182 Dust Collectors

Embed Size (px)

Text of 182 Dust Collectors

  • 8/3/2019 182 Dust Collectors



    How do you translate thevalues for airflow andresistance into findingthe right dust collector?Start by determininghow many machines

    you plan to hook up. Ifyoure looking to installa duct system that willservice your whole shop,these machines will notwork for you. Theyremeant for short ductruns or dedicated hook-ups to only a few

    machines. (See theillustration at right for asimple three-machinesetup.) For a centralsystem, youll need a more powerfuldust collector or a cyclone.

    The machines in this test have 112-and 2-hp motors, but to find out howless-potent dust collectors perform, weincluded a typical 1-hp unit in our

    Dust collector10" Tablesaw

    12" P

    6" Jointer

    Typical shop seTup for aporTable dusT collecTor

    One dust collectorconnected in this mannerserves three machinesby using blast gates.Or you could use onelength of flex-hose andsimply move it from onemachine to another.

    T t t t t jt p . W w w t t w t t t p .


    Dust CollectorsUnder $400

    WOOD magazine March 2008

    Would you buy a dishwasherthat didnt actually cleanyour plates and pots? How

    about a lawn mower that cuts only halfthe blades of grass it passes over? Ofcourse not. You expect machines to per-form their tasks.

    Were with you. And thats why we sayyou should not spend your hard-earnedmoneyand risk your healthon adust collector that fails to trap fine

    WOOD magazinetester Jeff Halladjusts the funnelon the end of theduct to createresistance duringairflow testing.

    dusteven dust too fine to see. In ourtest of 15 portable dust collectors, wefound that all could move debris fromthe machine to the collection bags withvarying success. However, nine of thoseunits featured dust-capturing filtrationso inferior, they merely recirculatedmuch of the fine dust back into the air.And its that breathable dust that medi-cal studies have proved to be the mostharmful to your health.

    Dust collector basicsBefore we get into filtration, its impor-tant to understand how a dust collectorworks. The type we tested suck chipsand dust into an impeller, which thenspews them into bags strapped aboveand below a steel rim. The bottom bagcollects what settles, while the top bag(and unfilled areas of cloth bottom bags)filters and traps the dust as air escapesthrough it.

    A dust collector needs to move dustand chips at least 3,500 feet per minuteto keep them suspended in the air andprevent them from settling in the duct.Multiplying the air speed by the area ofthe duct gives you cubic feet per minute(CFM), the performance spec cited mostoften in dust-collection discussions.Typical home woodworking machineshave 4" dust ports and require a mini-mum airflow of 400 CFM.

    But CFM is only one of two key factorsin gauging dust-collector performance.The other is resistance, measured ininches of static-pressure loss. The very

    ductwork you need to channel the debristo the collector actually chokes that air-flow, especially as you add length orchange directions. For example, everyelbow, wye, or reducer in your line cre-ates resistance versus a similar setupwith a straight duct of one size. Thelength of duct and material its made ofalso adds resistance. (Ribbed flex-hose,for example, adds three times the resis-tance of smooth-walled metal duct, soits important that you use as little of itas possible.)

    We went high-techto test these collectorsWith assistance from Dr. Greg Maxwellof Iowa State Universitys engineeringdepartment, we created a testing appara-

    tus using smooth-walled metal ductworkthat we attached to each collectors port(shown at left). On the open end, weused a funnel-shaped stopper, threadedto an anchored bolt, to simulate differ-ent lengths and shapes of ductwork.

    We utilized a pitot tube and manom-eter inside the duct to measure airflow(CFM) and resistance in inches of static-pressure loss (SP). These figures helppinpoint which collector will work foryou. To determine the amount of SP lossyou should expect to encounter, go towoodmagazine.com/spcalc, or read issue119 (December 1999), pages 1618.

    Of the 15 units we tested, 11 have 6"inlet ports and the rest have 5" ports. Allmodels come with a wye that mountsover the inlet and allows you to attachtwo 4" ducts. (All have a cap so you canclose one of the 4" ports.) We tested eachunit with 4" metal duct for a true apples-to-apples comparison (see chart at right),and also tested them with 5" or 6" ductto match their ports (next page). Wefound that each machine achievedgreater suction with less resistance usingthe larger-size duct. (Using 5" and 6"duct or flex-hose, however, requires a

    testing. It did not fare well,meet the 400 CFM minimushown in the chart below. Yhave luck using one of thesa very short duct (6' or lesslikely leave some debris beh

    Know your dust-collection needs

    greater minimum CFM level than 4"duct to keep debris in suspension.) Ifyou intend to use 4" duct or flex-hosewith a wye, plan to add blast gates nearthat wye so you can close off one ductwhile using the other. Leaving bothopen cuts your machines suction capa-

    bility in half.

