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    HARPER'S LIBRARY of LIVING THOUGHT

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    CRETETHEFORERUNNEROF GREECE

    BYC. H. & H. B. HAWES

    HARPER XBROTHERSLMONSNEtfYORK

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    CRETETHE FORERUNNER OFGREECEBY

    CHARLES HENRY HAWESM.A. TRIM. COLL, CAMB.

    AUTHOR OF "IN THE UTTERMOST EAST"ANDHARRIET BOYD HAWES

    M.A., L.H.D.AUTHOR OF "GOURNIA, VASIT.IK; AND OTHER

    PREHISTORIC SITES IN CRETE"

    WITH A PREFACE BYARTHUR J. EVANSD.LITT. OXFORD, F.R.S., F.S.A.

    ILLUSTRATED WITH A MAP AND PLANS

    LONDON AND NEW YORKHARPER & BROTHERS45 ALBEMARLE STREET, W.

    1911 SEEN BYPRESERVATIONSERVIC^.

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    First Edition . .Second Edition .

    . . December 1909. Februar

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    PREFACETHE recent discoveries in Crete have added anew horizon to European civilization. Anew standpoint has been at the same time obtainedfor surveying not only the Ancient Classical Worldof Greece and Rome, but the modern world inwhich we live. This revelation of the past hasthus more than an archaeological interest. Itconcerns ah history and must affect the mentalattitude of our own and future generations inmany departments of knowledge.At the same time, the complexity of the detailsand the multiplicity of the recent explorations,and the fact that many of the results are as yetimperfectly published, must make it extremelydifficult for the ordinary intelligent reader to gaina comprehensive idea of this " Greece beyondGreece," brought to light on Cretan soil. Formore advanced archaeological students, indeed,Mr. Ronald Burrows' work on The Recent Dis-coveries in Crete has supplied a useful summary.But for the general reading public a simpler state-ment was required, and it seems to me that thisservice has been successfully rendered by Mr. andMrs. Hawes in the present book.

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    PREFACEThey have the great advantage of writing ' not

    as the scribes ' but as active workers in the fieldthat they describe. Mrs. Hawes, as Miss HarrietBoyd, had indeed herself carried out, in a mannerwhich has won the approval of all competentjudges, the excavation of an extensive Minoansettlement at Gournia, the results of which havebeen presented to the world in a scientific formin an admirably illustrated volume. Mr. Hawes,on the other hand, by his anthropometric re-searches into both the ancient and moderninhabitants of Crete, has made far and away themost important contributions to our knowledgeof their ethnic divisions and physical character-istics that have yet appeared.Under such guidance the reader may safely trusthimself to obtain an illuminating glimpse of thisold Minoan world in its various aspects.

    ARTHUR J. EVANS.PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

    We have endeavoured to make this little book ofpractical service to those visiting Crete as well asto the general reader, and the second edition hasbeen brought up to date by the inclusion of theseason's work of 1910.

    C. H. H.DARTMOUTH COLLEGE, H. B. H.NEW HAMPSHIRE,

    November, 1910.

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    rots

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    CONTENTSPREFACE viiCHRONOLOGICAL TABLE xiiiINTRODUCTION i

    I. SURVEY OF THE PREHISTORIC PERIODS OFCRETE 13

    II. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, DRESS, ANDHOMES OF THE MlNOANS .... 22III. INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCE .... 37IV. THE SITES : KNOSSOS 46V. THE SITES: KNOSSOS (continued) . . .61VI. THE SITES: PHAESTOS AND AGHIA TRIADHA 76VII. THE SITES: QOURNIA 92VIII. THE SITES: PALAIKASTRO AND OTHERS . 107

    IX. _MINOAN_JART "4X. LETTERS AND RELIGION 136XI. CRETE AND GREECE 144

    BIBLIOGRAPHY 155INDEX 157

    PALACE OF KNOSSOS . 48PALACE OF PHAESTOS 77PLAN OF GOURNIA 93MAP OF CRETE First End PaperPALACE OF GOURNIA .... Last ,,

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    CHRONOLOGICAL TABLEB.C.

    Before 3000. Stone Age.Cave habitation at Miamu.Neolithic dwelling- at Magasa.Neolithic settlement at Knossos be-

    ginning c. 10,000 B.C. (A. J. Evans).c. 3315. Dynasty /, Egypt.c. 3000-2800. Transition to metal.c. 2800-2600. 1st Early Minoan period. Opening ofthe Bronze Age (Knossos).c. 2600-2400. 2nd Early Minoan period.

    Settlements at Vasiliki and Mokhlos.Burials at Koumasa, Aghia Triadha,Aghios Onuphrios, and in the Cy-clades.

    c. 2540. Dynasty VI, Egypt.c. 2500. Ilnd or Burnt City, Hissarlik.c. 2400-2200. 3rd Early Minoan period.Pottery deposits at Gournia (North

    Trench), Palaikastro, and elsewhere.c. 2200-2100. 1st Middle Minoan period.Knossos Earlier Palace built.

    Phaestos ,, ,, ,,c. 2160. Dynasty XI, Egypt.c. 2100-1900. 2nd Middle Minoan period.First climax of Minoan civilization

    at Knossos and Phaestos.Pottery deposits in Kamares cave,Zakro pit, and elsewhere.At end, Earlier Palace of Knossos

    destroyed.c. 2000. Dynasty XII, Egypt.

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    CHRONOLOGICAL TABLEc. 1900-1700. 3rd Middle Minoan period.Later Palace of Knossos built.

    First Villa at Aghia Triadha built.Town at Gournia begun.Hyksos invasion ; Egypt.

    c. 1700-1500. 1st Late Minoan period.Height of prosperity at Aghia Triadha

    (ist palace), Gournia, Zakro, andPsyra.Later Palace of Phaestos begun.JInd city at Phylakopi, Melos.

    Dynasty XVII, Revival in Egypt.c. 1580. Dynasty XVIII.c. 1500-1450. 2nd Late Minoan or Palace period.

    Golden Age of Crete.Later Palace of Knossos remodelled.Fall of the country towns, Gournia,Zakro, and Palaikastro.

    Rise ofMycenae, Tiryns, and other main-land capitals.Reign of Thothmes HI, Egypt.

    c. 1450-1200. 3rd Late Minoan period,c. 1450. Fall of Knossos.c. 1425-1350. Partial reoccupation of Knossos, AghiaTriadha (2nd palace), Gournia, andPalaikastro.Tombs of Kalyviani near Phaestos,Mouliana (tomb B), and elsewhere.c. 1350-1200. Steady decline in prosperity and artthroughout the island ; retreat from

    sea-coast to mountains.Supremacy transferred to the mainland

    capitals Mycen&, etc.Troy, Vlth city at Hissarlik. ^

    C. 1200. Transition to Iron.The Homeric Age.

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    CRETE THE FORERUNNEROF GREECEINTRODUCTION

    THE island of Crete, known to the Venetians asCandia, has lain for about three thousandyears out of the main line of traffic. In fact, whenthe prehistoric fleets of Crete, the first maritimepower of the Mediterranean, gave place to Phoe-nician craft, the island ceased at once to be the gate-way for commerce between Egypt and the Europeanports of the Adriatic, the Gulf of Salonica, andthe Black Sea. To-day the stream of traffichurries east and west, and the impatient travellerbound for the Indies, Cathay, or the antipodes, islucky if he catches a distant glimpse of the snow-peaks of Crete.

    It seems strange that so beautiful an island, thescene of successive invasions in the past, shouldhave escaped the inroad of the ubiquitous nine-teenth-century tourist. The reasons for this wereseveral the presence of alien Turkish rulers, thefrequent revolutions of their subjects, the in-sufficiency and uncertainty of connections, andthe lack of decent accommodations. That theisland is becoming known at all is due in the mainto

    archaeologists and the' Cretan Question.'

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEEven to classical students twenty, nay, ten

    years ago, Crete was scarcely more than a land olegendary heroes and rationalized myths. Ittrue that the first reported aeronautical displaywas made by a youth of Cretan parentage, but inthe absence of authenticated records of the timeand circumstances of his flight, scholars weresceptical of his performance. And yet within lessthan ten short years we are faced by a revelationhardly more credible than this story ; we areasked by archaeologists to carry ourselves badfrom A.D. 1910 to 1910 B.C., and witness a highlyartistic people with palaces and treasures ancletters, of whose existence we had not dreamed.And, observe, we have leapt over the heads othe Greeks ; we have excelled even Icarus inaudacity. We have committed an affront in theyes of some conservative Greek scholars, wh(still cling to the miraculous creation of Greek artThe theme is a fresh one, because nothing waknown of the subject before 1900 ; it is importantbecause the Golden Age of Crete was the forerunneof the Golden Age of Greece, and hence of all ouwestern culture. The connection between Minoanand Hellenic civilization is vital, not one of localityalone, as is the tie between the prehistoric andthe historic of America, but one of relationship.Egypt may have been foster-mother to classicalGreece, but the mother, never forgotten by herchild, was Crete. Before Zeus, was the motherwho bore him in that mysterious cave of Dicte.The revelation of a pre-Hellenic culture in thegean area is due in the first place to Dr. Schlie-mann, whose great discoveries on the site of Troy,

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    INTRODUCTIONbegun in 1871, led up to the revelations in Cretefrom 1900 onwards. It seemed fitting to theMuse of History that a man whose own life was aromance should open to us the door into one ofher sealed chambers of the past. Let us in briefestfashion glance at his story.Henry Schliemann was born in the little townof Neu Buckow, in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in the

    year 1822. He grew up in his father's parish ofAnkershazen, where his natural disposition for themysterious and the marvellous was stimulated byhe wonders of the locality in which he lived.

