2015 Raintree Nursery Plant Owners Manual

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  • 8/9/2019 2015 Raintree Nursery Plant Owners Manual


    Use his bookle along wih he inormaion in he RainreeNursery caalog and websie www.rainreenursery.com o geyour plans off o a good sar. They include inormaion no inhis manual, including soil requiremens, pollinaion guides, he

    ulimae size o each plan, necessary spacing, and oher impor-n inormaion. Please le us know i you need he Rainreeaalog sen o you, or you can go o our websie and view or prinu he caalog.While his guide will ge you ge sared, he inormaion is

    imied o wha you will need or he firs year or wo. We recom-mend you purchase one or more o he excellen horiculuralbooks lised in our caalog and on our websie. Your couny Co-

    peraive Exension Service is also a good place o go or experdvice specific o your area. The useul links we provide on page4, or a web search will help you as well.


    When your mail order plans arrive, he roos o he ‘bare roo’plans will be surrounded by recycled shredded paper and henwrapped in a plasic bag o reain moisure.

    When your order arrives, firs careully remove he plansrom he ouer cardboard box. Check he ag on each plan o

    make sure ha wha you have received is wha we confirmed onhe enclosed packing slip.

    Small seedlings or berries may be bundled a he base o yourarger rees wihin he plasic bag. We have flagged hem o makehem easier o spo. Several plans may be packed ogeher inne package o save moisure and reduce shipping coss, so i you

    don’ see all he ags, open each plasic bag o be cerain ha hepparen single plan is no in ac several smaller plans. Please

    noiy us immediaely o any errors or any broken rees.

    Mos plans can be planed upon arrival as long as yourground isn’ rozen and he emperaure while you are acuallyplaning is above reezing. I won’ hur mos o he bare rooplans even i he emperaure goes below reezing afer he ree

    r shrub is planed. Dorman cold hardy poted plans can beunpoted and planed direcly ino he ground. I you are ready oplan you can skip he nex secion.


    I you are no ready o

    plan, don’ worry…youhave several opions.The bes opion, i heemperaure is abovereezing, is o “heel”hem in. Dig a hole in ashady spo big enougho accommodae heroos o he enire bun-dle o bare roo plans,hen mound up soil orsawdus o compleelycover he roos. The roos need o be kep mois bu no waer

    logged. They can go ino a hole in he ground or ino a conainwih sawdus or similar maerial.Beore heeling in, remove he plasic bag and shredded pape

    ha surrounds he roos.You can briefly keep your leafless bare roo plans in he plas

    bags hey came in, in a cool place where plans will no reeze odry ou; or example, in a garage (ideally 35-45°F).

    DO NOT sore your dorman bare roo plans in a warm plaor insance, in your house, or more han a ew days i hey argoing o be planed in cold condiions. Plans kep under warmcondiions or an exended period o ime lose hardiness and mhen be damaged by even mild ros.

    I you can’ heel he bare roo plans in, open he bag conainhe roos and spray he roos as needed wih waer o keep he

    mois bu no soggy. Keep in a shaded place, and ry no o leava puddle o waer in he plasic bag. You can poke small holes ihe botom o allow drainage. Close he op o he bag o reainhe moisure, and check periodically o be sure he roos are nositing in waer or have become dry. Remember ha he sooneyour plans are in heir permanen locaion, he beter chancehey have o hriving!

    Aronias ...............................10Asparagus............................9Bamboo ................................8Blackberries ......................11Blueberries.........................12Cirus ..................................... 8Cranberries ........... ............ .12Currans .............................10Elderberries .......................11Empress ................................9Figs ..........................................9Frui Trees .........................10Goji Berries ........................13

    Grapes ..................................12Bananas ................................8Honeyberries ....................11Horseradish ............ ...........13Kiwi Vines ..........................13Lingonberries ............. ......12Mashua ................................13Mason Bees....................... 15Mulberries...........................9Mushrooms ........................9Nu Trees ........................... 14Oca .........................................13Olives .....................................9

    Passifloras ..........................12Paw Paws .............................9Persimmons .......................9Pomegranes ......................8Raspberries ........................ 11Roosocks .......................... 7Seaberries ...........................11Srawberries ....................10Subropicals .......................8Tea Plans ............. ............ ..12Wasabi ..................................13Yacon ............ ............. ............13



    Our plants are guaranteed to arrive alive and

    well and be true to name as labeled. When give

    proper care, they will leaf out and grow. Claims

    for unsatisfactory plants or shortages must be

    made within seven days of receipt of the order

    to get a full refund. Call us immediately and we

    will work with you to correct any problem.

    If a plant fails to leaf out and grow, and you

    believe the plant was defective, notify us within

    the first year and we will place a credit for the

    cost of the plant in our system toward future

    purchases. Or, we will replace your plant once

    free, provided you pay the cost of shipping.

    Our liability is limited to the purchase price o

    the plant. Sale items are guaranteed at the sale

    price. Bonus items are not guaranteed.