    Filtration proves cfor you and the coWood debris ranges from h(like planer chips) that qthe floor, to microscopic that remain suspended inminutes or longer and c

    without magnification. Th

    4" Port Performance












    Standard CFM





    Typical1-hpunit377.0 [email protected]

    Minimum CFM requirement for 4" ductwork

    Dust collectors lose CFM as the amount of resistance (SP loss) increases. Select aoperates at a high CFM rate for a gi ven SP loss for your duct setup. Because youmaintain at least 400 CFM in 4" duct to keep dust and chips in suspension, look fresults to the right of the shaded area. Peak performance of each dust collector

    Two Units Deliver Adequate Airflow Over 8" Static

    Wt free v xgw t ttg g wk w w t v twgz./tt


  • 8/3/2019 182 Dust Collectors



    a human eye can see is about 10 microns.(Human hair, by comparison, measuresabout 4060 m icrons in diameter.)

    These dangerous, breathable, ultrafineparticles easily escape through theporous woven-cloth bags rated at30-micron filtering efficiency. Youshould insist on at least a 5-micron filtermedia (bag or pleated cartridge), but a1-micron filter proves even better. Thesefiner filtration bags are made fromthicker material (usually felt) and havemore pinholes per square footto allowair to pass throughwhen comparedwith 30-micron woven cloth bags. So

    not only do these bags trap fine dust,but they also increase the collectorsairflow by reducing resistance.

    Five of the units we tested come stan-dard with a 1-micron top bag, and ofthose, Penn State also includes a1-micron bottom bag on both of itsmodels. The other three (Delta 50-760,

    JDS 14040, and Steel City 65200) havenonporous plastic bottom bags. Deltas50-850 comes with a 5-micron top bagand plastic bottom bag.

    Ironically, two unitsGeneral Inter-nationals 10-105M1 (2 microns) andGrizzlys G1029Z (2.5 microns)includedfine-filtering top bags but offset themwith 30-micron bottom bags that allowedfine dust to escape. After we shared testresults with these companies, both

    elected to replace the bottom bags withplastic, effective immediately. (Griz zlysBill Crofutt said the company will alsoreplace both 30-micron bags on theG1028Z with a 2.5-micron top bag andplastic bottom bag.)

    All other models except Rikon (10microns) feature two 30-micron bags. Ifyou want to upgrade the filtering effi-ciency, you can opt for bags or cartridgefilters from most of these manufacturers,or you can buy much larger high-effi-ciency aftermarket bags that providemore surface area to filter dust and allowair to escape. (For a comparison of theirperformance, read A high-efficiency topfilter combined with a plastic bag belowproves best on nextpage.)

    More factors to influenceyour buying decisionClampless bags mount easiest.Securing the lower bag to the collectorhousing proves to be a two-handed jobat best, and sometimes a third handbecomes necessary. We found the easiestto install were bags with a springy metalhoop [Photo A] sealed inside the bagsrim. These also produced a tight seal

    We tested the four dust collectors with 5" inlets using 5" duct, and the Delta 50-760 clearlyoutperforms the others. It achieves greater CFM and also overcomes higher SP losses.Peak performance of each dust collector is noted at right.












    Standard CFM






    CentralMachinery45378-1VGA599 [email protected] SP

    Delta 50-760844 [email protected] SP

    General10-105M1649 [email protected] SP

    Rikon60-200669 [email protected] SP

    Minimum CFM requirementfor 5" ductwork












    Standard CFM





    Craftsman21337676 [email protected] SP

    Delta50-850746 [email protected] SP

    GrizzlyG1028Z750 [email protected] SP

    GrizzlyG1029Z863 [email protected] SP

    JetDC-1100A798 [email protected] SP

    JDS14040685 [email protected] SP

    PennState DC2V2719 [email protected] SP

    ShopFox W1666741 [email protected] SP

    ShopFox W1685712 [email protected] SP

    SteelCity65200745 [email protected] SP

    PennState DC2000B822 [email protected] SP

    Minimum CFM requirementfor 6" ductwork

    Using 6" duct on those units with a 6" inlet, we found that more than half barely reach theminimum CFM level at static-pressure levels less than 3". The Grizzly G1029Z and Penn StateDC2000B excel above the others. Peak performance of each dust collector is noted at right.

    against dust leaks. Only the Delta 50-760 and Jet DC-1100A have such hoops.