    ' Our garden-house," he writes, " was said to belaunted by the ghost of my father's predecessor,Dastor von Russdorf, and just behind our gardenvas a pond called ' das Silberschalchen,' out ofwhich a maiden was believed to rise each mid-night, holding a silver bowl. There was also inhe village a small hill surrounded by a ditch,probably a prehistoric burial-place (or so-called-lunengrab) in which, as the legend ran, a robbermight in times of old had buried his beloved childn a golden cradle. Vast treasures were also said tolave been buried close to the ruins of a round towern the garden of the proprietor of the village." Hisaith in the existence of these treasures was sogreat, that whenever he heard his father complainof poverty, he was wont to express astonishmenthat he did not dig up the silver bowl or the goldencradle, and so become rich.His father taught him Latin and told him ofhe Homeric poems. Just then, too, the excava-ions of Herculaneum and Pompeii aroused hisnterest. With great grief he heard that the

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEmassive fortifications of Troy had disappearedwithout leaving even a trace of their existence.When his father admitted that ancient Troy hadonce had walls as huge as were depicted in hishistory book, the boy retorted, " Father, if suchwalls once existed, they cannot possibly have beencompletely destroyed ; vast ruins of them muststill remain, but they are hidden beneath the dustof ages." The father maintained the contrary,but his son remained firm in his opinion, and atlast they agreed that he should one day excavateTroy.Family misfortunes drove him from home at an

    early age, and after a short schooling he becamea grocer's boy in a little village store. Here forfive and a half years he spent long days in dealingout herrings, butter, sugar, and oil, the monotonybroken only by one great event. One evening adrunken miller entered the shop, and, in the wordsof Dr. Schliemann, " recited to us about onehundred lines of the poet (Homer), observing therhythmic cadence of the verses. . . . Although I didnot understand a syllable," he says, " the melo-dious sound of the words made a deep impressionupon me, and I wept bitter tears over my unhappyfate. Three times over did I get him to repeat tome those divine verses, rewarding his trouble withthree glasses of whiskey, which I bought with thefew pence that made up my whole fortune. Fromthat moment I never ceased to pray God that byHis grace I might yet have the happiness of learn-ing Greek."Many remarkable incidents happened to himthat must not detain us here. He injured his chest

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    INTRODUCTIONin lifting, joined a ship bound for Venezuela, andwas wrecked off the Dutch coast. Ultimately,finding a position as office-boy, he endured muchprivation, spending half his meagre salary on hisstudies. At this time he learned, in an average ofsix months each, English, Dutch, Spanish, Italian,and Portuguese. Then followed the acquisition ofRussian, and this gave him his great opportunity.He was sent to Russia as agent of his firm, andultimately set up for himself ; and gradually, withdiligence and prudence, amassed a considerablefortune. Money was for him the means of realizingthe dream of his life. By the year 1863 he was free.For two or three years he travelled in theNew and the Old Worlds, and then settled down at

    Paris for the study of archaeology. In 1868 hemade his first long-desired visit to Greece, and in1871 he began to dig at Hissarlik, in the full beliefthat he had only to delve in the soil to discoverthe walls and towers of the city, to which Helen'sbeauty had brought endless woe. Just as he hadignored the difficulties and misfortunes of hisyouth, so was he undeterred by the scepticism orinfallibility of contemporary scholars. Fortunatelyfor us, he held fast to his belief that myth andtradition possess a large kernel of truth, far moreliteral than was supposed by the erudite. Comingfresh to the work, without any of the previoustraining an archaeologist receives to-day, he per-force made mistakes, and considerable damagewas done. A site which has numerous super-imposed settlements or cities requires the extremecare of an experienced hand. But we may forgethis shortcomings in the great, the overwhelming

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEservice done by Dr. Schliemann in pushing backthe history of the ^Egean two thousand years.Discoveries of an earlier date had been made inBabylonia and Egypt, but before Schliemann'stime knowledge of Greek lands began with theclassical era. ^Egean prehistoric archaeology is thecreation of the last thirty years.We cannot dwell here upon the details of thegreat site at Hissarlik, but since it has both con-nections with the story of archaeological discoveryand direct relations in point of time and culturewith Crete, some reference is due to it.On the top of a hillock which sustains no lessthan nine successive settlements stands RomanIlium with a marble temple of Athena. Nextbeneath it lie two Hellenic villages which flourishedbetween 1000 B.C. and the Christian era. Thesixth city from the bottom is now widely acceptedas Homer's Troy, and no doubt would have beenthus identified by Dr. Schliemann had he livedbut another year. It has a mighty circuit wallwith imposing towers, and is built of massiveashlar masonry. Its area is about two and a halftimes as great as that of the Second City, which wasmistaken by Schliemann for the Homeric capital,and it flourished in the latter half of the secondmillennium B.C. Immediately below this stratumare the remains of three prehistoric settlementswith unimportant houses of stone and brick builton and with the ruins of the Second City, and cover-ing the period of circa 2000-1500 B.C.

    Archaeologists were especially interested in thediscovery of the Second or Burnt City, which ante-dates Homeric Troy by as many years as separated

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    INTRODUCTIONthe latter from classical times. It was a smallfortress, not more than one-third the size of theAcropolis at Athens, but well built with stoutwalls of stone surmounted by brick. At this levelwas unearthed an extraordinary mass of treasure,including silver jars, gold daggers, and diadems ofpure gold, one of which was woven of more thansixteen thousand rings and leaves a Crown jewel,indeed. For many years there lurked a suspicionthat the famous Treasure of Hissarlik might havefallen through, in the early days of excavation,from the sixth to the second level, since it seemedfar too splendid for the older epoch. But in 1908Mr. Seager, while excavating at Mokhlos, off thenorth shore of Crete, discovered similar gold orna-ments among objects which were undoubtedly ofthe same period as the Burnt City, thereby con-firming the accuracy of Dr. Schliemann's originalrecord. The Burnt City had a chequered career,for during an existence of about five hundredyears, 2500-2000 B.C., it was attacked and de-stroyed three' times. Its predecessor was an un-important primitive settlement, with walls ofsmall quarry stones and clay, built upon the virginrock.

    If we are to understand the mental atmospherein which Dr. Schliemann worked, we must re-member that he was a free-lance, alien to theworld of scholars, and eyed askance by them.But nothing could daunt the idealist. From Troyhe followed Agamemnon to Mycenae, on the main-land of Greece.There he disclosed within the walls of the citadel

    deep shaft-graves, wherein lay skeletons of men

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEwomen, and children, surrounded by a superbequipment of arms, ornaments, and objects of art,more than enough to fulfil his boyhood's dreams.These excavations revealed a culture contem-poraneous with the Sixth City at Hissarlik, andwere supplemented by lesser finds in other partsof the citadel and within the great Bee-hive Tombsthat lie outside the fortress \valls. Likewise theprincely palace at Tiryns, in Argolis, the hugedomed tomb at Orchomenos in Bceotia, and thesmaller tomb at Vaphio, near Sparta, yieldedample evidence of a remarkable and hitherto un-suspected civilization that flourished during thesecond millennium before Christ. As yet the earlierculture of the Second City at Hissarlik had notbeen matched.Such discoveries could not be ignored, and evenaroused enthusiasm. Other explorers entered the

    field. The Cyclades were tried, and witnessed toan age as remote as the Burnt City. The hunt forthe home, the origin, of this Jigean civilizationbecame fast and furious. Before the claim of anysite or sites could be recognized as valid, therewere two requirements to be satisfied, a sufficientlylarge local output of the pre-Hellenic art at itsbest and illustrations of the successive steps in itsrise and fall. Of all the islands that lie betweenGreece and Asia Minor, the most likely were ex-plored. Eager search was also made in Phoenicia,Egypt, and Cappadocia, but the essentials werenot forthcoming, the starting-point was not yetreached.Meanwhile there lay to the south the largest

    island of the ^Egean archipelago, as yet untouched.