     Raintree Nursery• 1-800-391-8892 • www.RaintreeNursery.com


    When Your Plans Arrive ........... ............ ..1Beore You plan ........................................1-2How o Plan ....................................................3Pruning...........................................................4-5

    Care o Each Plan ...................................7-14Lis o More Resources ............. ............ .... 14Pes Conrol ............ ............ ............. ........ 16-22Frui Care Calendar .............................23-24

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    I you are planing rees and shrubs ha have come ou o dor-mancy,or planing when he weaher has warmed up in lae spring

    r summer, you need o ake exra care. Unil you plan, sore plansn a shady place and make sure he maerial surrounding he rooss kep damp. They will do bes i he weaher is overcas or rainingor several days ollowing planing. I i will be sunny, eiher planhem in a conainer, which you can keep in a shady spo unil he

    plans have setled in, or heel he plans in loose soil in a shady spo.Plan ino he permanen locaion when here will be an exendedperiod o cool cloudy weaher.

    I you mus plan in he permanen locaion when here is ao o sun, give he roos an hour or wo o soak in waer, plan ahe end o he day, and waer in well. Sprinkle he ground lighlyround he new plans o increase air moisure and reduce sressn rees, avoid weting he leaves when he sun is brigh over-

    head or a he end o he day. Providing emporary shade willalso reduce sress. I you plan during sunny weaher you may

    ee he leaves droop. Someimes hey will die and be replacedby new leaves sprouing rom each bud. I his happens he neweaves will enable he plan o recover and hrive. Throughou hepring and summer waer he plans deeply abou once a week i hasn’ rained. I is imporan o mulch he ree or keep heround around he plan ree o weeds ha will rob he soil o

    waer and nuriens.


    We hold our cold hardy poted plans in greenhouses ha areusually unheaed o keep hem dorman as long as possible. Wedo provide hea i emperaures all much below reezing buno enough hea o make he plans break dormancy. Dorman

    old hardy poted plans can usually be planed ouside unlesshe ground is rozen, or unless he weaher is expeced o remain

    below reezing or several days. Generally hardy plans are hoseplans ha are lised in he caalog as being adaped or USDAZones 2 hrough 6. You can find your USDA hardiness zone lisedn he Rainree caalog or on our websie.

    Among he cold hardy poted plans we offer are blueberries,ingonberries, huckleberries, gojiberries, winergreen, kinnickinn-ck, salal, alpine and musk srawberries.

    The poted plans a Rainree are a heir hardies in he win-er when hey are dorman and no growing. As spring comes,he plans sar o grow and are less oleran o reezing weaher.

    Hardy poted plans ha arrive in spring in acive growh, orny plans ha are only marginally hardy or your climae zone,hould no be planed ou unil danger o ros is pas. Remem-

    ber, hey have come ou o our unheaed greenhouses, and willneed some proecion unil hey acclimae.

    I he weaher is oo cold or planing leay poted plans oudoors,place hem in a sunny window or under grow lighs and waer asyou would any poted plan. Keep emperaures cool, 50-60°F., o pre-

    ven plans rom becoming leggy. Your plan will begin o ge usedo indoor condiions, so you will need o gradually harden i off o go

    back oudoors afer he weaher warms up. Plans ha have beenrowing indoors may experience sunburn i hey are lef long in heun beore hey have a chance o acclimae.

    You can keep leafless dorman poted plans in an unheaedarage or shed. I kep cool and dorman, plans won’ need lighgain unil hey begin o sprou. Keep he soil evenly mois. Theyan olerae emporary exposure o emperaures o abou 20°F.

    Once leaves appear, rea hem as explained above.


    Less hardy poted plans ha have broken dormancy should

    be kep indoors in a sunny window unil he weaher says above

    reezing. Many will grow well indoors indefiniely. Puting anon- dorman poted plan oudoors in above reezing bu coldemperaures can resul in dieback and lea drop. Usually heplan will adjus and re-lea wihin a couple o weeks. Less harplans include cirus, figs, olives, loqua, pineapple guava, bayree, eucalypus, uschia, and some herbs. I he less hardy planare dorman hey can be planed ouside afer all danger o hareeze (below 26°F.) is pas. Unless planed in he appropriaeUSDA Zone (he websie conains his inormaion), hey willneed o be brough indoors or oherwise proeced over winer


    We offer several plans ha die back a lo each auumn in coer climaes bu which sprou back in fine orm each spring. Mao hese plans have no or only a ew leaves in winer. In somecases i may even look like you received nohing bu a po o sowihou any plan a all. Bu here IS a plan in here. Wai unspring and you should see new signs o lie. Cinnamon vine, bcrown and maypop passion vines, hops, all field berries and rhubarb are examples o plans ha seem o disappear each winebu are really here, ready o reappear each spring.


