenhouse Effect

Quiz : Hea t ing Earth’s Surface a n d A t m o s p h e re

In th e L a b: T he Influence o f C o lo r o n Albedo

D.

E

F .

G .

r r 1 U O c u _ D >

Moisture and Cloud Formation

1 . W ater"s C h a ng es o f State

Humidity: W a t er V a po r in th e Air. Th e Basics o f C l o u d F o r m a t io n : Adiabat ic Coo l ing

. Processes T hat Lift Air

. Th e Cri t ica l W eathermaker : A tmosph er ic Stabi l i ty

. Quiz : Mois tu re an d C l o ud F o rm a t i o n

7 . In th e Lab: A tm osph er ic S ta b i l ity

O \ ( . J ’ I + - I 2 - C . 0 [ \ J

F o r m s of Condensation a nd Precipitation

1 . Class i fy ing C louds

Types o f Fo g

t r : - o a g o

. HowPrecipi ta t ion Fo r m s

. Fo r m s o f Precipi ta t ion5 . Quiz: Fo r m s o f Condensa t i on an d Precip i tat ion

Air Pressure andWind

1 . MeasuringAr Pressure

2 . Factors AffectingWind

3 . H i g h s an d L o w s

4 . Quiz : Air Pressure an d W i nd

Bas i cWeather Pat terns

1 . Air Masses

2 . Fronts

. IntroducingMiddle-Latitude Cyclones

. In th e Lab: Exa min ing a Middle-Latitude Cyclone

. Quiz : Basic W e a th e r Patterns1 » - I i - O J

7

B - H@ a t i1 1 s E a r th ’ S S u r f a c e a n d fi m o s p h e r e Unit 7 : Earths P l a ce in the Universe1 . ' -

T h e P l a n e ts : An Overview

CalculatingYour A g e a ndWeight o n OtherPlanets

Earth'sMoon

ABriefTour of th e Planets

Q u i z : S o l a r System

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Con ten ts

i i i i ii Introduction to Minera l Groups 3 9Si l ica te Minera ls 40

'1 ImportantNonsilicate Minera ls 42

F o c u s o n Concepts 2W h a t Is Ear th Science? 2

Natura l Resources 4 5Renewable versus Nonrenewable Resources 45MineralResources 4 6

Earth SCIGIICG, P801318,and 1 2 1 1 6 EIlVi1‘01‘ l1Tl9I11Z 4 Egg g a g UNDERSTANDINGEARTH

Th e Nature o f Sc i e nt i fi c Inquiry 5Hypo thes is 6

Gemstones 4 4

T h e o r y 7 G I V E I T S O M E THOUGHT 4 7

Sc ien t ific Me thods 7 In R ev iew 48 K e y T er m s 4 9

Sca les of Space and Time inEarth Science 8 Examiningthe Earth System 49 M a s t e r i n g G e o l o g y 4 9Ear ly Evolution o f E a rt h 9Earth 's Spheres 1 1

Hydrosphere 12A t m o s p h e r e 12Biosphere 13Geosphere 13

AC l o se r L o o k a t th e Geosphere 1 4Rocks: Mater ia ls

Earth’s Internal Structure 14 othe EarthTh e Mobile Geosphere 1 5

T119 FHCG Of Earth I7 Focus on 52

MajorFeatures o f t h e C o n t i n en t s 17Major Features o f th e Ocean Basins 17

Earth as a System 2 1Ear th System Science 21Th e Ear th System 22

r z s it r t 3 : 1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH

StudyingEarthfrom Space 6

c:1vr:rr some THOUGHT 23

InReview 24 K e y T er m s 25

Examiningthe Earth System 25 MasteringGeology 25

UNIT O NE

Matter

Ear th as a System: Th e R o c k Cycle 5 2Th e Basic Cycle 52Alternat ive Pat hs 53

Igneous Rocks: “ Fo r m e d b y Fire" 5 5From M a g m a to Crystal l ine R o c k 55W h a t C an Igneous Textures Tell U s? 56Igneous C o m p o s i t i o n s 57