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    INTRODUCTIONWhy had it not been attacked before ? The reasonwas not far to seek Crete was a land habituallyin revolution. No security of tenure could becounted upon ; the Christian peasants were fearfulthat all finds would be carried off to Constanti-nople, and Turkish authorities did not favour in-vestigations which threw glory upon an alien andsubject people. Only hindrance and failure wereto be anticipated from an attempt. In fact, Dr.Schliemann as far back as the early eighties hadwished to make a trial in the island, where he" hoped to discover the original home of Mycenaeancivilization, but this plan was frustrated by variousdifficulties and finally by recent disturbances."Such was the position of archaeology at the closeof the nineteenth century. The failure to find inany other quarter either the beginnings of thisnew-old civilization or the stages by which it roseand declined, left Crete practically alone in thefield, and Crete waited for release from politicalbondage to be revealed to the world in its truelight.There were other reasons for believing that thequest would end there. The position of the islandas the last port of call between Europe and Egypt,at the gateway of the ^Egean, suggested an im-portant role in the traffic of the ancient civilizedworld. Legends and semi-historical references inHomer, Hesiod, Thucydides, Plato, and Aristotleendowed it with a peculiar interest, and raisedhopes in the hearts of those archaeologists whoremembered how often fable had been proved fact.Zeus himself was born in Crete in the cave ofDicte (or on Mount Ida according to another au-

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEthority), and was even interred on Mount Juktas.To Crete he pursued Europa, who sits forever inher sacred plane tree on the coins of Gortyna. Hismother, Rhea, had a famous temple near thecapital city, Knossos, in the days of Diodorus.Rhea's understudy, Britomartis, sought to escapeZeus by fleeing to a rocky finger of land thatpoints out into the sea between the gulfs of Kissa-mos and Kydonia. The fishermen knew her asDictynna, goddess of the nets. She flung herselfinto the sea and reappeared within recent years injEgina, when Dr. Furtwangler discovered thatunder her other name, Aphaia, she and not Athena,as heretofore supposed, was patron goddess of thewell-known Doric temple.Legend made Minos, the great sea-king of

    Knossos, a friend and comrade of Zeus, father ofAriadne and grandfather of a hero of the TrojanWar. According to Homer he became a lawgiverin Hades ; one must suppose, then, that he hadbeen noted for justice upon earth. But Apollo-dorus, who gives the opinion current in Athens,describes him as a revengeful king exacting tributefrom Athens, every nine years, of seven youthsand seven maidens to feed the maw of the hungryMinotaur, or Minos-Bull. All know the story ofAriadne's love for Theseus, and how she helpedhim to track and slay the beast. Yet whileAthenian potters were decorating their vases withpictures of Theseus killing the Minotaur, sure ofpleasing the popular taste, Herodotus and Thucy-dides were referring to Minos in terms as moderateas modern historians might use concerning Williamthe Conqueror.

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEof Gortyna, containing more than 17,000 letters,the longest ancient Greek Code in existence. Dr.Evans began his Cretan travels in 1894, and, insearch of prehistoric beginnings, discovered onsealstones, worn as charms by the women to-day,the oldest form of European writing. From thesepictograms he reconstructed the life and customsof a wholly unknown people, and with propheticvision led the way into new realms of knowledge.Members of three foreign nations have workedin friendly rivalry to learn the buried history ofCrete. At Knossos, Dr. Evans of Oxford hasequalled Dr. Schliemann in good fortune, andsurpassed him in skill. Professor Halbherr, of theUniversity of Rome, has had parallel success atthe palace sites of Phaestos and Aghia Triadha.At Gournia, Miss Harriet A. Boyd (now Mrs.Hawes), acting for the American ExplorationSociety of Philadelphia, has cleared the mostcomplete pre-Hellenic town yet discovered. Tothe English record may be added the excavationsof Mr. Hogarth at Psychro and Zakro, and ofMr. Bosanquet and Mr. Dawkins at Palaikastro ;to the American credit the less extensive butrichly productive excavations of Mr. Seager atVasiliki, Psyra, and Mokhlos. Goulas was givento the French, but was abandoned when M. De-margne failed to find the prehistoric city expected.Cretan soil may be said to have teemed withpre-Hellenic antiquities. The hopes of archaeolo-gists have been abundantly justified. We havefollowed them and arrived at the home of thefirst European civilization. It is now our pleasureto become acquainted with it.

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    f

    SURVEY OF THE PREHISTORIC PERIODSOF CRETEWE have in brief fashion resumed the way bywhich was made the great discovery of a

    remote civilization existing in the JEgean area andoriginating in Crete. It is not our purpose to writean archaeological treatise dealing minutely and intechnical language with Cretan excavations. Yetwithout a previous outline of their results even ageneral description would be unintelligible to thelay reader, so great and varied is the material. Abook of this kind must reverse the order of thespade. For whereas the excavator begins at thesurface and reads history downward, one whowrites on the subject must ' begin at the begin-ning/ that is, with what the excavator has learnedat the bottom of his pit. And whereas the ex-cavator, from a mass of careful observations,forms his picture of the past, the writer must firstsketch the broad outlines of the picture, and thenfill in the details. For scaffolding he will use thestructure that has cost the excavator years ofeffort, namely, his system of chronology.The Golden Age of Crete, when did it begin andhow long endure ? If we use the phrase in itsnarrower sense, we must limit the time to c. 1500-

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECE1450 B.C., only half a century, like the Age ofPericles, the brilliant ' Fifty Years ' of Athens.But as the whole classical era of Greece appearsgolden in contrast to the later obscurity, so thewhole Minoan Age of Crete shines by comparisonwith what followed. The Minoan Age began atthe end of the Stone Age with the introductionof bronze weapons and tools, and ended with theincoming of iron, which replaced the softer metal.During this long period of about two thousandyears, covering roughly the third and secondmillenniums before Christ, whether it be spears,daggers, saws, nails, fish-hooks, or kettles, theywere of bronze and never of iron. The termMinoan is a picturesque equivalent for the BronzeAge of Crete, and was chosen by Dr. Evans becauseKnossos, the capital of King Minos, was inhabitedfrom the beginning to the end of this era, and hasfurnished more complete data for the study of itsdevelopment than any other site.For the sake of thoroughness, let us mention thelittle that is known of pre-Minoan times, before ex-plaining the now widely accepted scheme ofMinoan chronology.Of the Palaeolithic or Old Stone Age in Cretethere is at present no evidence. Although theisland was cut off from the mainland of Greecerather earlier than from Asia Minor, geographicallyit is a detached piece of Europe, and in Minoantimes played the part of an outpost of that con-tinent.

    Anthropologists are inclined to the view that theNeolithic people of Crete were immigrants, andprobably came from North Africa, but the time

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    PREHISTORIC PERIODS OF CRETEof their coming cannot even be surmised. Knossosand Phaestos both have Neolithic settlements be-neath the Minoan ; and other sites in the south andeast of Crete are known to antedate metal. Dr.Evans, by a comparison of the Knossian strata,has arrived at figures for the duration of eachoccupation. The deposit of historic and Minoantimes from the surface to the top of the Neolithicis 5 '33 metres thick, and represents a passage oftime, fairly attested, of more than five thou-sand years, or about one thousand years to ametre deposit. As it is probable that thefurther we go back the slower the progress,one thousand years to a metre deposit seems aminimum estimate for the Neolithic occupa-tion. Adding, then, the 5-33 metres above theNeolithic stratum to the 6^43 metres of the Neo-lithic stratum, we have twelve metres or abouttwelve thousand years. Thus we arrive at apossible dating of c. 10,000 B.C. for the beginningof the settlement of Knossos. The question ariseswhether the first-comers were in an early stage ofNeolithic culture, as compared with other parts ofEurope. The Neolithic settlement at Knossos wasquite extensive, stretching from the east slope ofthe knoll on which the palace stands to the WestCourt. In it were found stone axes, maces of ser-pentine, obsidian knives, and stone and clayspindle whorls, but no traces of metal. Yet at thevery bottom on viigin soil the finds do not repre-sent a really crude Neolithic culture such, for in-stance, as in Britain.

    It is true that the pottery is of poorly mixed andbadly baked clay, but there is also present a ware

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEwith a lustrous surface, due to hand polishing. Ata considerable depth (9 metres) some potsherdsbore incisions like the marks on a cottage tart orpie ; at a higher level similar incisions were filledwith chalk, foreshadowing, perhaps, a decorationcommon in the Bronze Age, of white paint on asmooth black surface, an advance that took somethousands of years to accomplish. Anotherfavourite effect was procured by the use of ablunt bone instrument worked steadily in wavylines from top to bottom of the vase. In Minoantimes, when the bone tool had yielded to the brush,' the rippling ' still continued, being reproduced bywhite paint on a dark ground and by dark painton a buff ground, showing one of several permanentelements in the age-long culture of Knossos theNeolithic and the Bronze Age with no break be-tween them.

    If Knossos and Phaestos knew only the more ad-vanced forms of Neolithic culture, there are othersites which reveal a cruder and probably an earlierstage. In 1905 one of the writers accompanied Mr.Dawkins, the present Director of the British Schoolof Archaeology at Athens, to Magasa, a mountainvillage in Eastern Crete, near which severalpolished stone axes had been found. Hundreds ofbone awls and much very rude pottery rewardedthe search. The blunt form of the axes and theextreme crudeness of the pottery (incision was rareand rippling unknown) led Mr. Dawkins to placethis site early in the Neolithic period. Obsidianchips were found, pointing to intercourse withMelos, the only source of obsidian in the yEgean,but no obsidian knives occurred, and we may infer

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    PREHISTORIC PERIODS OF CRETEthat the art of flaking them had not yet beenlearned. Still more primitive were the traces ofhuman habitation discovered by Sig. Taramelli inthe grotto of Miamu. The fire hearths, bone dartsand spatulas of huntsmen, not unlike the debris ofa cave-dwelling in Central Europe, were buried ina thick bed of decomposed organic matter, beneatha deposit of Minoan times.The end of the Neolithic is the beginning of theBronze Age, for although copper may have been inoccasional use during the transition, a Copper Agecannot be predicated for Crete as for Cyprus.The introduction of metal seems to have takenplace at about 2800 B.C. The other limit of theBronze Age may be put at about 1200 B.C. ; prob-ably bronze continued to be used in out-of-the-waydistricts when it had been replaced by iron else-where, so that this date must be regarded aselastic.The Minoan or Bronze Age has been divided byDr. Evans into three periods, Early, Middle, andLate Minoan, and each of these subdivided into I,II, and III, representing rise, culmination, and de-cline. It is desirable that the reader should makehimself familiar with these terms and the generalcharacteristics they connote. For, since absolutedating is impossible, as in geology, one must havefrequent recourse to a relative chronology. Perfectunanimity exists among Cretan archaeologists as tothis relative chronology, that is to say, as to theposition of their discoveries in the Minoan scheme.The material they deal with is enormous, andgreat confidence may be reposed in their results.Thus for Dr. Evans, Professor Halbherr, and the

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEwriters, the Second Middle Minoan period has thesame content, if not the same probable date.Even in the attempts to fix absolute dates there isincreasing agreement. The Minoan periods andtheir subdivisions stand in the systems of Dr.Evans and Mrs. Hawes as follows :

    A. J. EVANS. 1 H. B. HAWES.E.M. II, c. 2500.M.M. I, C. 22OO-2OOO M.M. I., C. 22OO-2IOOM.M. II, c. 2000-1850 M.M. II, c. 2100-1900M.M. Ill, *:. 1850-1600 M.M. Ill, c. 1900-1700L.M. I, c. 1600-1500 L.M. I, c. 1700-1500L.M. II, c. 1500-1350 L.M. II, c. 1500-1450L.M. Ill, c, 1350 L.M. III, c, 1450-1200HOMERIC AGE.