    When plans are moved rom one environmen (emperaurehumidiy, sun and wind exposure) o anoher, hey benefi roma gradual ransiion. Expose he plan o he new environmenew hours a day or several days, hen gradually increase he iin he new environmen over he nex wo weeks. This is rueboh when moving plans rom inside o ouside and he reversuch as moving cirus back indoors afer a summer ouing.


    The plans you receive can say in he same po or severalmonhs beore you move hem o a bigger po or ino he grouI you are going o grow he plan in a po insead o in heground, i will usually be necessary a some poin o move he

    plan o a larger po.Do no plan a small plan in a huge po! The small roo sys

    will no be able o exrac he waer rom he large volume osoil, and you run he risk o roo ro. Insead, increase he posize incremenally, leaving no more han a ew inches o new saround he ouer roos. (I is possible o keep a plan in he samsize po by each year shaving off an inch or wo all around herooball, cuting back he op and repoting wih resh soil inohe same size po.) When repoting ino a larger conainer, akehe plan ou o he po, cu any encircling roos and replan inresh soil. Because you will have emporarily reduced he roosysem, compared o he op, i is wise o prune he op somewa he same ime. I is imporan when repoting plans o use good qualiy poting mix. Beware o poting soils ha have erizers already added which may burn ender roos. Don’ use sorom your garden, as i is usually much oo heavy and will nodrain well. Plans ha preer markedly acid soil (like blueberrilingonberries, cranberries and huckleberries) will do well in somixes or Rhododendrons, or add 25% pea moss o a sandardpoting mix ha has no added lime. For cirus, add 30% sand osandard poting mix ha has no added lime.

    Some o our rees and shrubs ha can be successully grownin conainers will evenually need a hal whiskey barrel (20 galsized conainer or larger. When you grow a plan in a po andhe po is above ground, he soil in he po is subjec o reezinin cold weaher causing damage o he roo sysem, effecivelyreducing he cold hardiness o he plan. To proec he roos i

    winer, bury he conainer in he ground or pile mulch around

  • 8/9/2019 2015 Raintree Nursery Plant Owners Manual



    he conainer o insulae he roos. Always waer plans hor-ughly afer poting or repoting.


    I you order many plans, you will noice ha hey come in avariey o sizes. This is normal because each ype o plan has is

    wn growh rae and habi. Even he smaller or unbranched reeshave good roo sysems and will dig in and grow well or yourom heir firs season in he ground.

    Paw paws, geneic dwar peaches and necarines, and mini-dwar apples are among he rees ha grow slowly and may be

    maller upon arrival, as will oher ypes o rui rees on highlydwarfing roosocks. Some apple rees are ofen relaively small

    ompared o oher more vigorous apple varieies on he sameoosock.

    Because o heir growh habi in he nursery, many reesarrive unbranched. Weeping varieies such as he Weeping SanaRosa plum are sen o you unbranched because hese rees, whenbranched, are difficul o ship wihou breakage. Mulberries, figs,

    herries, pears and persimmons will usually be unbranched. All our Paw Paws are grown and shipped o you in pos becausehey have ragile roos, and ransplan more successully i heyrrive as poted plans.Trees grown in pos mus o necessiy be sold relaively small,

    ompared o bare roo rees, because i is impossible o economi-ally ship large poted rees due o he weigh o he soil. Many ohe nu rees, while as growers afer hey ge sared, sar oulowly and come as small, unbranched rees. O course he vinesnd berries are o smaller size han he rees. Again, don’ worry,hese smaller or unbranched plans have good roo sysems and

    will dig in and grow well or you rom heir firs season in heround.


    Read all insrucions beore you sar o plan. Our websiewww.rainreenursery.com has a video we prepared showingyou how o plan a ree! Don’ pu chemical erilizer or reshmanure in he hole wih he ree or shrub. A bes i will haveeached pas he roos by he ime hey grow enough o uilize, and a wors he erilizer could burn he roos. Opimum soil

    pH or mos rui rees is abou 6.5. I you have very acid soil i iskay o mix a pound or wo o dolomiic lime ino he soil aroundach plan. A big handul o bone meal can also be beneficial. I

    your soil is oo alkaline, i can help o add pea moss o your soil. your waer is oo alkaline, vinegar can be added, bu consul

    your local exension agen firs. Compos helps mos gardensnd can also be mixed ino he soil, bu is bes used in sandy

    well-drained soil or used as a mulch afer planing. I you have aheavy clay soil, i is bes o refill he hole primarily wih he soilyou dug ou, or plan in a mound o opsoil on op o he heavyoil. Toss away any rocks!


    Begin by digging a holeha is a ew inches widernd he same deph as heoos. A deep craer is noood because as he dis-urbed soil setles, he plan

    will sink. The soil should bemois.