    Next best is a continuous pocketaround the bag, with the lever-actionband clamp slipped into it [Photo B].Some models use friction clips to holdthe plastic bags in place [Photo C] whileyou tighten the band clamp aroundthemeliminating the need for a thirdhand. Bags with belt loops [Photo D]make bag changes difficult and tendedto bunch and create dust leaks.

    Theyre all mobile, but... Becausethese dust collectors are portable, theyall have four swiveling casters, so youdont have to parallel-park them. Butonly two units, the Central Machineryand Delta 50-760, include handles foryou to guide them around. Some havesturdy legs that bend away from the bot-tom bag that also serve reasonably wellas handles. The majority proved wobblybut strong enough for their purpose.








    30 Micron Bags (569 CFM@5.

    30 Micron/Plastic (530 [email protected] SP)

    5 Micron/ Plastic (615 CFM@6

    2 Micron Cartridge/Plastic ( 611 [email protected] SP)

    Standard CFM



    1 Micron Aftermarket/Plastic ( 615 [email protected] SP)

    Minimum CFM requirementfor 4" ductwork

    Any high-efficiency filter medium paired with a plastic bottom bag gainsand overcomes more SP loss than any system using a 30-micron bag. Peaperformance of each combination is noted using 4" duct.

    Spin the handle of a cartridgepaddles inside that flip dust o

    To find out which combination of topfilter media and bottom collection bagworks best, we tried each option onthe Jet DC-1100A. We paired upcombinations of the standard30-micron cloth bags, a plastic lowerbag, a 5-micron filter bag (from Jet),a 2-micron cartridge filter (from Jet)[Photo E], and a 1-micron oversize bag(from American Fabric Filter, 800-367-3591 or americanfabricfilter.com).

    As you see in the chart below, usinga high-efficiency filter on the top anda nonporous plastic bag on the

    bottom added 4080 CFM of airflowversus 30-micron bags. And althoughstepping up from a 5-micron to a1-micron bag didnt improve airflowin our test, it will boost your shops airquality. Some manufacturers told usthey get greater airflow with cartridge

    filters versus standard-size bags. Wewere unable to test each collector withall filter and bag options.

    But finer filtration and increasedairflow come at a price. A cartridgetypically costs $200$250, three timesas much as a high-efficiency bag.

    American Fabric Filter (AFF) custom-designs and manufactures oversize1-micron bags ($60$160) to fit eachcustomers dust collector and shoplimitations (low ceilings, for example).

    A high-efficiency top filter combinwith a plastic bag below proves be

    These bags add filtration susaid AFFs Stan Wnukiewicz

    Youve got to have a larfilter bag that wont inflateballoon, Wnukiewicz saysall that air pressure will forcopen and allow dust particand that reduces suction. Yto anticipate what that filtein six months or a year afteuse. With pleated filters andbags, that dust gets forced

    fabric or pleats to the pointmight never get it out.

    carTridge cleans qu

    bag mounTing meThodsfrom besT To WorsT

    Simply twist Deltas metal hoop slightly andit pops loose; put it back with a similar twist.

    Clamps in sewn pockets that open in onlyone spot prove easy to use.

    Metal clips hold plastic bags while you securethe band clamp, which still takes two hands.

    Bags that rely on belt loops and a band clampproved the most difficult to install.