    These systems are based on connections withEgypt. Egyptologists differ widely in their datesfor Pharaohs prior to the Eighteenth Dynasty(c. 1580 B.C.), hence our difficulty in ascertainingthe absolute age of Cretan antiquities which areknown to be contemporaneous with the earlierPharaohs. There is a growing conviction, how-ever, that Cretan evidence, especially in the easternpart of the island, favours the minimum (Berlin)system of Egyptian chronology, according towhich the Sixth Dynasty began at c. 2540 B.C.,the Twelfth at c. 2000 B.C., and the Eighteenth atc. 1580 B.C. This system is adopted in the pagesthat follow, and affords three easily remembered

    1 The above is Dr. Evans' revised chronology kindly com-municated by letter to the writers, October 28, 1909. That ofMrs. Hawes appeared in Goitmia, published November, 1908.

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    PREHISTORIC PERIODS OF CRETEdates for the three great eras of Minoan Crete,namely :

    Early Minoan II, c. 2500 B.C., parallel with theSixth Dynasty.Middle Minoan II, c. 2000 B.C., parallel with theTwelfth Dynasty.Late Minoan II, c. 1500 B.C., parallel with theEighteenth Dynast}'.

    Even in the Early Minoan Period, roughly con-temporaneous with the Old Kingdom of Egypt,house-building and the crafts had made consider-able progress. Native art, although still in its in-fancy, was fully alive and vigorous, not merely imi-tative. Crete wras in contact with Egypt on the onehand and with Hissarlik and the Cyclades on theother pupil of the former, teacher of the latter.In the Middle Minoan Period, parallel with theMiddle Kingdom of Egypt, Cretan civilizationreached its first climax. Knossos and Phaestosasserted their leadership of the island. Cretetraded freely with Egypt ; her palaces \vere full ofstores from Africa, Asia, and Europe. Throughthis intercourse the islanders exchanged religiousideas with other lands, and possibly received thehint to develop their own local pictograms into aform of writing ; but Cretan receptivity was asactive as that of Greece in later times, developingand transforming what was of foreign origin intoa product essentially her own. This era was dis-tinguished by brilliancy, dignity, and a remarkablethoroughness in all the arts.The First Late Minoan period represents theheight of prosperity for the smaller towns of Crete.

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEIt was a time of peace and healthy artistic ten-dencies. Builder, potter, painter, and sculptorworked rapidly and freely, not with the thorough-ness and precision of Middle Minoan artists, andnot yet with the conscious love of display thatcharacterized the 'Palace Period.' In no otherstage of Cretan development is joy in art moreapparent or so widespread ; even the humblestarticles of household use are decorated, and greatattention is paid to their form.Pomp and splendour are the key-notes of theSecond Late Minoan or Palace Period the GoldenAge in its narrower sense. It witnessed the re-modelling of the royal residence at Knossos on atruly magnificent scale, and the completion of theSecond Palace at Phsestos with its spacious courts,broad flights of stone stairs and pillared halls.Several thousand tablets testify to the commonuse at this time of a linear writing, probablysyllabic. Inlaying was done with kyanos, crystal,and the precious metals, and gold ornaments werecunningly devised. Bronze and stone vessels ofgreat size and beauty were manufactured. Alavish use was made of brilliant frescoes andpainted reliefs, recalling those of Egyptian tombsand palaces in technique, but not in spirit. Some-times artistic principle was sacrificed to love ofdisplay, and builders resorted to shams in orderto heighten effect or conceal poor work. Thisperiod closed with the sudden destruction ofKnossos. There was no true revival ; the gloryof Crete had departed for ever.Centuries passed before the great wave ofDorian invasion, that engulfed Greece in darkness,20

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    PREHISTORIC PERIODS OF CRETEswept over the once famous island. More thanone inroad preceded it ; an advance guard ofDorians who came from Thessaly avoiding Greece ;Pelasgians and Achaeans from the mainland turn-ing the scale of power and filling Crete withthe mixed population known to Homer. In theThird Late Minoan period art lost all originality ;only convention remained ; letters died out ; butswords increased in length, as if to typify forus not only the growing influence of the North,but the greater part strife was to play in thenext stage of human development. At lengthwith weapons of iron caire contention and fear,utterly divorcing men from peaceful pursuits,driving them to the hilltops for safety, and by theharshest means revivifying them for the renaissanceof the Greek world.

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    II

    PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, DRESS, ANDHOMES OF THE MINOANSBEFORE seeking acquaintance with the chiefMinoan sites and works of art, it will be wellto know something of the people themselves, theireveryday circumstances, occupations, and ideals.Who were the Minoans ? Archaeologists havesought an answer to this question ever since theirfirst discoveries. Human remains of Minoan timeshave been brought to light in cave and ossuary,and have been turned over to anthropologists forexamination. Professors Sergi and Boyd Dawkins,Dr. Duckworth and Mr. C. H. Hawes agree in as-signing them to a type which persists in the Medi-terranean basin to-day, and is called by ProfessorSergi ' the Mediterranean race.' Modern Europe isdivided racially into three belts, of which thesouthern is occupied by the Mediterranean race,the central by the Alpine, and the northern by theNordic or Teutonic race. The Mediterraneanrace type is dolichocephalic or long-headed, brunet,and of short stature, well represented among theSardinians to-day. About one hundred Minoanskulls have been measured, chiefly by Dr. Duck-worth, and of these the great majority are dis-tinctly long-headed. The average stature esti-

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    HOMES OF THE MINOANSmated from the long bones of the skeletons wasunder five feet four inches, at least two inches lessthan the average of the modern inhabitants.Among the skulls were a few broad-heads, whosepresence is somewhat puzzling. The earliest ofthem may have come from Anatolia, but by theend of the Minoan Age their increasing numbersprobably point to an influx from the valley of theDanube. The whole question awaits the results ofrecent investigations made by Mr. Hawes at theinstance of the British Association for the Advance-ment of Science. But a few words may be saidtentatively on the subject.In studying certain physical characters, e.g.stature and measurements of the head of modernCretans, we hope to gain light on the ancient popu-lation, and to assign it a place ethnically among theraces of antiquity. Anthropologists are generallyof opinion that certain physical characters, par-ticularly the shape of the head, are fixed at leastfor several thousand years. An illustration of thiscomes from the Dordogne valley, where Dr. Collig-non found peasants still maintaining the curiousand exceptional combination of the long head andthe broad face of the cave-hunters of the Old StoneAge who lived possibly 20,000 or 30,000 years agoin that very region. Another illustration comesfrom Egypt, where a careful comparison made byDr. C. S. Myers between the modern peasants andthe pre-Dynastic skulls shows no appreciablechange in head measurements during a period of6000 or more years.