    However, i i’s very we,wai unil he soil will break

    par when you squeeze a

    lump (which is no always

    possible in he Pacific Norhwes. We have had success planinin we soil). In order o make a gradual ransiion rom nauralsoil o he amended soil, use a shovel — or beter sill a spadingork — o racure and crack he walls and he botom o hehole. This will make i easier or new roos o penerae unhampered ino he naive soil. You can amend your back fill soil byadding up o 20%, abou wo shovels ull, o finished compos,lea mold or pea moss. Avoid poting mixes, manure or ohererilizers in he planing hole. You may add lime or sulur oadjus he pH i your soil es shows i is needed. Follow he insrucions on he package. Our organic ree and shrub mix #T1supplies phosphorus, minerals and mycorrhizae ha promoeroo growh.


    Remove any packing mae-rial ha came packed aroundhe ree roos. Don’ pu i inhe hole! I can become par ohe above ground mulch. Trimbroken roos and branches.While you are digging hehole, i is helpul, hough nonecessary, o soak he roos ina bucke o waer. They can soak up o a day bu an hour will suffiPeach rees seem o especially benefi rom his soaking.

    I i’s a sunny day, keep your ree roos covered and pull yourees ou one by one so he roos don’ dry. Make a litle mounin he botom o he hole and spread he roos so hey are acinouward and slighly downward. Cu off any exra-long roos would circle around he planing hole. Place Mycopaks #T185 iconac wih he roos in he planing hole. Use one myco pakor every oo o ree heigh. Shovel he soil back ino he holeand amp he soil down afer every ew shovels-ull o make suhere are no air pockes around he roos. I you are planing iclay soil, don’ amp. Insead, backfill hal he hole, flood he howih waer, jiggle he ree genly o work he air bubbles ou,finish filling, and flood and jiggle again. Then, use a digging or

    o loosen he soil nex o he planing hole, 1-3 ee ou rom hrunk. Mulch he whole area wih sraw. Waer your ree deepwhen planing is compleed.


    There is some debae abou how deep o plan your rees. Weplan rees a he deph hey were planed in he nursery or amos wo or hree inches deeper. I yours is a grafed or budderee, make sure he graf union remains a leas wo inches abohe ground. Should he graf union become buried, roos couldorm above he graf, negaing any dwarfing qualiies o heroosock. Some people have suggesed doing his on purposei you would preer o have a ull size ree raher han a dwar

    or semi-dwar. We don’ recommend i since some varieies andsome ypes o rui rees (or insance cherries) are sensiive ocrown ro and may die i planed oo deeply. I you have waer-logged soils or a high winer waer able i is a good idea o ormmound a leas a oo above ground level and 4-6 ee across anplan on he raised ground. Tha keeps some o he roos ou owaerlogged soil iniially and aids in he esablishmen o youplan.


    This is he mos imporan and ofen he mos difficul par successully growing plans. There are many acors, includinghe humidiy, emperaure, soil ype, wind, and amoun o dire

    sun ha affec how much and how ofen waer should be appl

  • 8/9/2019 2015 Raintree Nursery Plant Owners Manual



    A general rule o humb orplans in he ground is o

    nsure hey receive an inch waer per week over heoo zone. An inch o waers equivalen o abou ¾ one gallon per square oo soil surace area. Theypical hree oo diameer

    planing hole would need 7½ o 10 gallons o waer perweek provided by rainall

    r by he gardener. Applyhis waer once a week, woimes per week i soil is as

    draining. This will o coursedepend on your own con-diions and he plans you

    re growing! DO NOT waerighly each day because his resuls in a we surace and dryoo zone area. The soil should be mois bu no soggy o a deph abou a oo or mos growing plans. The op inch or wo caneel dry, and he plan sill be well waered. The rick is o havehe waer available where he roos are. In hoter and sunnierreas, a mulch o sraw, bark, ec. can grealy ease he burden o

    ummer waering. For plans in conainers, waer unil he soils sauraed and waer comes ou o he drainage holes. Le heonainer dry unil he soil is dry o he ouch 1-2 inches downnd he conainer is ligher in weigh. A plan ha has wiled can

    be receiving eiher oo much or oo litle waer.In rainy areas like he Pacific Norhwes mos o he plans

    ha we offer will need relaively litle supplemenal irrigaionONCE THEY ARE WELL ESTABLISHED in he ground and havehad a chance o develop a good roo sysem. However even here is imporan o make sure plans have regular, deep waering

    during he firs couple o growing seasons, and he firs summers especially criical. In drier areas, permanen irrigaion is es-enial. Remember ha you don’ wan your rees o jus survive,

    bu raher o hrive. Make sure hey ge he waer hey need.One mehod is hrough drip irrigaion. We use hal- inch flexibleplasic pipe wih punch-in emiters or rees in he ground. For

    ach young ree, we use wo emiters, spaced one oo rom herunk. The pipe can be pu on he ground, under he ground wihisers, or ied loosely rom he rees. We use emiters ha dripne gallon per hour. See drawing above.There are many differen syles o drip sysems, some con-

    rolled by imers and ohers by hand. Or, each ree can be waeredwih a hose deeply abou once a week. Sandy soils will need morerequen waering han clay soils. For smaller plans like sraw-

    berries or raspberries we have ound ha soaker hoses work verywell. A grea place o learn abou proper drip irrigaion is awww.dripworks.com.