    WOOD magazine March 2008

    Sewn pockets

    Friction clips

    Belt loops

    Delta Stands Out Against 5"-Port Peers

    Not All Units Can Support 6" Ducts

    Fine Filters Increase Airflow and Quality

    Tester Jeff Hall learned a tough lesson with wood dust whiletesting these collectors. Jeff has a sensitivity to walnut dustthat gets his nose and sinuses running, but he purposelyused walnut dust to season all of the bags before takingairflow and resistance readings, using it as a red flag that aparticular machine might be leaking dust. And many of themdid leak around fittings and seals. But what Jeff didnt count

    Dusty trail leads to doctors office on was that the units with 30-micron bags actuallmuch of the fine dustincluding dust too fine to into the air he was breathing. When his nose alertbegan wearing a resp irator. But it was too late. Sogot into his lungs that it caused a respiratory infeclasted three weeks and required three rounds of aThe lesson: Filtering and trapping dust is critical, s

    filtering media on your collector of 5 microns or le






    (Continued on page 70)


  • 8/3/2019 182 Dust Collectors



    CENTRAL MACHINERY 45378-1VGA 2 110 14/7 12.1 5 5.35 30/30 79 P/P C D B A A C 81 ALL 6 100 90 DAYS C $220 800-423-2567 h

    CRAFTSMAN 21337 112 11 0/ 22 0 12 /6 8 . 9 6 6 .18 3 0/ 30 8 3 B /C B - D B B - B + A 8 2 H B ,D ,M 8 1 08 1 C 3 00 8 00 -3 83 -4 814

    DELTA50-760 112 110 /220 15/ 7.5 16.2 5 4.07 1/ P 86 H /H A A A A A A 84 H ALL 8 100 2 T 350

    800-223-7278 delt50-850 112 110 /220 12 /6 9.1 6 5.09 5/ P 83 B/ C B+ A- B A- B+ A 84 H ALL 8 100 2 T 390

    GENERAL INTERNATIONAL 10-105M1 112 110 /2 20 14 /7 12.5 5 5 .5 3 2 /3 0 7 6 P /P B B- A A B+ A 8 4 AL L 6 10 6 2 T 3 40 514 - 3 26 -1161

    GRIZZLYG1028Z 112 110 /220 18 /9 15.7 6 5 .53 30 /30 76 S/ S B D B B B- A 8 4 ALL 6 115 1 T 240

    8 0 0- 52 3- 47 77 G1029Z 2 220 12 9.8 6 5.53 2.5/30 76 S/S A B- B B B- A 84 S ALL 6 123 1 T 260

    JDS 14040 112 110 /2 20 1 6/ 8 14.8 6 5 .5 3 1/ P 7 6 P /C B- A B C B A 8 4 AL L 6 110 2 T 3 40 8 00 -4 80 -7 26 9

    JET DC-1100A 112 110 /2 20 11 /5.5 11 6 5 .2 7 3 0/ 30 7 9 B /H B D A A B A 8 5 AL L 6 110 5 T 3 30 8 00 -2 74 -6 84 8

    PENN STATEDC2000B 2 110/220* 18/9 8.7 6 5.87 1/1 93 P/P A A A A B B 83 H ALL 7 101 2 C 260

    800-377-7297 DC2V2 112 110 /220 18 /9 12.4 6 5 .53 1/ 1 76 B/ B B A A C B- B 7 8 H ALL 6 95 2 T 330

    RIKON 60-200 2 110 16 1 4 5 5.87 10/10 80 P/P B+ C+ B A B B 82 B,F,M 6 104 2 C 330 877-884-5167

    SHOP FOX W1666 2 220 12 8.7 6 5.87 30/30 78 P/P B+ D A A B B 84 B,D,H,M,R 8 107 2 C 290 8 00 -8 4 0- 84 20 W1685 112 110 16 13.5 6 5 .53 30 /30 76 P/P B D A A B B 82 B,D,H,M,R 8 108 2 C 260

    STEEL CITY 65200 112 1 10 / 22 0 1 4/ 7 11 .3 6 6 .3 1 /P 8 3 B / C B + A B A - B+ A 8 3 H B ,D ,P 8 9 8 5 T 3 20 8 77 -7 24 -8 66 5 s te el c

    Jumper hose adds resistance.Fourteen of the 15 collectors we testedhave the motor and impeller resting onthe base just above f loor level. (Only theDelta 50-760 [Photo F] has them locatedat midlevel.) Those 14 machines have23' of f lex-hose to transfer debris fromthe impeller to the bags, and that createsmore drag to cut into overall perfor-mance. The Craftsman [Photo G], Delta50-850, and Steel City models use 6"hose, which creates less resistance. (Ourtesting proved that larger-diameter ductcreated less resistance when comparedwith smaller duct.) All others use 5"

    impeller TransiTion facTors inTo airfloW

    The impeller on Deltas 50-760 blowsdust and chips directly into the collectionchamber without need for a jumper hose.