Classi fy ing Igneous Rocks 58HowDifferent Igneous Rocks Form 60Ass im i la t i on a nd M a g m aMixing 6 1

Sedimentary Rocks: C o mp ac t e da n d C e m e n te d S e di m e nt 6 2

Class i fy ing Sed imen tary Rocks 63Lithification ofSedimen t 68Features of Sedimen tary Rocks 68

M e t a m o r p h i c Rocks: New R o c k f rom O ld 6 9W h a t Dr ives M e t a m o r p h i s m ? 70Metamorphic Textures 72C o m m o n M e t am o r p hi c Rocks 73R esources f rom Rocks a nd Minera ls 75

; andMneras sorrsa. E A R T H A S A SYSTEM

Th e C a r b o n Cycle and S ed i men ta ry Rocks 6 9F o c u s 0 1 1 C 0 1 1 - 0 9 1 3 1 3 5 28 c u v r : rr some THOUGHT 7 8

Minera ls : Building B l o ck s o f Rocks 2 8A t o m s : Building Blocks o f M inera ls 3 0 In Revmfw 8 0 Key Terms 8 0

Propert ies ofProtons, Neutrons, and Elec t rons 30 E X a 1 T 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 Q the Eflfilh S Y S I I E I H 81 M a s t e r i n g G e o l o g y 81Elements: Defi ned by Their N u m b er ofPro tons 31

W h y A to m s Bo n d 3 2Octet Rule 32Ionic Bonds: E lect rons Transferred 32Cova len t Bonds: E lec t rons Shared 33Metallic Bo nds: E lec t rons Free to M o ve 33

I so t o pe s a n d Radioac t ive Decay 3 4Propert ies o f M inera ls 3 4

Opt ica l Propert ies 34

Crys ta l Shap e o r H a b i t 35Mineral Strength 36Dens i ty and Speci f ic Grav i ty 37Oth er Propert ies ofMinerals 38

.1"

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X C o ntents

UNIT TWO

W ea t h eri ng , So i l ,a nd M a s s W a s tin g 83F o c u s o n Concepts 8 4

Ear th 's External Processes 8 4W eather ing 8 4 so x as P E O P L E A ND TH E E NV I R ONM E NTM e c h a n ic a l W e a t h e r in g 8 6 L a n d s l i d e H a z a r d s at La C o n c h i t a ,

F 1 '° $ Y W @ d 8 in 8 3 5 California 10 6Sal t Crystal G rowth 87s h e o o o g 9 7 G I V E IT S O M E THOUGHT 1 1 2

B io log ica l Activity 87 InReview 11 4 K ey T erms 11 5

ChemiflalWeathering 33 Examiningthe Earth System 11 5 M a s t e r i n g G e o l o g y 11 5W a t er a n d Ca rbon icAcid 89HowGran i teW eathers 89

W eather ing ofSi l icate Minera ls 89 g. -S p h e r o i d a l W e a t h e r i n g 9 0 Running W a terR a ' i § § C i Z ‘ C l { ‘ . ' § . Z ' ; l I § , § l S ‘ l ‘ £ S 9 § 0 ; Q a nd Groundwater 1 17

C l i m a t e 9 1 C tDifferential W ea th er ing 9 1 Fm ll ls ml Ollcep S ll8 ,

S o 1 1 9 2 Ear th as a System: Th e Hy d ro l o g i c Cycle 1 1 8

A n Interface in t h e E a r th System 92 RlllllllllgWatel lzllwhet 1 s Sop? 92 Dra inage Basins 12 0

So i l Texture a nd Structure 93 lllvel Systems l2 0Contro ls o f S o i l F o r m a t i o n 9 3 Slleamllow l22

ParentMaterial 94 F1°W _Ve1°¢ iW l22 _ _T i m e 94 Grad ien t and Cha nne lC harac ter i st i cs 12 2C l i m a t e 9 ,1 Discharge 122Plepts end Ap1me1s 9 ,1 Changes from Upst ream to Downs t rea m 124