    I is very imporan or he firs hree o five years ha weedsno invade he roo zone o your ree. The weeds ake moisureand nuriens ha your plan needs.

    One way o conrol weeds is by mulching. Unreaed “Weedbarrier” made rom spun or woven plasic can work very well and

    llow waer and air o penerae. Rainree offers bio degradableweed barriers made rom corn salks. These barriers don’ allowwaer o penerae so drip irrigaion will need o be pu underhese barriers. #T445 is a hicker 2 ½ mil barrier ha will las upo several years and #T435 is a hin 1 mil barrier or srawber-ies and vegeables ha degrades in a year or less. A mulch o

    eaves, newspaper, bark, wood chips, well-aged compos, or sraw,

    renewed each spring rom around he base o he ree o abouoo beyond he reach o he branches, will add o he eriliy he soil. Use a digging ork o crack and loosen heavy soils beoapplying mulch o new areas wihou shallow roos which coube disurbed. We have ound ha a heavy mulch o oa sraw osoil loosened in his manner will encourage worms and rapidlyimprove he soil’s ilh. Try o keep he mulch a leas wo inchrom he runk.

    A poenial problem wih deep mulch is ha i can provideproecion or rodens. I gophers or oher roo damaging rodeare a serious problem in your area, you can line he ree’s hole he runk o he ree isel wih galvanized encing or ‘hardwa

    cloh’. The wire in he hole mus exend a ew inches above hesoil surace. The meal usually lass abou five years beore iruss away. Herbicides can be dangerous o you and your reesused improperly, so hey should be he weed conrol mehod olas resor.

    I your rees are planed in or near a lawn, i is imporan hayou NOT use ‘weed and eed’ producs on he grass or you maykill or damage your ree. The imporan hing o remember isha you can’ plan rees direcly in a hole in he lawn wih-ou mulching and waering and expec your ree o grow wellYour ree roos eed and seek waer near he surace and cannocompee wih esablished grass. Your ree may sruggle o survand will ofen say he same size year afer year. Remember h

    groundcovers and oher small poted plans won’ survive a loweed compeiion when hey are firs planed. Be sure o mainain a weed ree area around hem o ge hem off o a good sa


    Weed whackers and lawn mowers can girdle your ree in aninsan. Don’ use hem close o your ree runk. I you will neeo use hem, pu a low proecive barrier around your ree runi.e. Tree Guards #T364.


    I is imporan o know a

    ew basics abou pruning ohelp your plans o grow andproduce rui. I is impor-an o use good sharp oolsand you should ake careo hem. (See page 15.) Don’leave hem in he rain anddon’ use hem o srip wire!Many people believe hahe fines hand-held prunersin he world are made byFelco. They are offered in ourcaalog, #T190, and come in

    boh lef and righ handedmodels. I doesn’ mater iyou do he pruning beoreor afer you plan bu ishould be done beore heree sars growing in he spring. I he buds on your plans arsaring o grow, delay pruning unil he new growh is ou 3 oinches. I is never a good idea o prune in rainy weaher becauhis can grealy increase disease problems, so wai or a dry dWhen removing a branch, prune almos flush bu no quie. Leing he collar is imporan or he wound o heal.

     In spie o our bes effors someimes branches or roos areparly broken or damaged in digging, handling or shipping. Broken branches should be cu back o undamaged buds and brok

    roos should be cu off behind he injury.

  • 8/9/2019 2015 Raintree Nursery Plant Owners Manual




    There are wo ypes o pruning cus. Removing a branch o ispoin o origin is called “hinning”. Cuting back par o a branchyou wish o keep is called “heading back,” which simulaesbranching. When you make aheading” cu, leave abou ¼nch o wood above a bud.


    On all plans, ry o makeure he las bud you leave on side branch is headed awayrom he cener o he plan.

    This las bud deermines hedirecion he branch will grow.


    Mos o our rui rees arrive branched, bu some are whips.A whip is a ree wihou usable branches. For branches o mosypes o rui rees o be usable as permanen scaffold branch-s hey mus have wide croch angles and be wo ee or morebove he ground. You should have a leas hree branches spaced

    round he runk unless you are raining an espalier.I your ree does no have hree or more usable branches, i is

    bes o cu all branches compleely off and head back he op ohe ree abou 6 inches above where you wan new branches oorm. Mos beginners alsely hink hey are losing by doing his.

    The esablished roos will push ou los o new branches heollowing spring o choose rom, and you will have a properlyhaped ree orever afer.


