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17.0 VENTILATION - Accelerating Sustainabilityadmin- • The cross ventilation strategy relies on the movement of air through open spaces across narrow floor plates between operable

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    17 V E N T I L AT I O N

    1.0 Executive Summar y

    4.0 G oals & Targets

    5.0 Par tnerships

    6.0 Research

    7.0 Bui lding Design

    8.0 Design Process

    11.0 Energy Systems

    12.0 R ainwater System

    2.0 Projec t Background & O ver view

    3.0 Vis ion & Leadership

    13.0 Reclaimed Water System

    14.0 Landscape & Site

    15.0 Living Roof & Living Wal l

    17.0 Venti lat ion

    10.0 Bui lding M aterials

    18.0 Bui lding R ating Systems

    19.0 M onitoring & M easurement

    20.0 Construc t ion

    22.0 I nhabitants vs. Occupants

    24.0 Operations & M aintenance

    FUTURE SEC TIONS TO BE ADDED:

    9.0 Struc tural System & Wood

    “We took into consideration the design of window sill and window height so that the users are still able to reach across desk and open the windows in order to adjust their thermal comfort. We want them to interact more with the building.”

    – Brian Gasmena, Architect, Perkins + Will

    L E S S O N S L E A R N E D

    Resolve interior layouts with ventilation strategy

    Coordinate services in the raised access floor spaces

    Facilitate inhabitant interaction with the building systems

    Balance acoustic privacy and ventilation

    17.0 V E N T I L AT I O N

    16.0 Lighting

    25.0 Continual Evaluations

    23.0 Communit y ( food. . . )

    21.0 Commissioning & Per formance Test ing

    17.5 B enefits

    17.6 Chal lenges

    17.3 Campus Contex t

    17.7 Lessons Learned

    17.1 O ver view

    17.2 Descr ipt ion

    17.4 G oals & Targets

    Image 17.1 Ventilation Diagram

    17.1 Systems Overview Ventilation at CIRS is provided through a mixed mode system. The building is designed to utilize passive natural ventilation strategies in most of the regularly inhabited spaces. Operable windows allow for the personal adjustment of air flow and temperature in workspaces. Cross-ventilation is designed to move air through the smaller spaces while the atrium draws air from the rest of the building through the stack effect and exhausts it through vents on the roof.

    Mechanical ventilation is provided by two air handling units (AHU 1 and AHU 2) that supply fresh filtered air to the building. One unit is dedicated to the large Auditorium and the other serves the rest of the building. The Auditorium receives filtered air, both heated and cooled, by means of displacement ventilation from diffusers located underneath the seats. In smaller spaces, mechanical ventilation supplements natural ventilation and is heated only. The air is supplied through a displacement ventilation system underneath the raised access floor. Inhabitants can adjust localized vents to control the airflow in their personal space.

    Intake for the mechanical ventilation system

    The central atrium acts as a thermal chimney that drives natural ventilation flow in the building

    The narrow floorplates assist cross-ventilation flows

    Operable vents at the top of the atrium

    Displacement ventilation through the Under Floor Air Distribution system

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    C I R S T E C H N I C A L M A N UA L

    17.2 System Description Office Blocks

    The office blocks have manually operable windows that allow the internal spaces to be naturally ventilated. Inhabitant control over airflow and temperature through mechanical ventilation in personal spaces is also provided. There are two levels of operable window, one at desk height and one at the clerestory level. The original design included an automated control system for the clerestory windows, but it was removed to save on cost and long-term maintenance issues. Pole cranks are provided to allow inhabitants to open the clerestory windows manually. A displacement system ventilates the office blocks through an under floor air distribution system, with floor vents along the exterior walls. Building operators set the rate, flow and air temperature and manual diffusers at each vent allow inhabitants to control air flow in personal spaces. The automated building management system monitors the windows, and when 30 per cent or more in a space are open, mechanical ventilation to that zone is turned off. Inhabitants can request lower or higher temperatures through an interface with the Building Management System.