Topography 9 5 Th e W o r k o f R unn ing W a t e r 1 2 5

Th e S o i l Prof i le 9 6 Slleam Eloslol l l2 5 _ClassifyingSoils 97 T1‘ElI1Sp.0-1"[€lIlOI1 of_Sediment 125

S 0 1 1 Erosion 99 Depos i t i on ofSedimen t 12 7H o w 3 o 1 1 1 s Erodeo 9 9 Stream Channels 1 2 7Rates o fE 1.o s1 op 98 Bedrock Channels 127

Sed imenta t i on a nd C h e m i c a l Pollution 10 0 AllllvlalCllallllels l2?W eather ing Creates Or e Deposi ts 1 0 1 Base _ l - " ‘ l V e l an d S t ream El ' °S l ° l l l3 0

B o p o o t e 1 9 1 Shaping Stream Val leys 1 3 0Othe1.Depos1ts 19 2 Val leyDeepening 13 0

Mass W a s t in g : Th e W o r k o f Gravi ty 1 0 2 Vallell W ldel ll l lg l3l _Th e R o l e o f Mo ss W a s t in g 192 Chang ing Base Level a nd lncised Meanders 13 2S 1 o p e s Choose Through Time 1 9 9 De p os i t ion a l L a n d fo r m s 1 3 2

Contro ls a nd T ri g g e rs o f Mass W a s t in g 1 0 3 Dallas l3 2Th e R o l e o f W a t er 10 3 Nalulal Levees l3 3Oversteepened Slopes 10 3 llllllvlal Falls l35R e m o v a l ofVege ta t i on 10 3 Dlalllage Patterns l351 , 1 o r 1 p o o o 1 < e s a s Triggers 1 9 ,1 F lo o d s a n d F lo o d Con t r o l 1 3 6

Class i fy ing Mass-W ast ing Processes 10 5 Causes Oll l loods l36T yp e o 1 - M o t io n 195 Flood C o n t r o l 13 7Rate ofMovemep1 1 9 7 Groundwater. W a t er B e n ea t h th e Surface 1 3 8

Smmp 199 Th e I m p o r t a n ce o f G r o u nd w at e r 13 8Reekslide 199 _ Groundwater s Geo log ica l Ro le s 13 9Debr is 1 ; - 1 o W 1 9 9 Distribution a n d M o v em e n t o f G r o u nd w a te r 1 4 0

Debr is Flows in Semiar id Regions 11 0 Dlsllllllllloll liloLehors 11 9 Factors Influencing th e St o r age a nd M o v e m e n t of

SlowMovements 11 9 G r o u nd w a te r M o v e m e n t 14 1

Creep 1 1 1 Springs 14 2Solifluction 11 1 H o t S pllllg s M 2

Geysers 14 2se x as U ND E R S TA ND ING EA R TH W ells 1 4 3

Th e OldManof th eMountain 9 0 Ar tes ian W el ls 1 4 4

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XIV Con ten ts

pR()FE3$1()1\]A§_, P R Q F I LE Th e Shore l ine A Dy n a m i c Interface 4 3 3SusanD 3 3 5 “ - i _ .ACareer in Geology 39 2 C o a s ta l Z o n e Features an d Term ino log y 43 3

Basic Features 4 33G I V E rr S O M E THOUGHT 3 9 9 B e a c h e s 4 3 5

InReview 4 00 K ey T erms 40 1 W EW 95 4 35

Examining the Earth System 40 1 Maste r ingGeo1ogy 40 1 W a v e characterls t lcs 4 36Circular Orb i ta lMotion 43 6W ave s in th e Surf Z o n e 43 7

W a v e Erosion 4 3 7

I OCGHIIWaerand Sand M ov e m e n t o n th e Beach 4 3 8

C o m p o s i t i o n o f Seawater 4 0 4Salinity 4 0 4Sources of Se a Salts 40 5Processes Affect ing Seawater Sal ini ty 40 5

Ocean Temperature Var ia t i on 40 7Temperature Va r ia t i on with D e p t h 4 07Ocean Temperature C h a n ge o v er T i m e 40 8