    “Whips” (non-branched rees) o  ‘mini-dwar’ apples should be headed backpruned) 1-2 ee rom he ground o encour-

    ge branching low o he ground. Whips omos oher rees should be headed back o

    -4 f. The op bud usually sprous and growsrongly uprigh o orm a new leader, whileower buds will usually grow more horizon-ally and make side branches. Persimmons,

    mulberries, walnus, chesnus, cherries andomeimes oher rui rees will ofen arrives whips. I he whip is all enough, you can

    head i back 6 inches above where you wanhe firs se o scaffold branches o orm. On

    mos rui rees his is ypically a abou 3ee. This also works on nu rees and ullize rui rees where you wan he firs branches o sar higher.

    imply leave hese lower branches or a couple o years and laer, you wish, remove hem.


    In order or grafed weeping rees o coninue upward growh,hey will need o be saked, and a leader chosen o ie o he sake.

    Keep saking he leader in an uprigh posiion unil he ree haseached he heigh ha you wish i o atain.


    Apple, European and Asian pear, European plum, mulberry, andherry rees are usually pruned o a “cenral leader”. Sar he

    pruning by removing limbs wih a narrow branch angle because

    hese usually spli rom herunk, and remove vigorousuprigh branches ha arecompeing wih he leader.Selec hree o five surdybranches o save or ‘scaffold’limbs abou wo o hreeee above he ground, wiha leas wo inches beweeneach branch along he runk.Six inch spacing is beterespecially or rees ha willbear heavy crops or grow verylarge. (Someimes, abou woo hree ee urher up herunk will be he second seo scaffold limbs. Your reemay no have his second seo branches.)

    The space beween layers o scaffold branches allows lighpeneraion and air movemen o help ripen rui and prevendisease. Prune each o he remaining side branches o abou ooo in lengh and o an ouside bud. Use spreaders or ies omanipulae he angle o he limbs o abou 45 degrees. Prune cenral leader abou 30 inches above he op usable branch and

    new branching will begin.


    Asian plums, peaches and apricosare usually pruned o an “open cen-er” ree as are almonds, filbers, figs,paw paws and persimmons. Selechree o five vigorous branches wihwide ‘croch angles’ a couple o eeabove he ground wo or more inchesapar rom each oher (six inch spac-ing is beter, especially or rees hawill bear heavy crops or grow very

    large) and remove any oher branches. Head back hese branches o an ouside bud, so each is 1-2’ long. The cener o he reeshould remain open or ligh and air peneraion.


    Purchasing a book on es-palier pruning or knowing anexperienced grower is a goodidea. Lee Reich’s “The PruningBook” #S327 and Brickle andJoyce’s “Pruning and TrainingRevised” #S325 can help you gesared.

    One hing o keep in mind isha sone ruis and figs dobes in an paterns, as he branches need periodic renewal, whe pome ruis like apples and pears can be pu ino a perma-nen patern since hey end o rui on long-lived spurs.

    The mos common raining mehod or he already saredapple and pear espaliers we oer is o allow he hree seso branches o become he permanen scaolds and looselyie hem o wires a abou 1½ and 3 and 4½ ee high. Spacehe already sared espaliers a 8 o 10 ee apar. We alsooer Y-shaped apple rees ha branch eigh inches above hground o rain as a Belgian ence. Allow he wo branches coninue o grow a abou a 45 degree angle unil hey reachhe desired heigh. I you plan he rees 2 o 3 ee apar h

    will grow up ino a beauiul diamond shape.

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    See our building a rellis secion o build a ence or any o yourspaliers. We recommend a one o wo oo spacing beween

    wires. Insall bamboo sakes or copper ubing on he wires inhe desired patern. Train he branches by ataching hem o heakes or ubing insead o o he wire, This is o preven he wirerom ending up inside he expanding branches.


    We offer many flowering and edible shrubs. Some end o growih a cenral leader when young. Heading back he leader aplaning ime will encourage more branching.

    Pruning ornamenal shrubs: Some produce flowers on lasyears’ wood, such as weigela, mock orange, lilac, flowering quinorsyhia and pussywillow.

    Prune each o he branches o hese ornamenals ollowingbloom o mainain size and encourage vigorous new shoos ohe ollowing spring bloom.

    Shape ruiing shrubs such as aronia, goumi, serviceberry an

    blue honeysuckle, during he dorman season wih hinning cuo keep he bush open and ruiul.

    Ohers produce blooms on curren years’ growh, such as LuChilean Guava, Himalayan Honeysuckle, and Buterfly Bush.These plans can be pruned o shape during he dorman seasoEsablished Himalayan honeysuckle and buterfly bushes benrom hard annual winer pruning o 1-2’ all.

    The main runk o he eucalypus and Fragran Spring can bcu back each year o grow hem as hick bushes. This way youcan mainain he round juvenile oliage o eucalypus, oherwhey will grow as all narrow rees.

    Mulberry can be cu similarly (pollarding) o conrol size, andyou will sill ge a crop o berries. “The Pruning Book” #S327 is excellen reerence.