    Comparative permanence of type, by which ismeant permanence among. -a majority, involves23

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEcomparative purity of race. Absolute freedomfrom intermixture is difficult if not impossible tofind, but intrusions of minorities, or of the malesex only, as has so often been the case, or immi-grations from an alien clime stand little chance ofmaterially altering the race. In time the alienelement will breed put. Dr. Collignon says on thispoint,

    "When a race, is well seated in a region,fixed to the soil by agriculture, acclimatized bynatural selection and sufficiently dense, it opposes,

    for the most precise observations confirm it, anenormous resistance to absorption by the new-comers, whoever they may be."An example of this is furnished by Crete itself.The Venetian occupation of the island from 1204-1669 has left many traces in roads and ruins ; andamong the Cretan people about 20,000 or 6 percent of the present population bear Venetiannames. These names, though generally Creticized,are recognizable, such, for instance, as Markando-nakis for Markantonio. Are the bearers of thesenames Venetians ? An anthropometric examina-tion reveals the result of generations of marriageswith Cretan natives and a continued thinning ofthe foreign blood ; for in all parts of the island, andin the island as a whole, the Venetian-named showthe same average head form as their neighbours.The ultra broad-head of Venetia is scarcely to befound in Crete, and, strange to say, a markedlylong-headed population now exists where Venetiannames are commonest and the tradition of aVenetian colony still survives (Axos). After ninegenerations the alien immigrants, vastly inferior innumbers and almost exclusively of the male sX,.have bred out. 24

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    HOMES OF THE MINOANSIf the immigrants of historical times have leftfewer traces than might have been expected, do wefind the old Minoan type the Mediterranean raceof the anthropologists persisting to-day, and if so,where ? Mr. Hawes has recently shown that theancient long-head has been driven up and hedgedwithin the least accessible mountain regions. These

    areas are the mountain plain of Lasithi (2700 ft.) inthe shadow of Mt. Dicte, the northern slopes of Mt.Ida in the centre and of the White Mountains in thewest of the island, and the mountains which shut inon the south the rich plain of Messara. Present inconsiderable numbers in the lower plains, this typepredominates in the mountain areas, whither it hasbeen driven by successive invaders. It is especiallyconspicuous in the mountain plain of Lasithi, wherethe long-heads are nine times as numerous as thebroad-heads, surpassing the ratio of five to oneamong the ancient Cretan skulls.In the case of Crete, our earliest evidence showsalready a broad-headed minority we think analien minority alongside the majority of long-heads mentioned above as of the Mediterraneanrace. To-day, nearly 4000 years later, this broad-headedness has increased in number and per-centage, although the modern Cretans are not liketheir Greek neighbours, brachycephalic, but mesati-cephalic. During these 4000 years there have beenmany invasions and immigrations. Towards theend of the Bronze Age, according to tradition,came the Achaeans, followed by the Dorians. Inhistoric times Saracens, Byzantines, Venetians,and Turks have overrun and held sway in theisland. Most of these peoples were broad-headedand taller than the Minoans. The influence of the25

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECETurks as the latest arrivals is traceable thoughnot marked. The other elements left few obvioustraces except the Dorians, who probably affectedthe Cretan type most. In the present state of ourknowledge this is a somewhat bold statement tomake, and we put it forward provisionally.

    Tradition, philology, and archaeology attest arepeated and finally serious Dorian invasion of theisland, but unfortunately for anthropology theintroduction of cremation lessened the chances ofexamining their skulls. The fairly common belief,however, that they came, or the bulk of them,from the north-eastern end of the Adriatic helpsus, for this region fed from north and east has beenfor thousands of years a broad-headed area. Alsofrom Crete itself comes aid. There is an eparchyor county of Crete where the dialect is more Dorianthan elsewhere in the island, and whose inhabitants,isolated by mountain barriers, a bellicose temper,and the custom of endogamy, claim to be of Doriandescent. These are the Sphakiots, and they are,perhaps, with one exception, the broadest-headedpeople in the island.Another alien type with high index is found atthe extreme east end of the island in the eparchy oiSitia, but this is more accurately described as ashort-headed rather than a broad-headed element,and as such reveals relations with Asia Minor, aregion of short-headed peoples. From the MiddleMinoan period to the present day we have recordsof trade and traffic between Crete and Asia Minor,using Rhodes and Karpathos as stepping-stones.A new method in race analysis was tried lastyear by Mr. Hawes, in which the actual shape ofthe head,- taken direct, and not deduced from two

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    HOMES OF THE MINOANSor three measurements, was contrasted. A com-parison was made by this method of the curves orcontours of heads of Sphakiots, Tsakonians (thepeople who speak the most Dorian dialect inGreece), and the Albanians, and the analogy wasfound to be striking.After a little familiarity with the type it becamepossible frequently to recognize a Sphakiot, some-times to our mutual embarrassment, or to correcta false genealogy, as happened once to the astonish-ment of the bazaar where the mystery was muchdiscussed. This type is not confined to Sphakia inCrete, but was found in small numbers in theMessara plain and elsewhere. Although forming aminority in the island, it is the most striking diver-gence from the long-headed or Mediterranean type.Dr. Mackenzie, who has so ably assisted Dr.Evans at Knossos, has sought to establish the con-tinuity of the ancient Cretans throughout the Neo-lithic and Bronze Ages by an appeal to the homo-geneity of form, texture, and material in thepottery left by them. His analysis excludes thepossibility of any strong alien influence before theclose of the Bronze Age.\\e are not dependent entirely on dry bones forour ideas of what the Minoans were like. Picturesof them have survived on the walls of Egyptiantombs and Cretan palaces, and we have smallerlikenesses of them in bronze figurines, gem in-taglios, and steatite reliefs. Making due allowancefor artistic conventions, we may come to somefairly reliable conclusions. The men were bronzed,as are the men of Crete to-day, with beardlessfaces, and dark hair, which . they wore coiled inthree twists on the head, and falling in three long

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEcurls over their shoulders. The women's com-plexions were, no doubt, fairer ; artists politelyrepresented them as white, whereas they used acopper hue for men. Heads were small ; featureswere rather sharp ; Mr. Hall speaks of the ' Euro-pean visaged ' Keftian or man of Crete, whotypifies the western quarter of the earth in thetomb of Puamra, one of Queen Hatshepsut'snobles (c. 1500 B.C.). The male form was spare,' wasp-waisted ' in art, lithe and sinewy ; handsand feet were slender. One would say a small-boned race, relying more on quickness of limband of brain than on weight or size. The traitthe artists loved chiefly to portray was the highspirit, the graceful hauteur of the Minoan youth,KaAos Kayoflos. And the women who dance andconverse on Knossian walls have a self-assuranceand sparkle that modern belles might envy.In their most primitive days Cretans may haveworn skins, cutting them with obsidian knives,and lacing them in some simple fashion, afterhaving made holes with their bone awls. Butstone and clay whorls found in the later Neolithicdeposit at Knossos show that they had learnedto spin, and, probably, therefore, to weave beforethe beginning of the Minoan Age. Women'sdress became more and more elaborate, until itreached an astonishingly modern standard in thefifteenth century before Christ. Careful cuttingand fitting, fine sewing, and exquisite embroiderywere called into play. We learn the results fromthe frescoes and figurines ; we find the lost needlesand bodkins buried in Minoan houses. To quoteMrs. -Williams in. her. appendix to Gournia :

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    HOMES OF THE MINOANS" Frescoes and the faience statuettes from Knossosexhibit an elaborate, tight-fitting bodice, laced infront into a small waist, with short sleeves, some-times puffed, and a very low, open neck. The ap-pearance is strikingly like that of a modernpeasant bodice, worn without a chemisette. Thewaist was confined by a broad belt. Fashionfavoured bell-shaped skirts, the style of which isvaried by plaited ruffles and straight bands, or bydiagonal flounces and bands, while often the skirtis flounced from top to bottom with ruffles of vary-ing widths and colours. Long waving tresses,twists, and coquettish curls, that might be thework of a Parisian coiffeur de dames, were affectedby the beauties of the Knossos court." LadyEvans, describing the dress of " the Snake Goddessand her votary," faience figures from Knossos, says," The whole costume seems to consist of garmentscarefully sewn, and fitted to the shape, withoutany trace of flowing draperies. . . . The linesadopted are those considered ideal by the moderncorset-maker rather than those of the sculptor."But even in the days of greatest luxury Minoanmen were far from self-indulgent in their clothing,save on ceremonial occasions. In almost all repre-sentations of them, the upper part of the body isbare. Often only a clout was worn, in some casesshort drawers or a loin cloth. Buskins and putteeswere common, and a thick belt that accentuatedthe slender waist and held the dagger. A votivedress of the Snake Goddess has a clump of crocusescharmingly embroidered on the front panel, andthe Cup-bearer's loin cloth is richly wrought witha four-petal design. Men wore feathered head-

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEdresses and turbans on special occasions, andwomen had hats of truly modern proportions.Necklaces and armlets were as popular with menas with women. The Cup-bearer of Knossos wearshis signet in a thin bracelet at his wrist, and twobroad bands on his upper arm ; the Dove Goddess,from the late shrine at Knossos, follows the samepractice. Beads of steatite, amethyst, carnelian,rock crystal, and blue paste or kyanos, and smallpendants in the shape of bulls, lions, ducks, otheranimals, flowers, and human beings, have been re-covered in the sieves through which every ounceof excavated soil is sifted when suspected of con-taining such objects. As Mrs. Williams remarks inconclusion, " So far as can be judged from our pre-sent knowledge of the subject, although the dressof Minoan men and women was not graceful, it waselaborate in detail, and not lacking in characterand style."The Neolithic Cretans who had their settlementat Knossos lived in wattle and daub huts like

    those in the terramare district of Northern Italy ;but the Stone Age people of Magasa, althoughmore backward in other respects, built with stonewhen they needed to eke out the shelter of theircave. The progressive steps are missing, but evenin the Second Early Minoan period men were al-ready using a variety of materials, and were con-structing well-finished houses that have resisteddestruction for forty-five hundred years. Themethods they employed were followed by manygenerations of Minoans with only slight changes.On lower walls of rubble were reared upper wallsof large sun-baked bricks, and brick was used also

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    HOMES OF THE MINOANSfor partitions, on a stone foundation. Uprightposts, lengthwise beams, and transverse brancheswere inserted to strengthen the masonry ; andplaster gave a smooth surface to walls of all kinds.Floors were of flagstones, cobbles, cement, orbeaten earth. For ceilings they used reeds daubedwith plaster, as in many a Cretan cottage to-day,and roofs were flat, of the terrace form still popularin the East.