Ocean Dens i ty Var i a t i o n 4 0 8Factors Affect ing Seawater Densi ty 40 8Dens i tyVariationwith Depth 40 9

Ocean Layer ing 40 9Recent Increase in Ocean Acidity 4 1 0Th e Diversity o f Ocean Li fe 4 1 0

Class ifica t i on ofMa r ine Or g a n i sm s 41 1M a r i n e Li fe Z o nes 4 12

Oceanic Productivity 4 1 5Product iv i ty in P o l a r Oceans 41 5Productivityin Tropica l Oceans 41 5Productivity inTemperate Oceans 4 17

Oceanic Feeding R e la t ionsh ips 4 1 7Troph ic Levels 41 8Transfer Efficiency 41 8Fo o d C h a i ns a n d Fo o d W ebs 418

' i é € . " i . PEOPLEAND THEENVIRONMENTDesalinatin ofSeawater— Freshwaterfrom th e S ea 4 0 6

aria ‘ E 4 5 4 EARTH A S A SYSTEDIE

Deep-Sea Hydrothermal V e n t B i 0 c 0 mmu n z t ze s—Earth ’s FirstLi fe? 4 1 6 UNIT SIX

G I V E IT S O M E THOUGHT 4 2 0

InReview 42 1 K e y T er m s 42 2

Examining the Earth System 42 3 M a s t e r i n g G e o l o g y 42 3

- Mo v ement P erpendicula r t o t h e S h o r el in e 43 8W a v e R e f rac t i on 4 39

Longshore Transport 43 9F o c u s o n Concepts 4 0 4 P u p C u n e m s 4 4 1

Sho re line Features 4 4 1Eros i ona l Features 44 1Depos i t i ona l Features 44 3Th e Evolving S ho re 4 44

Stab i l iz ing th e Shore 4 4 5H a r d Stabi l iza t ion 4 46Al ternat ives to H a r d Stabi l iza t ion 44 7

E ro s io n P ro b le ms A lo ng U S Coasts 4 4 8Atlantic a nd Gulf Coasts 44 8

Paci f ic C o a s t 4 49C o as t a l Class i f ica t i on 4 4 9Emergen t Coasts 44 9Submergen t C oasts 450

Tides 4 5 0Causes o f Tides 45 0Monthly Tidal Cycle 45 1Tidal Pat terns 4 52Tidal Currents 4 52

" f o g : as i U N D E R S T A N D I N G E A R T HRunningS h o es a sDriftMeter s— ] u st D o It 4 2 9

PROFESSIONAL PROFILE

R o b Thzelei M a r m e Geolog is t 4 4 2

G I V E rrS O M E THOUGHT 4 5 3

In R ev iew 45 4 K e y T er m s 45 6

Examiningthe Earth System 4 56 Maste r ingGeo1ogy 4 57

Th e D l m a m i c Th e A t m o s p h e ree e e e e Ocean C o m p o sit io n S t ruct ureF ° = " s ° " C ° n . C e P ‘ 1 $ 4 2 6 a nd Tem perature

Surface Circu la t ion o f t he Ocean 4 2 6T h e P a t t er n o f Ocean Currents 4 26 Focus o n Concepts 4 60

Th e Gulf S j t r e a m 4 2 8 _ F o cus o n t h e A t m o s ph e re 4 6 0Ocean Cuirents Influence C l i m a t e 4 30 W e a t h el In th e U m t e d Sta tes 46 0

U p w e m n g 33 1 _ W e a t h er a nd C l im a t e 4 60D e e p O ce a n Circu la t ion 4 3 2' C o m p o si ti o n o f t he A t m o s ph ere 4 6 2

— M E I J O I C o m p o n e n t s 46 2V a r ia b le C o m p o n en t s 46 2Ozone Deple t i on- A Globa l Issue 46 3

Ver t ica l Struc ture o f t h e A t m o s ph e re 4 6 5

Pressure Changes 46 5Temperatuie Changes 46 6

Earth—S un Rela t i onsh ips 4 6 7Earth s M o t i o n s 46 7

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= - 1 2 1

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xvi Con ten ts

W e a th e r Pat ternsi a nd Severe S t o r m sF o c u s o n Concepts 6 6 2AirMasses 55 2