    Deer can quickly desroy yourplans. We have ried a lo oconrol mehods ha didn’ workwell. We will be upgrading romhe high volage ‘New Zealand’elecric ence we currenly usearound he nursery o a woven wire ence. An 8’ high woven wiror heavy plasic mesh ence is quie effecive. Though expensive build, i can be a one-ime long erm soluion. Be sure o use longlasing poss ha won’ ro in a ew years. We sugges 12’ poss.Individual ences or cages around each ree can work well or ma

    years as long as he deer can’ bend hem down, reach hroughor crawl under o ea he oliage. Trees canno survive repeaedpruning by deer. There are many producs on he marke ha hadeer repelling qualiies, and many work reasonably well, bu in ouexperience, only a good ence is consisenly effecive. Auhor LReich recommends a produc called Deer Chaser. A dog rained oparol your perimeer day and nigh can also be effecive.


    Someimes you will receive a precocious ree ha wans osar producing loads o rui righ away, which can sun heree and reduce ruiing he nex several years. Remove a leas90% o hose ruis soon afer hey se o ensure proper roo an

    branch developmen o your ree or he firs wo years. I youkeep any rui, keep he rui ha orms closes o he runk soo no bend down he branches.


    The brace picured can be used o anchor many ypes o reles including he opional “T” bar ofen used or kiwis. You can ui o grow blackberries, raspberries, grapes, kiwis or espalieredrui rees. For raspberries, blackberries and grapes, one wire 3high and one wire 5’ high works well. For espaliered rui reespu wires 12 o 24” apar; or kiwis use overhead parallel wires 1apar (i’ll look like a “T” bar clohesline). We offer 12-½ gauge sberry wire (#T070) and wire ensioners (#T205). When possible

    wis and ie he wire o isel beore cuting i. I you are ex-


    I is imporan o regularly prune your young rees o encour-ge a srong srucure or uure growh. Mos pruning o youngrees is done while hey are dorman, generally in December,anuary or February, afer he wors par o winer is pas. Soneruis and filbers benefi rom pruning during or immediaelyollowing bloom ime in weter climaes.

    Pruning on all rees and shrubs can also be done in summer,bu his ends o dwar he ree or shrub, whereas dorman sea-

    on pruning ends o simulae growh. The dwarfing effec canbe highly beneficial in some cases, or insance when a ree haseached he maximum heigh you wish i o reach.

    Disinec your pruners aer making cus o remove diseasedmaerial or when moving o anoher plan. A 5 o 1 waer andbleach soluion or sraigh isopropyl alcohol in a spray botle

    works well.


    The inormaion in his leafle will help you prune your plansor up o wo years. Afer ha you will need a more comprehen-ive source. The Rainree websie www.rainreenursery.comnd he Rainree caalog ouline many excellen books. Also our

    online monhly “Growing Tips” provide useul inormaion. Anxcellen source o pruning (and espalier, planing and rainingnormaion) or mos rees and bushes is Lee Reich’s “The Prun-ng Book” #S327.

    Many people learn bes rom WATCHING somehing done.Gary Moulon, he ormer direcor o rui ree research a heWashingon Sae Universiy Experimen Saion a M. Vernon,Washingon, has made an excellen 50 minue DVD, “Easy Seps oFrui Tree Pruning” #S520D. You can wach an exper show you

    he proper way o prune your rui rees.“Fruis and Berries or he Home Garden” #S140 and “Pruning

    nd Training Revised” #S325 do a nice job o illusraing berrynd rui ree pruning mehods. The inormaive and inexpen-ive Sorey Press books “Grea Grapes” #S180 and “Berries, Rasp,nd Black” #S040 are good reerence guides or hose paricularruis. A good guide o growing and raining kiwis is “Growing

    Kiwi Frui” #S240 srongly recommended or enhusiass o hisdelicious rui. A Gardener’s Guide o Blueberries, #S103 is highlyecommended. Don’ orge ha he Inerne is an invaluableource or gardening inormaion! See page 15 or supply reer-

    nces and page 14 or useul links on he web.

    Belgian Fence

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    pecing very cold emperaures i may be advisable o loosen hewires because cold will ighen hem even more and he rellis

    ould be damaged. Pu he end poss hree ee in he ground ande in concree. Redi-Mix concree hrown ino he hole dry and

    well amped down will quickly absorb ground waer and hard-n. We also offer saionary ground anchors (#T210) you can usensead o Redi- Mix. Use 4” diameer (or larger) poss or rellises0’ or more in lengh. Pressure reaed poss will las much longerhan unreaed poss, bu here is some conroversy abou how

    much hazard he reamen chemicals pose o he environmen.You migh wan o ask your supplier wha chemicals have beenused.

    1. Treaed end &brace poss 8’ o10’.

    2. 8’ o 10’ long 4x4or round op railbrace.

    3. Diagonal wireloop wisedigh wih lengho wood bracedagains op rail.

    4. Poss se 3’ in

    ground.5. Wire wih en-sioner.


