1750-1914: An Age of Revolutions Latin American Independence Movements
Background Indigenous peoples and civilizations Maya, Aztec, Inca European Colonization, 1500s Spain, Portugal, France American Revolution, 1776 French Revolution and Enlightenment, 1789 Napoleons conquests within Europe, 1800s
Latin American Independence Movements, 18th & 19th C.
French colonies: Revolution in Haiti Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti Western third of island of Hispanola in Caribbean Sea. Plantation slavery, sugar
Toussaint LOuverture (too-SAN loo-vair-TOOR) Former slave, self-educated. Untrained in military and political matters, but became a skilled general and diplomat. Allegedly got name (opening in French) from being able to find openings in enemy lines. Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791. 100,000 slaves in revolt.
By 1801, LOuverture moved into Spanish Santo Domingo (the eastern two- thirds of the island of Hispanola), took control of territory and freed slaves. In January 1802, French troops landed. Toussaint agreed to an end of fighting if the French would end slavery French accused him of planning another uprising. Sent him to a prison in the French Alps. He died 10 months later, April 1803.
Jean-Jacques Dessalines Toussaints general. Took up the fight. Jan 1, 1804 - declared an independent country. First black colony to free itself from European control. He called it Haiti, mountainous land, in the language of the native Arawak inhabitants. Became first emperor of Haiti; later assassinated in a revolt. 1820: Haiti became an independent republic
Spanish Colonies Revolutions against Spanish Rule
Latin American social classes Peninsulares - men born in Spain held highest offices Creoles - Spaniards born in Latin America officers in army, but not in government often resented power of the peninsulares Mestizos - mixed European and Indian Mulattos - mixed European and African Indians
European Background: Napoleon Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808. Removed Spains King Ferdinand VII and made Joseph (Naps brother) king of Spain. Creoles used it as a reason for revolution. 1810 rebellion across Latin America. 1814, Napoleon defeated and Ferdinand returned to power, but creoles contd their movement.
Francisco Goya, Executions of May 3, 1808
Simon Bolivar Wealthy Venezuelan creole. The Liberator
Venezuelan Independence, 1821 Venezuela declared independence, 1811. Bolivars armies unsuccessful at first. 1819: Bolivar marched armies over Andes into todays Colombia, defeated Spanish army. 1821: Venezuelan independence. Marched north to Ecuador to meet Jose de San Martin.
Simple, modest man. Born in Argentina, spent time in Spain as military officer. Jose de San Martin
Argentina declared independence in 1816. San Martin led army across Andes to Chile, joined by Bernardo OHiggins, and freed Chile. Ecuador, 1822: San Martin met with Bolivar to decide how to remove remaining Spanish forces in Lima, Peru. Argentinean Independence
San Martin sailed for Europe and died on French soil in 1850. Dec 9, 1824, Bolivar defeated Spanish at Battle of Ayacucho.
Bolivar San Martin
Bolivars vision of a united South America.Bolivars vision of a united South America. Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama.Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama. Short-lived due to dissension amongst various factions.Short-lived due to dissension amongst various factions. Bolivar resigned in 1828.Bolivar resigned in 1828. In 1830, Bolivars Gran Colombia divided into Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Panama later split from Colombia with US assistance, 1903. Gran Colombia, 1820-1830
Mexico Indians and mestizos, not creoles, played the key role in independence movements. Creoles sided with Spain to avoid violence of lower-class rebellions (until 1820).
Miguel Hidalgo A village priest, believed in Enlightenment ideals. 1810, called for revolution. Grito de Dolores (call for revolution) Hidalgos Indian and mestizo followers marched to Mexico City. Spanish army and creoles acted against Hidalgo and defeated him in 1811.
Jose Maria Morelos Took leadership after Hidalgos defeat. Defeated by creoles.
Mexican Independence, 1821 1820 revolution in Spain put a liberal government in power. Mexican creoles feared loss of influence, so they united against Spain. Agustin Iturbide declared himself emperor, but was overthrown. 1824: Establishment of the Mexican Republic.
Results of Latin American Independence Movements Political/Social: Continued battles between liberals, conservatives and the military over how to best rule. Tensions between articulate political forces and the separate masses. Economic: Unable to free itself from dependence on Western- controlled economic patterns. Cultural/intelligent: Distinct cultural entity combination of Western styles and values plus its racial diversity, colonial past, and social structure of a semi- colonial economy.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna A caudillo, strong arm ruler. Fought for independence from Spain in 1821 and again in 1829 when Spain tried to reconquer Mexico. Between 1833 and 1855, president four times switched sides to keep himself in power Santa Anna was Emperor of the largest empire in world history, stretching from southern Mexico through Texas, all of what is now the US southwest, California and some of Oregon, a rather large parcel of territory. Was Emperor for a short time until Texas defeated Mexico in its War of Independence, but never really had control of his empire
Texas Revolt 1820s, Mexico invited English-speaking settlers (Anglos) to settle Mexican territory of Texas. Cheap land if they supported the Mexican govt. Texans soon wanted self-govt, Mexico refused. 1835, Stephen Austin encouraged revolt. Santa Anna led Mexican troops; defeated, 1836. 1845, US annexed Texas; invaded Mexico. 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo gave US land.
Benito Juarez Poor, orphaned Zapotec Indian; law degree and local governor. La Reforma: reform movement redistribution of land, separation of church and state, education Santa Anna sent him into exile. Set up a liberal government, but plagued by conservative rebels.
French Rule Conservative rebels plotted with France to reconquer Mexico. Napoleon III sent armies to Mexico. Cinco de Mayo, 1862: Zaragoza won the Battle of Puebla against the French, but the French won the war. Napoleon III appointed a relative, Austrian archduke Maximilian, as emperor of Mexico. Juarez resisted, US sent troops to Mexico - French gave up in 1867. Juarez continued reforms.
Porfirio Diaz, 1870s-1911 Mid-1870s, new caudillo. Indian who rose up through the ranks. Supported by Indians, small landowners and military. Order and progress, but no liberty.
Mexican Revolution (against Diaz) Francisco Pancho Villa - Robin-Hood policy Emiliano Zapata - Tierra y libertad Francisco Madero - appointed President, but resigned and was murdered. General Victoriano Huerta took presidency. Villa and Zapata supported Venustiano Carranza, overthrew Huerta. Carranza murdered Zapata. 1917, new constitution (in use today). Carranza otherthrown by Alvaro Obregon.
Portuguese Rule Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 divided the Atlantic between Spain and Portugal. Portugal was mostly focused on routes to Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Brazilian Independence In 1807, Napoleon marched on Iberian peninsula, forcing Portuguese royal family of King John VI to escape to Brazil, Portugals largest colony.In 1807, Napoleon marched on Iberian peninsula, forcing Portuguese royal family of King John VI to escape to Brazil, Portugals largest colony. From 1807 to 1815, Brazil was center of Portuguese empire.From 1807 to 1815, Brazil was center of Portuguese empire.
With defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Portugal wanted Brazil to become a colony again. By 1822, creoles demanding independence signed a petition asking Portugals prince, Dom Pedro, to rule Brazil. On Sept 7, 1822, Dom Pedro agreed, and declared Brazils independence Emperor Pedro I, to emulate Napoleon and to unify various elements of Brazil. Pedros political and personal problems led to a decline in his popularity. 1889, Brazilians overthrew Pedros successor and declared their country a republic.
United Provinces of Central America Several other Central American states declared their independence from both Spain and Mexico to create the United Provinces of Central America.