W h a t Is an Ar M ass? 552S o ur ce R eg i o ns 55 3W eatherAssoc ia tedwith Ar Masses 55 3

FIOIHIS 555W a rm Fronts 55 6C o l d F ro n ts 55 6S t a t i o n a ry F ro n t s a n d O c cl ud e d F r o n ts 5 57

Th e Middle-Latitude Cyclone 5 5 8Li fe Cycle 55 8I dea li zedW eather 55 9T he R o l e o fArflowAloft 56 0

W h a t 's in a Name? 5 6 1Thunders torms 5 6 2

Thunderstorm Occurrence 56 2Stages ofT h u nd e rs t o r m D e v e lo p m e n t 56 2

Tornadoes 56 4

Cl ima te -Feedback M e c han i sms 6 0 0Types o f Feedback Mechan isms 60 0C o m p u t e r Mode ls o f Cl ima te : Important Yet Imper fec t

Tools 60 1H o w Aeroso ls Influence C l i m a t e 6 0 1S o m e Possible Consequences o f G l o b a l W a rm i n g 6 0 2

Sea-Level Rise 60 2Th e Chang ing Arc t ic 60 4

T ornado O ccurrence and D e v e l o p m e n t 56 5 Th e P otent ia l for “Surprises” 60 5

Tornado Destruction 5 65 PRQFESSIQNALPROFILETofnado Forecast ing 5 6 7 MichaelMann: C l i m a t e C h a n g e Scientist 5 9 6

Hurr icanes 5 7 0P r o fi l e o fa H u r r i c a n e 5 7 0 G W E 1 ' 1 ‘ S O M E THOUGHT 6 0 6H u r r ic a n e F o r m a t i o n a n d D e ca y 57 1 InReview 50 7 K e y T e rm s 60 8Hurr ica ne D es t ruct ion 57 3 - - -E h E th t 60 9 M t G l 60 91_aCkingHumCaneS 57 5 xaminingt e a r S ys em as ering eo o g y

RG25 ‘ £ 9 5 3 PEOI?L.EANDITHE ENVIRONMENT

Survivinga Vio lent Tornado 56 9

G I V E I T S O M E THOUGHT 6 7 6

InReview 57 7 K e y T er m s 57 8

Examiningthe Earth System 57 8 MasteringGeology 57 9

l ,‘-1‘ - _ .It I\. _ i § (

1"

Q - . _ , .

W o rld C l i m a t e s a nd I Orig ins o f ModernG l o b a l C l i m a t e C h a n g e 581 A s t r o n o m y 611

F o c u s on C _ 0 1 1 C 9 p l 3 S 5 8 2 F o c u s on Concepts 6 1 2Th e Cl lmfl l ie 5V-sliem 5 3 2 Ancient A s t r o n o m y 6 1 2World Climates 58 3 Th e Golden A ge o f A s t r o n o m y 61 3

Cl ima te C lass i fi ca t ion 58 3 Pto1emy’5 M o d e l 6 14The Koppen Classification 5 8 5 Th e Birth o f M o d ern A s t ro n o m y 6 1 6

H u m i d Trop ica l (A ) Cl i m a te s 5 8 5 Nicolaus Copernicus 6 1 6The Wet Tropics 585 Tycho Brahe 617

TropicalWet and Dry 586 Iohannt-35Kepler 618

D IV ( B ) Climates 5 8 6 G a l i l e o G a l i l e i 6 1 9L ow- L a t i tude Deserts a nd S teppes 5 88 S i r Isa a c Newton 6 20Middle-Latitude Deserts an d Steppes 58 9 Positions in the Sky 62 2

H u m i d Middle-Latitude Cl i m a te s withMild W in ters constellations 6 2 2

(C C1imal39$ l 59 9 Th e Equa tor ia l System 62 4Humid Subtropics 59 0 TheMotions of Earth 62 5Ma r ine W e s t C o a s t 591 R o t a t i o n 62 5