    The narrow design of the office blocks was intended to facilitate cross-ventilation between the glazed north and south façades, through a mix of open and closed offices. As the spaces were fit out for tenants however, the amount of closed offices significantly increased, reducing the effectiveness of the cross-ventilation strategy. A gap above the interior partitions at the height of the beams will allow some air flow to move through the space and the operable windows will still provide fresh air and temperature control for the office inhabitants.

    AG E N T S

    Architects: Perkins + Will

    Mechanical Engineers: Stantec

    Image 17.2 Cross Ventilation

    Image 17.3 Diffusers

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    17 V E N T I L AT I O N

    Image 17.4 Construction photo of the installation of building systems in the raised access floor plenum.

    Auditorium

    Ventilation in the Auditorium is supplied exclusively by displacement ventilation air via a dedicated air handling unit. Airflow and temperature are controlled by building operators through pre-set settings. Warm air is exhausted from the theatre into the atrium, then leaves the building through vents at the top of the atrium.

    Atrium

    Ventilation in the atrium is supplied naturally by drawing air from the rest of the building through the stack effect. Air is exhausted through motorized vents in the roof, functioning as a passive cooling tower. Manually operable windows adjacent to the social spaces on the upper floors allow inhabitants to control the airflow and temperature in their immediate environments.

    Service Spaces

    The services spaces of the building are mechanically ventilated. Heat from the exhaust air and the mechanical equipment is captured by a waste heat recovery system and used to pre-heat fresh air brought into the building.

    P R O C E S S

    Design process:

    Ventilation strategies were part of the dedicated energy charrette and were developed during the integrated design process.

    Construction:

    Passive strategies and mechanical systems were constructed as part of the base building.

    Commissioning:

    Operations:

    UBC Building Operations will oversee the mechanical ventilation systems and the operable components of the passive strategies. Inhabitants have the ability to control both the passive strategies and the mechanical systems in their local environments.

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    C I R S T E C H N I C A L M A N UA L

    CO S T S

    Costs will be added in a future update

    17.3 Campus Context UBC Campus Plan

    The UBC Campus plan considers ventilation for new buildings to be an important aspect of the integrated approach to energy planning. On a building scale, new projects are expected to incorporate strategies that reduce energy demand and carbon emissions, such as the use of natural ventilation at CIRS.

    UBC Campus Plan, Part 2 Campus Plan Section 6.2 Sustainability Practices (pg 38-39)

    UBC Design Guidelines

    The UBC Campus Plan Design Guidelines outline design suggestions, such as passive design strategies, to be considered early in the design process to improve energy performance and building comfort. Passive ventilation is considered vital to reduce energy use and improve inhabitant comfort.

    The Design Guidelines state that new buildings should be designed to use the surrounding naturally occurring air flow patterns to facilitate passive ventilation. This can be achieved through shape to maximize the effectiveness of these flows in providing fresh air to building occupants.

    UBC Design Guidelines 2.3.10 (a ii)

    Projects are also urged to incorporate operable windows for natural ventilation and consider internal layout, building size, stack effect and orientation to prevailing winds.

    UBC Design Guidelines 2.3.10 (e iv)

    UBC wishes to enhance the comfort and wellbeing for inhabitants through provision of a steady flow of fresh air. New projects are must consider the location of air exhaust and intake in relation to air quality, natural ventilation, and energy use.

    UBC Design Guidelines 2.3.10 (h i)

    UBC also recognises that new buildings can be designed with light wells and atriums to facilitate natural ventilation, day-lighting and passive cooling.

    UBC Design Guidelines 2.3.10 (c ii)

    UBC Technical Guidelines

    Division 15 governs the design and construction of building mechanical systems, including ventilated air. It is specified that no less than 50% of maximum air flow be available for variable volume terminals. If compliance is not met it must be demonstrated that appropriate ventilation rates are provided at lower air flow settings.

    UBC Technical Guidelines, 2010 Edition, Division 15

    Division 8 considers the general requirements for windows and links to ventilation considerations. It states that operable windows should be included for ventilation and occupant comfort where noise and mechanical ventilation concerns do not preclude this.

    UBC Technical Guidelines, 2010 Edition, Division