    At first the country folk used small stones un-broken and untrimmed, set in relatively largemasses of clay, and gave the needed firmness totheir walls by an excellent quality of plaster. Intime

    largerstones were set up ; the clay mortarbecame inconspicuous, and small stones were

    wedged into the interstices of the walls. But true' Cyclopean ' masonry comes late in the historyof Minoan architecture, and one wonders whetherits adoption was due to increased mechanical skillamong the people or to some social change thatplaced the labour of the many at the bidding ofthe few. The best building was done in the MiddleMinoan Period, and architecture began to lose someof its integrity before the other arts showed anysymptoms of decline.As in women's dress, so in house-planning,Minoan style was modern rather than classical.The burghers of Gournia were guided by con-venience, not by a fixed plan. Houses built on aslope had basement rooms connecting with a back-door on the down-hill side, while the entrance tothe main floor was by a doorway flush with thestreet. Crossing the stone threshold one foundhimself in a paved antechamber with several doors

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEleading to the ground-floor rooms, and stepsmounting to the second storey ; to the cellar hemight descend directly from the antechamber orfrom an inner room. Strong timbers were neededfor the support of the second storeys, for evenupper floors were sometimes of stone, as in manymodern Italian houses. Windows are represented inthe faience copies of houses found at Knossos, andare painted red, as if to indicate the use of an " oiledand scarlet-tinted parchment" where we to-dayemploy glass. Dr. Evans even thinks that he candetect a window-curtain of light material a touchthat at once puts us on friendly and intimateterms with the past.

    Often the purpose of the various rooms can beguessed : one was a larder, in another stood theloom, here was a forge, and there a carpenter'sbench. There is no trace of separation into men'sand women's quarters except on palace sites.Whereas the ordinary citizen had six or eightrooms at his disposal, those a few feet higher onthe social ladder could boast twice that number.Probably the first leaders had dwellings hardlyto be distinguished from other homes save in size.Distinct traces of the old manor-house of formless

    type survive in the small palace at Gournia, inspite of painstaking endeavours to follow the leadof Knossos and Phaestos in remodelling. Thegreat palace sites take us from abodes of ordinarycomfort and convenience into realms of luxury.Of the late Minoan buildings, not of the olderstructures buried beneath them, the travellerthinks, when he recalls the visits that introducedhim to a new chapter of European history. Ten

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    HOMES OF THE MINOANSyears ago the boldest dared not imagine that inthis island of the Mediterranean men had liveda life rich in satisfaction for the senses and theintelligence one thousand years before the Age ofPericles. "The Palace of Knossos," says its dis-coverer, " like the great Indian Palaces of thepresent day, was a town in itself." It stood fourstoreys high on the east side, and had a floor spaceof not less than five acres. " Companies of skilledcraftsmen and artists lived within its walls." To-day it is a veritable maze of chambers, magazines,and courts, disposed in well-defined groups ofapartments, on certain broad lines of symmetry,but in a rambling style wholly opposed to theclassical. Finely-squared limestone, handsomeblocks of gypsum, columns of cypress, brilliantwall-paintings contributed to the splendid appear-ance. The palace possessed two great courts, atheatral area, audience chambers, bath-rooms, anda drainage system not equalled in Europe betweenthat day and the nineteenth century. Suitablysecluded within this labyrinthine structure wefind domestic apartments planned to please menand women of fastidious habits, exacting in theirdemand for ease and magnificence. As we shalldescribe the ruins of Knossos and Phaestos in afollowing chapter, only this general reference tothem need be made here.In trying to picture a Minoan interior, theWesterner must rid his mind of all the moderncomplexity of furnishings to which he is accus-tomed. The true Orient will teach him, although,strangely enough, when he seeks to imitate theEast, he arrives at the opposite pole from Eastern

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEsimplicity ; he crowds into one room what theOriental would have in twenty. Minoan roomswould certainly have seemed bare to our eyes.Stone benches and stone platforms that still existmight possibly induce repose if strewn with propercoverings. Wood, 'cloth, reeds, and skins are notpreserved in Crete as in Egypt, hence a large gapin our inventory of house furniture that cannotbe filled. Stools and chairs have vanished, but itis to be remembered that the throne of Knossosis a copy in stone of a wooden model, as Dr. Evanshas demonstrated by reproducing its exact linesin walnut, and that the faience mosaic to bedescribed later was set in the panels of a woodenchest, which must have been a truly magnificentpiece of furniture. The richest decorations ofMinoan rooms consisted in elaborate mural paint-ings between formal borders, of which we shallsay more in our chapter on art. Low relief andpainting were often combined to produce an effectlike Sargent's Moses in the Public Library ofBoston. In the bourgeois houses of Gournia thefinish of the walls was usually a very light bluishgrey, but we found a few precious bits of brightstucco, somewhat deeper in shade than the Pom-peian red.Round tables, lamps, and basins were turnedout by the potter and stone-carver in a few simpleforms, found alike in palace and cottage. Thedifferences consist in employing a handsomerstone (often the false porphyry that is local) andcarving it, or in painting the clay intended forroyal use. To make them portable the roundtable tops and bowls were often distinct from their

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEladles, and tinder boxes were made in gracefulshapes ; plates may have been of wood, like theJapanese, for the shape is very rare among ourfinds, whereas bowls and cups are among the mostfrequent of all our discoveries. Many a room atKnossos, Phaestos, or Gournia has received thenickname kapheneion (coffee-house) from the work-men, because of the rouleaux of handleless cups itcontained. A teacup form with handle is some-what less common and more often decorated.The variety of household vessels alone wouldprove that the prehistoric inhabitants of Cretewere far removed from savagery or even barbarism,for such variety points to a discriminate adaptationof means to ends. One is tempted to neglectthis ordinary and somewhat unattractive material,but the penalty of such neglect is to lose a back-ground for our picture of the past. We mustknow the standard of living as well as the aestheticprinciples or martial achievements of a race.

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    IllINDUSTRIES AND COMMERCE

    IN direct contrast to such peoples as theAssyrians, whose story is one long series ofwars and plundering expeditions, the ancientCretans, unlike their modern representatives, werea peaceful people, and made their conquests inarts, industries, and commerce.Among industries evidenced by recent excava-tions in Crete, agriculture has left us no tools ex-cept, perhaps, bronze sickles. Minoans did withhand labour and perishable implements what weaccomplish by machines. It is still possible on themountain-sides, where the crop is scanty, to seemen and women plucking the corn. But of farm-ing and the yet older pursuit of grazing the earliestCretan writing bears ample witness. Cattle, sheep,goats and pigs, the plough, the barred fence, milkvessels suspended from yokes, are among theoldest picture signs. Every site of a town hasyielded stone mortars and querns for grindingcorn ; and the actual peas and barley grainsthe housewife's store for the morrow that nevercame have been discovered at the bottoms ofmany buried jars. That the fig-tree was knownand cherished is proved by frequent representa-tions, but the vine no\vhere appears unless in onedoubtful instance on a faience plaque. Olive oU

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    INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCEThe early appearance of bronze in a countryand the question of its origin are always of great

    interest to archaeologists, for if the discovery wasindigenous, then it registered the opening of agreat epoch ; or, if it came from foreign parts,then we have a record of commerce, or possiblyinvasion. It is generally believed that Cretansobtained their first bronze by commerce ; butthey were sailors with their wits about them, andit was not long before they began to manufacturefor themselves. That bronze was cast in ruraltowns, such as Gournia, is amply proved by thefinding of scraps of bronze and slag, pure copperadhering to smelting vessels, a crucible and pot forcarrying a charge of metal, and by numerous stonemoulds, into which the molten metal was run formaking knives, nails, awls, and chisels. On a head-land about three miles east of this town are frag-ments of an ancient furnace, called figurativelyby the peasants the ' Golden Furnace ' ; and somespecimens of rock from an adjacent cliff haveshown on analysis a low percentage of copper, notsufficient to induce modern enterprise, but evi-dently not neglected by the prehistoric inhabitants.The Gournia burghers used copper in an almostpure state when they needed metal that was mal-leable and flexible, as in the case of a large bowlhammered without seam ; and narrow strips formending, one of which was found tied in a bunchas we secure an odd bit of tape ; but their toolsand weapons were of bronze, containing as muchas ten per cent alloy with copper. Two specimensof Gournia implements examined in Americanlaboratories contained 9.6 and 10.45 Per cent f

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEtin. The best products of the metal workers mustbe reserved for discussion under works of art.There is one craft whose fabrics are of vastly

    greater relative importance to-day than whenthey were made. The potter little dreamed thatthe work of his hands would outlive the muchmore highly esteemed products of the armourer,cutler, and goldsmith, and would provide thesafest series of signs to mark the passage of pre-historic time. On every ^Egean site tens of thou-sands of potsherds are unearthed, washed, andcarefully studied with reference to the exactposition and depth where they were found, evenwhen there is no prospect that they can be puttogether into their original shapes. The truesequence of forms and styles of decoration is atlength determined for each site, and constitutesone of the excavator's chief contributions to thescience of archaeology. Each sequence now findsits proper place in a larger scheme, the history ofygean ceramics, covering many centuries andmore than one millennium. Thereafter if a newsite yields a certain set of forms and designs, itsposition in this scheme of relative chronology canbe immediately established. As the shape ofpalaeolithic axe or neolithic celt enables theEuropean archaeologist to subdivide his cultureperiods, so but with much greater certaintythe form, texture, design, and colour of Minoanpotsherds make it possible for the Cretan archae-ologist to grade his discoveries.In pre-Minoan times pots were made and polishedby hand, and decorated, if at all, by incision, suchas the humble housewife makes on the border of

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    INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCEher pie, or by rippling only, until the fashion offilling the incisions with chalk was introduced atKnossos. But the Minoan potter shared in thegeneral progress that followed the incoming ofmetal ; he learned to sift his clay fine, to use therotating wheel in place of some ruder means ofturning his vase, such as a movable plank or mat,and to bake in the oven instead of over a smokyhearth. A great step was taken with the actualpainting of the clay. Dr. Mackenzie thinks thiscame about as a result of improved methods inbaking; for the practice of filling incisions withchalk on the dark surface of the open-hearthpottery was no longer applicable to the light groundof the oven-baked ware. The problem was how todecorate a buff-coloured surface. This problemwas solved in two ways by covering the surfacewith a black body-paint, on which designs weredrawn in white, orange, and red pigments, closelyakin to the chalk of the incised pottery ; and bysketching in paints on the buff surface itself.These two styles developed side by side, but not atequal pace. The light on dark style was long pre-ferred for all finer wares, no doubt because itslustrous black ground imitated metal. But atthe close of the Middle Minoan Period potterybegan to gain independence, and the greaterpossibilities of the dark on light style in expressingthe spirit of naturalism that was invading all thearts won for it an enduring triumph.