H D r ‘ y g 5 \ t / F r é i é i l e r iubtro%icsCl I591 - h S W _ R ev olu t i on 62 6um i i e- atitu e i m a te s wit evere inters Procession 6 2 6

(D Cl ima tes) 5 9 1 M o t i o n s o f th e Earth—-Moon System 6 2 7HumdContinental 591 LunarMotions 628

Subarctic 5 9 2 P h a s e s o f th e M o o n 6 2 8P o l a r (E) Cl i m a te s 5 9 3 Eclipses o f th e S un a nd M o o n 6 2 9H i gh land Cl i m a te s 5 9 3 .6 ,H u m a n Impac t o n G l o b a l C l i m a t e 594 {m g gm U N D E R S T A R L D IN G EEARTH

C arb o n Diox ide , Trace Gases, and G l o ba l C l i m a t e As”0 1 0 3 3 ’ '_'t 9 Fore’mmer0fAsmm0my 6 2 3C h a n g e 5 9 6 _ _ _ G I V E IT S O M E THOUGHT 6 3 1

$1 ? 2if8 1 3 Ag e Rlslélg 597 598 In Review 63 2 K e y T er m s 63 3m o s p ere s esponseTh e R o l e ofTrace Gases 599 Examining the Earth System 63 3 Maste r ingGeo1ogy 63 3

Con ten ts xvii

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Touring O ur

F o c u s o n Concepts 6 3 6O ur S o l ar S y st em : A n Overview 6 3 6

Prominences 68 2S o l a r F la r es 68 2

Solar Systern T h e S o l a r Interior 6 8 2

r : t 1 r : : ; : 2 a . x UNDERSTANDING EARTH

Th e W or ld ’s Largest Optical Telescopes 6 7 5

Nebular Theory: F o r m a t i o n of th e S o l a r System 63 6 GIV E IT S O M E THOUGHT 68 3Th e P l a nets : Internal St ructures and Atm ospheres 63 7 In Review 68 4 K ey T erms 68 5

P l a n eta r y I m p a c ts 6 4 0

Earth 's M o o n : A C h i p O ff t h e O ld B l o ck 6 4 1H o w D id th e M o o n Fo r m ? 6 4 2

Terrestr ia l Planets 6 4 4Mercury: Th e Innerm os t Plane t 6 44Venus: T he Ve i led P lanet 6 44Mars: Th e R ed Planet 64 6

J o v ian P l an et s 6 4 8Jupiter: L o rd o f th e Heavens 64 8Saturn: Th e Elegant Planet 65 1U r a n us a n d N e pt u ne : T w in s 65 3

S m a l l S o l a r System Bodies 6 5 5Aste ro ids : Le f tover P lane tes ima ls 65 5C o m ets : Dirty Snowbal ls 65 6Meteoro ids : V is i to rs t o E a rt h 65 8

Dwarf Planets 6 6 0i ‘ : e _ : : i ; 4 1 > : . ‘ r A 5 3 A

Is Earth o n a Collision Course? 6 5 6

G I V E I T S O M E THOUGHT 6 6 1

InReview 66 2 K e y T er m s 66 2

Examining the Earth System 68 5 lV lasteringGeology 68 5

B e yo n d O ur‘ S o l a r System 687

F o c u s o n Concepts 6 8 8Th e Universe 6 8 8HowLarge Is It? 688A BriefHis tory of th e Universe 68 9

Interstellar Matter : Nursery o f t he Stars 6 9 1Bright Nebulae 69 1D a r k Nebulae 69 2

Classi fy ing Stars: Hertzsprung— R ussell D i a g r a m s(H-R D i ag rams) 6 9 3Ste l la r Evolu t ion 6 9 4

Stel lar Birth 69 4Pro tos ta r S tage 695M ' S S t 6 9 51n- equence ag eR ed Gian t S tage 696

Examining th e Earth System 66 3 l \ / laster ingGeo1ogy 66 3 Burnout a nd D e a th 59 5