    The 6" hose on the Craftsman has a smoothtransition from the impeller to the collectionand filter bags.

    The 5" hose on Penn States DC2V2 bendsat almost a 90 anglecreating moreresistancewhen the impeller is powered.

    hose. Still, because of variables such asfan size and shape and bags, some mod-els with 5" hose outperformed the 6"units. Were confident those machineswould perform even better with 6" hose.Five of the 5" models had extra-longhoses that resulted in near-right angles[Photo H] in use, restricting airflow.Foam strip helps seal leaks.General International was the onlymanufacturer to include self-adhesivefoam, used to line the rim where thebags mount. This proved effective at pre-venting dust leaks with the band clampstightened.


































































    (6) FOR MOR

    1. (*) Te steda t220volt s. Units were tested at110volts unless prewired for 220volts. 2 . A ll m od el si nc lu de a wy ew it ht wo 4 " po rt s. 3. (P) Nonporous plasticbottom bag

    4. (B) Band clamp in beltloops ( C) B a nd c l ampw it h f ri c ti o n cl ip s (H) Hoop enclosed in bag rim (P) Band clamp in continuous pocket (S) Band clampwith cinch straps 5. A Excellent B Good C Fair D Poor

    6. (B) Blastgates (D) Dusthoods (F) Canister filter (H) Flexible hose (M) Finer-micron filtering bag ( P) P la st i c co l le c ti o n ba g (R) Remote control (S) Separator lid for trash can (ALL) Allo ftheabove exceptseparator

    7. (C) China (T) Taiwan 8. Pricescurrentattimeofarticleproduction shipping, where applicable.





    You wont go wrong with eitherof these dust collectorsOur tests revealed three clear leaders in their ability to over-come static pressure losses while achieving high CFM: Deltas50-760, Grizzlys G1029Z, and Penn States DC2000B. Werenaming the Grizzly and Delta as co-winners of our Top Toolaward. Heres why:

    The Grizzly outperformed a ll units by overcoming the moststatic pressure in 4" and 6" ducts and was second only to theDelta in maximum airflow. Its 2.5-micron top bag filters outmost of the ultrafine dust, and with Grizz ly making the switchto a plastic bottom bag, its overall performance should onlyimprove. We tip our hat to Penn State for its fine-filtering bags,but its airflow performance proved slightly lower than that of

    the Grizzly.But if you dont have the 220-volt hookup necessary for theGrizzly, youll get great performance from the 110-volt Delta.It achieved the highest maximum CFM, has the easiest bag-changing system, and a superefficient 1-micron filter bag.

    Gain airflow by adding an aerodynamic hoodWhile testing the 15 units with straightmetal duct, Jeff Hall discovered thatwhen he cupped his hands around theopen end of the duct, the air velocityincreased while static pressuredecreased. So we decided to comparedifferent inlet ports in search of anadvantage.

    We bought a common tapered dusthood and made a custom bell-mouthhood, shown at right. For the latter, Jefflaminated two pieces of34"-thick MDF,cut a 4" hole into the center, routed oneedge of the hole with a 1" round-overbit, and then glued that piece to astandard 4" plastic port. (You can alsobuy these in metal or plastic.)

    We tested these on several collectors,and found that on one of the lower-

    performing units, we gained nearly 100CFM with the plastic dust hood andnearly 140 CFM with the MDF bell-mouth hood while dropping resistancenearly 1" SP. We achieved similar resultswith one of the top-performingcollectors. The reason for theimprovement? Air (and with it, dust)changes direction easier when itencounters smooth transitions versusperpendicular corners.

    Adding either a bell-mouth hood or atapered dust hood to any machine, such asthis jointer, will increase dust removal.

    smooTh TransiTion gains cfm

    Impeller inside here

    Bell-mouth hood

    Tapered hood



    Plastic or metal dust hoods andbell-mouth hoods sell for about $720depending on size. (Many jointers comewith a dust hood, as do sometablesaws.) But its easy to make yourown bell-mouth hood, using whateverdimensions fit your machine. If yourmachine has a straight port, you canremove it and replace it with a moreaerodynamic hood.

    F G H


    Written by Bob HunterwithJeff Hall

    Illustrations: Tim Cahill

    You can do the same thing on anydust collector with inexpensivefoam weatherstripping, available

    at home centers and hardware stores.