    It is readily understood that for one decoratedvase a score of undecorated pots and kettles is un-earthed. The potter moulded his clay into anextraordinary number of shapes to supply needs

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEfor which we employ to-day, not earthenwarealone, but also wood, glass, and metal ; and in thecourse of his more serious work he made scores ofdiminutive vases, found on every ^Egean site,which appear to be children's toys. They do notseem to be votive, for scarcely a house at Gourniawas without them, and none are recorded fromthe shrines. Moreover, several of the shapes, e.g.tiny tripod kettles, are decidedly more appropriatefor children's housekeeping than for religiousoffering. The subject of decoration on potterywill be dealt with in the chapter on art.The Minoans did not confine their energies totheir island home. The sea called them, and tradewas the chief factor in their development.We cannot be sure that their first imports, suchas obsidian from Melos, were brought in their own

    boats, but we know that Neolithic peoples didventure on the sea, and therefore must admit thepossibility. On an Egyptian relief of the SixthDynasty (c. 2500 B.C.) Muller sees ^geans bringingtin into Egypt. If ^Egeans, then probably Cre-tans, since we know they were already in the lead.Muller believes the tin came from the mountains ofCentral Europe, but Mrs. Hawes thinks it mayhave come from a yet more distant region, Khor-assan, reached by long caravan routes acrossAnatolia, or by shorter ones from the end of theBlack Sea.

    Dr. Evans claims that a bowl found at Knossoswas made in Egypt at about the beginning of theFourth Dynasty, of liparite carried thither fromthe ^Eolian islands. The Cretans appear, there-fore, in the guise of peaceful traders so early as the

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    INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCEOld Kingdom, furnishing raw material to Egyptand receiving, in one instance at least, the finishedproduct in return. No name that can be assignedto them has yet been discovered in the texts of theOld Kingdom, and we must suppose that theywere included among the Hanebu ' folk of thepapyrus lands,' a term that probably connoted, toEgyptians, the inhabitants of the northern Deltaand unlocalized foreigners whom they knew onlythrough the Delta.Contact between Crete and Egypt was closestand friendliest during the first half of the fifteenthcentury before Christ, i.e. the Palace Period ofKnossos or Second Late Minoan, contemporarywithThothmes III and Queen Hatshepsut at Thebes.Wall-paintings, in important Theban tombs of thesereigns, depict men bearing Cretan vases, whosefigures and dress are unmistakably Minoan andunfamiliar to Egyptians. In the reigns immedi-ately following, however, Cretan vases are repre-sented in the hands of bearded Asiatics. Howshall we explain the change ? In the older tombsthe bearers are entitled ' Princes of the Isles in theMidst of the Great Green Sea/ and one of them iscalled a ' Prince of the Keftiu.' The identifica-tion of Keftiu with the maritime empire of Knossosis now generally accepted. It appears that theMinoans assumed a national identity as 'Keftiu' inthe minds of Egyptians during the long reign ofThothmes III. At about the close of his reignKnossos fell, and the Keftian state could no longersend envoys and presents to Egyptian officials.Minoan art products still in vogue were imitatedand diffused, chiefly through the hands of the

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    Phoenicians, who succeeded to the merchantmarine of the Mediterranean. A very picturesquerepresentation of this Phoenician trade in Minoanwares existed until lately in a Theban tomb of thetime of Amenophis III (c. 1380 B.C.). Hall tellsus " Phoenician ships which took part in this tradeare mentioned in an Egyptian inscription as' Keftiu ' ships, i.e. ships which go to Keftiu, likeBritish ' East Indiamen.' " The mantle of theMinoans had fallen on the shoulders of the Phoeni-cians, who have for so long paraded it as their own.

    Crete itself has given us some interesting pic-tures of her boats. On an Early Minoan steatiteseal-stone we see a boat provided with both sailsand oars, and two crescent moons above the mastsignify that the owner of the seal dared to ventureon a two months' voyage. On a wonderful goldring found by Mr. Seager on the islet of Mokhlos isengraved the departure of a ship, sailing forthand this is important from a shrine of the GreatMinoan Goddess. Again, on a seal-impressionfrom the Little Palace at Knossos, a noble horseof enormous size is being transported on a one-masted boat, driven by Minoan oarsmen seatedbeneath an awning. According to Dr. Evans thisrepresents the coming of the thoroughbred horseinto Crete in the earlier part of the Late MinoanPeriod ; but the fact that a horse is engraved onan Early Minoan seal-stone belonging to thewriters, shows that the animal was known to theCretans many centuries earlier.That Minoans were a maritime sea- faring peopleis further attested by many other finds : bronzefish-hooks of precisely the same shape as our

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    INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCEiron ones, lead sinkers for lines, net-weights,vases with marine designs, e.g. coral, seaweed,the octopus, nautilus, and murex, and above allby the proximity to the sea of all importantMinoan sites. For many reasons, of which a fewonly can be mentioned here, the opinion is fastgaining ground that the whole sea-borne tradebetween Europe, Asia, and Africa in the middleof the second millennium before Christ was undertheir control.The tradition of this Cretan supremacy hascome down to us from the two greatest of Greekhistorians. Herodotus speaks of Minos the Knos-sian as one who had the mastery of the ^Egean, indays before " that which is called the generationof man." Thucydides tells us that Minos was thefirst to whom tradition ascribed a navy. " Hemade himself master of a great part of what isnow termed the Hellenic Sea ; he conquered theCyclades. . . . Lastly, it was he who from anatural desire to protect his growing revenues,sought, as far as he was able, to clear the sea ofpirates."

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    IVTHE SITES: KNOSSOS

    traveller will do well to visit the Museum_ at Candia, in order to fix his attention onthe chief objects and learn their provenance be-

    fore venturing out to Knossos ; but the readerwho cannot see with his own eyes the works ofart, will avoid confusion by getting a runningacquaintance with the different sites and theircharacteristics, before studying in detail whatthey have yielded.Of all Minoan sites, Knossos is the most famousand the most accessible. As early as the sixties,Mr. Stillman, the American consul at Canea, hadobserved on the knoll south of the Roman theatreat Knossos, parts of more ancient walls bearingunfamiliar signs ; but it was not until thirty yearslater that Dr. Evans, impressed with the possi-bilities, bought a piece of land at Knossos andfollowed up this purchase with a claim for theprehistoric site.The palace, for such it is, lies about three anda half miles by road south of Candia. Issuing fromthe city by the southern gate, the traveller leavesbehind the massive walls, the still completebastions and counterscarps of the Venetian city,which endured the longest siege in history. To theleft is a Mussulman cemetery, first occupied by

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    PALACE OF KNOSSOS.(From Annual ofthe British School at Athens.)

    A North Gate.B Northern Bath.C Central Court.D Throne Room.E Industrial Quarter.F Hall of the Double-Axe^.

    G Hall of the Colonnades.H Queen's MegaronI West Court.J South-west Portico.K Inner Court.L Corridor of the Magazines

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    THE SITES: KNOSSOSthe Turks who fell in the great siege of 1648-1669.Rising suddenly from the plain, but five miles dis-tant, is the cone of Mount Juktas, where, accordingto Cretan legend, Zeus was buried ! About twomiles along the road is a by-path leading eastwardto a small plateau called Isopata, or, in longerform, ' the Plateau of St. Nicholas/ whence anoble view is obtained over city, plain, and sea.Here a surprise awaits one, for in the heart of thishill lies a tomb of princely dimensions and con-struction. No British general, Turkish bey,Venetian noble, or Greek archon was ever buriedin such a grave. Farther back the mind mustgrope to a day when Crete was the centre of anempire, commanding the trade of the Mediter-ranean, and cultivating manual arts with a successrarely equalled.About thirty-four hundred years have passedsince this burial chamber was completed. It isoblong (8 m. by 6| m.) with vertical ends ; thetop courses have fallen in or been carried awayby peasants seeking building-stone, yet enoughremains of the sides to show that they had a slightinclination inward from the ground level, whichincreased with the height, bringing the apex of thevault about eight metres above the floor, so thatthe height and length of the chamber were equal.The tomb has been excavated from above, butthe original entrance was from the east side by astraight passage and fore-haU ; the passage(dromos) was cut out of soft rock, and slantsgradually down to the level of the tomb. Cham-ber and fore-hall are of large squared blocks oflimestone.