Light, A s t r o n o m i c a lbservations,

Ste l la r R e mn an t s 6 9 7W h i te Dwar f s 69 7Neutron Stars 69 8B l a c k H o l es 69 8

G a l ax i es a n d Galactic Clusters 7 0 0Types o f Galaxies 70 0

I "I and Sun Galact ic Clusters 70 2

F oc u s o n Concepts 6 6 6Signals f rom Space 6 6 6

Nature o f L i g h t 66 6L ig h t an d Processes 66 8

Sprectroscopy 6 6 8Cont inuous Spectrum 66 8Da rk- L ine Spectrum 66 9B r ig h t - L ine Spectrum 66 9

Th e D op p le r E f fe ct 6 6 9Light Col lec t ion 6 7 0Opt ica l Telescopes 6 7 2

RefractingTelescopes 67 2ReflectingTelescopes 67 2

L i g h t D e t e c ti o n 67 3R a di o- a nd Space-Based A s t r o n o m y 6 7 4

Ra dio Telescopes 67 4OrbitingObservatories 67 5

Th e S un 6 7 8S t r uc tu re o f t h e S un 6 7 9

Pho tosphere 67 9Chromosphere 68 0Corona 68 0Th e Active S un 6 8 1Sunspots 68 1

Galac t ic Co l li s ions 70 2Th e B ig B a n g Theory 7 0 3

Evidence fo r an Ex pand ing Un ive rse 70 3Predict ions o f t he B i g B a n g Th eory 70 4

Th e Fate o f t he Universe 7 0 5

i : j : e x % Eiriaii i i i ix i i § § ‘ i ? 8 i ‘ i ‘ t 3 R i . i

FromS t a r Dust to Yo u 6 9 9

G I V E IT s o n a r : THOUGHT 7 0 5

In Review 70 7 K ey T erms 70 8

Examining the Earth System 70 8 1VIaster ingGeology 70 8

A p p e nd ix A Metr i c and E n g li sh U n i t s Comp ared 7 0 9

Append i x B E a r th ' s G r id System 7 1 0

Appendix C Relative Humidity a nd Dew-PointTables 7 1 2

Append i x D Stel lar Proper t ies 7 1 4

Glossary 7 1 7

Index 7 3 1

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Preface XXI

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Erin Argy i lan, Indiana Universi ty Nor thwestlake A rmo u r , Un i v er si t y o f Nor th C aro l in a , C har l o t teNata l ie Bursztyn, Bakersf ield Co l lege

Mar ianne Caldwel l , Hi l lsborough C o m m u n i t y Col lege

Dan ie l D e o c amp o , Cal i forn ia State Universi ty, Sacramento

HollyD o d so n , Sierra Co l lege

Chr is topher H o o k e r, W a ubo n se e C o m m u n i t y Col legeZo ran K i li ba rda , Ind iana U n ivers i tyN or thwestM ichae l Lewis, Un i v e rs it y o f North Caro l ina, Greensboro

T inaGay le Osborn, Palm Beach State Co l lege

Tho mas Sills, W ri g ht C i ty Co l lege

Da v i d Voorhees, W aubonsee C o m m u n i t y Col lege

J im W y so n g , Hi l lsborough C o m m u n i t y Co l lege

A s a l way s, we want to acknowledge t h e t ea m o f profession-

al s a t Pearson Prent ice Hal l . W e sincerely appreciate t he co m -pany’s continuing strong support fo r excel lence and innova t ion .All are c o m m i t t e d to producing th e best tex tbooks possib le . Spe-

c ia l t han ks t o o ur geo logy editor, A n dy Dunaway, a nd to o ur con-scient ious project manager , Crissy Dudonis, fo r a jo b well done.

Th e product ion t ea m l ed b y Pat ty D o n o v a n a t Laserworks M a i n edi d a n outstanding job. Kristin Piljay’s p h o to research assistance

wa s also a grea the lp . A ll are true professionalswithw h o m we ar e

very for tuna te to be associated.

Ed Tarbuck

Fred Lutgens

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