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    THE SITES: KNOSSOSAlthough the structure displays no such feats ofarchitecture as are seen in the Pyramids of Egyptand the great Bee-hive tombs of Greece (the latterfurnish the closest parallel, but with important

    differences), yet it does impress one with the carea id ability of the builders, and the importance ofthe person or persons for whom the tomb wasbuilt. A curious feature is seen in the two oppositerecesses flanking the fore-hall. These were sepul-chral niches filled with debris of very late Minoantimes. The principal chamber appears to havebeen designed for an august personage who wasburied in a cist-grave near the north-east corner.Centuries before Dr. Evans discovered it, thetomb was rifled of the gifts and treasures which itwas customary to place with the dead the gold-mounted sword and jewellery that lay beside or onthe body, and the bronze vessels and other objectsthat stood on the covering slabs ; but enoughfragments were found to prove the magnificenceof the original gifts and to heighten the im-pression that the knoll of Isopata once covered aking.To reach Knossos one need not return to themodern road, for Isopata is within a stone's throwof the ancient way which led from the Minoan portat the mouth of the river to the prehistoric capitalthree and a half miles inland. The usual approachby the direct road from Candia is disappointing.The knoll on which the palace stands, though steepenough on the river side and of significance fromthe north, is scarcely discernible from the high-road on the west. The skeleton tower built byDr. Evans, in order to view his excavations as a

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEwhole, does not enhance the picturesqueness ofthe site. Nevertheless, any visitor endowed witha moderate amount of constructive imaginationand fortified by a little reading or by observationin the museum at Candia, will soon recognize thatKnossos is the most important excavation of thenew century.Keeping in the direction of the harbour road,the traveller, pursuing a field path, skirts the deep

    graves of Zafer Papoura and passes over many anundiscovered Minoan treasure before he reachesthe great North Gate of the palace. Every yearyields fresh finds in the neighbourhood of theancient highway. In the season of 1909 Dr. Evanslaid bare another tomb a quarter of a mile fromIsopata, similar to the one we have described, butwith a pavilion roof. This also had been rifled, buta handsome solid gold ring with an engraving ofdancing ladies and a fine chalcedony seal, with agreat dog portrayed on it, testified to the wealth ofthe occupant. A tomb of the period following theBronze Age was discovered close at hand, con-taining no less than seventy vases, many ofthem of considerable size, which are now in themuseum at the Villa Ariadne, Dr. Evans' house atKnossos.

    Still further remarkable discoveries were madeduring the summer of 1910. No less than sixchamber tombs, each with its dromos cut in thesoft rock, came to light in this neighbourhood.They belong to the Second Late Minoan period,and are therefore earlier than the graves of ZaferPapoura. Plundered soon after the end of theBronze Age, they had not been entered since that

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEolder structures have been revealed by excava-tion, to the immeasurable gain of archaeology if tothe serious confusion of visitors.

    In contrast with mediaeval Candia, and withprehistoric Troy, Tiryns, Mycenae, and Athens, theancient capital of Crete had no wall of fortification.In this respect, as in many others, Knossos wasmodern in spirit. Trusting throughout a longperiod of its history to the immunity of isolation,^nd later to an actual supremacy at sea, theMinoan capital, like London and Washington,preferred to run the risk of capture, rather thanto cramp its life within walls. And, like Londonand Washington, it was fired by enemies andrebuilt with greater splendour and with no seriousinterruption of its prosperity ; until at last itsown vitality was spent and there could be norecovery from an attack in which the enemywithin the gates combined with the old foe fromthe North to wreck the Minoan State.Notwithstanding the absence of general fortifi-cations, considerable care was expended instrengthening the North Gate, which was themost accessible from the sea. A guard-housestands just without the Gate, dominating thepoint where roads from city and seaport meet.vSentry-boxes and flanking bastions command thenarrow stepped gangway that ascends to theCentral Court. The masonry on both sides ofthe ascent is especially massive and careful, oflarge blocks, well squared and neatly jointed.Gypsum, so common elsewhere in the Palace,is absent here, being too soft for such use. Solidlimestone alone is employed, and the quality is

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    THE SITES: KNOSSOSthe best in the island, although still many gradesinferior to Greek building stone.Nowhere on the site does the stone work sur-pass that of the Northern Bath (B), a chamberabout thirty yards west of the Gate. It is builtwith closely fitted blocks of limestone, faced withgypsum slabs 2m. high and i|m. broad. Thestratification of debris and walls overlying thischamber, furnished perfect evidence that it wasbuilt at least five hundred years before the Palacetook its final form. Likeness of structure indicatesthat the North Gate was built at the same earlytime (about 2100 B.C.), but whereas the Bathwas buried in debris before the erection of theroyal edifice whose ruins now astonish us, theGate was never abandoned but was incorporatedinto the later Palace and continued in use untilthe fall of Knossos.A rather grim feature of the Northern Entranceis the proximity of three walled pits nearly 25feet deep, which Dr. Evans suggests may havebeen oubliettes for state prisoners. In contrastto this, is his more agreeable conjecture that thefine masonry east of the Entrance supportedthree terraces with small garden plots of palmsand flowering shrubs, whence dwellers in thepalace looked out on the river valley slopingtowards the sea and watched the busy life ofthe harbour road. He is justified in his pictureby the example of a terrace at Phaestos in asimilar position, and by scenes which were paintedin fresco on the walls of the palace at Knossos, theso-called Miniature Frescoes.The spacious Central Court (C) occupied an area

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEof about twenty thousand square feet. This greatpiazza was paved but never covered in. Onah sides it is enclosed by the palace, a narrowframe of buildings on the north and south, a wideerection on the east and west. The west wingof the palace was given over to business ; theeast wing, welcoming the morning sun and breezebut protected from the afternoon heat, made apleasant dwelling for royal personages and theirdependants.Ambassadors and persons with important busi-ness to transact were admitted by the NorthGate to the Central Court and conducted to theaudience chamber, which Dr. Evans has namedthe Throne Room (D). This is a part of the westwing, but it communicates with the CentralCourt alone. Strangers could wash off the dustof their journey in a shallow tank that forms partof the room, and could rest from their fatigue ina dark cubicle adjoining. On the west wall ofthe audience chamber winged dragons faced eachother, one on either side of the cubicle door, as ifto guard the repose of those who slept within.The other walls were painted with river scenes,reeds, grasses, and gently moving water, suggestingtranquillity. Against the north wall stands asimple dignified throne made of gypsum, whichone of the writers had the good fortune to seeemerging from its grave of many centuries theoldest throne in Europe. It is of gypsum, andbelow the seat is carved " a double moulded archspringing from flat fluted pilasters . . . thelower part of the mouldings of the arch on eitherside were, by a strange anticipation, of later

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    THE SITES: KNOSSOSGothic, adorned with bud-like crockets." Oneither side of it are gypsum benches for thecouncillors, and another, between columns ofcypress, opposite the throne, probably accommo-dated legates or petitioners. Persons interestedin seeing and hearing the proceedings couldstand within the shady portico that gives entrancefrom the Central Court to the Throne Room.

    East of the North Gate were the stables andacross the Court from the Throne Room stood ahall, possibly for the entertainment of strangers,and the industrial quarters (E) of the palace,occupying the north-east corner of the vast build-ing. Here lived the colonies of artisans who wereconstantly employed in embellishing the edificeand in satisfying the needs of its many inhabitants.Rustic pottery of a conservative type was manu-factured for this working population high-shoul-dered jars with short necks and blunt spouts,meagrely decorated, often by merely splashingpaint on the shoulder and allowing it to trickledown the sides in fantastic lines. Typical examplesof this decoration are two huge jars which remainin situ within the north-east precincts of the palace,in connection with an elaborate system for therefining of oil. No doubt the olives were pressedin the groves, but the crude oil was brought tobe washed and stored by the palace servants, whoused for the purpose vats and troughs whichhave survived the centuries. One of the jarsstands nearly 7 feet high with a girth of 15 feet.Evidently it ranked as an achievement, for inaddition to the painted trickle ornament and anover-generous supply of handles, it has a moulded

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    CRETE, FORERUNNER OF GREECEdecoration, imitating in clay the ropes by whichsuch vessels were bound and lifted.

    Pottery was one of the humblest arts practisedin the palace. Frescoes and mural reliefs were ofcourse also executed on the spot. Stone-cuttersdeveloped great skill in architectural carvingand in the fabrication of stone vases. Two ofthese were discovered in the workroom wherethey were being made at the moment of theattack on Knossos. The smaller one, about14 inches high, was only roughed out, but theother twice as large was finished the " King ofStone Vases " with three handles, spiral bosses,and metallic inlays probably of gold. Eleven menwere needed to transport it.In other chambers were bits of gold-leaf,unfinished beads, and fragments of ivory, salvagefrom the benches of inlayers, goldsmiths, andgem-engravers. A royal faience factory turnedout masterpieces in 'porcelain.' Delicate claymoulds, far too fragile for casting metals, arerelics of this industry which came to richer fruitionin Crete than in Egypt, the land of its origin.All dis