    For good seady growh and high produciviy, your rees needo have adequae amouns o various mineral nuriens. Some

    people are orunae and have naurally rich erile soil. Manyoils, however, are deficien in some nurien or anoher and

    use o erilizers, organic or chemical, can be highly beneficial you wan your rees o grow well. I you have a large gardenr orchard i can be well worh i o have your soil analyzed

    by a qualified laboraory so you know or sure jus wha your

    oil needs. Typically his migh cos $30-$60, depending on howdeailed an analysis you wan. Unless you know wha is availablen your soil, you will no be able o supplemen i properly.

    Use an all purpose or balanced erilizer like he organic ruiree and shrub erilizer we offer in he caalog #T109. A couple inches o well roted compos on he roo zone can also be anffecive erilizer. A generous lea or sraw mulch around yourrees will no only conserve moisure and help in weed conrol,

    bu also keeps your soil healhy by building up humus, atracingarhworms, and supporing beneficial ungal organisms. Thisncourages young rees o be srong, healhy and producive.Use o concenraed producs like chemical erilizers or srong

    rganics (or insance blood meal) is usually done rom lae win-er hrough early summer. Applying erilizer afer early summer

    an encourage los o sof new growh ha is much more likelyo be damaged by winer cold. Excessive use o erilizer can in-rease disease problems on your plans and can even kill hem.Use o oo much erilizer, wheher chemical or organic, can

    lso conribue o sream and groundwaer polluion, so pleasery no o use more han your rees really need. As a generaluide, i your ree is producing abou one oo o new growhr more a year and has healhy looking oliage, i may no need

    much or any erilizer.


    A valued garden addiion in one area can be a barbaric invadern anoher. Under cerain condiions, many plans can ge ou o

    hand. Check wih your couny Cooperaive Exension Service or

    sae land gran universiy i youhave doubs abou he suiabil-iy o a specific plan o yourarea. Running bamboos need obe conained in mos locaions,especially i your soil is looseor sandy, or hey will send upshoos dozens o ee away oncehey become esablished.

    Some plans, such as akebiaand vine maple, can roo wherehey ouch mois ground. Birds

    can spread he seeds o elder-berries and serviceberries. Oher plans, like he black locus,raspberries, some plums and filbers, can orm hickes hrougsuckering. We offer only buterfly bushes wih non-viable seedso hey can’ re-seed ino oher areas.

    Atenion o pruning and weeding will preven problems wimos vigorous growers. For every gardener aced wih plansexceeding he boundaries o heir siuaion, here are wo whoare sruggling o ge he plan o esablish!


    Draw a map ha shows he variey, roosock, year o planinand locaion o each ree in your orchard and pu he map in a

    sae place. I you have a lo o rees, you can use he map o savime when you wan o locae a paricular variey, or i a labelshould come off a paricular ree. You can call us since we haverecord o which rees you bough going back many years.


    Your plans will come wih a plasic label which will ade andbecome unreadable wihin a year. We offer permanen labels

    #T485. They come in bundles o 10 or boxes o 100. Each labelis made o aluminum and has an aluminum wire. Simply wrieon each label wih a pencil or ball poin pen. The leters willbe inscribed in he sof meal. Is bes o wrie he name o hevariey and roosock, he year you planed i and where you ghe plan rom. When you atach he wire, pu i around a smabranch. The branch will grow over he years and you need oleave room so he wire won’ girdle he branch. Remember oncevery ew years o loosen he wire around he branch.


    The ollowing inormaion will help you ge many o heRainree plans off o a good sar. Use he books lised in he

    Rainree caalog and on our websie www.rainreenursery.comor inormaion on providing your plans wih long erm care.Also consul our websie including our monhly “growing ips”more inormaion abou he plans we offer.


    Insrucions or planing, grafing and afercare o newly graed rees is in he caalog roosock secion and on our websie.Keep he roos mois and in a cool locaion unil you are readygraf. I he roosocks sar o sprou jus rub off he new shoand graf as normal. Plan he roosocks in a row a leas 1’ apor summer budding or growing ou your bench grafed rees.You can also plan he grafed or ungrafed roosock ino a 1-2

    gallon po and le i grow in he po or a season.

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    In mos o he counry, cirus can no survive he winerold, so hey mus be grown indoors in conainers or a leas be

    brough indoors or he winer. Mos o he cirus we offer canurvive BRIEF exposure o emperaures below reezing. I i ges

    below 25° F or very long here is a risk o damage or even deah.However, in mos climaes i is bes i hey are brough inside

    nce he emperaure alls below 50-55° F i hey are o hrive andipen heir rui se during he summer. You can ake hem ou

    during he day i he weaher is nice, and hen bring hem back in nigh.

    Cirus do no like widely flucuaing emperaures. Even heemperaures experienced in shipping can someimes causeirus o lose heir leaves, bu hey will usually resprou wihin aew weeks. Our cirus are ofen in an acive sae o growh whenhey arrive because hey have been in a greenhouse. Keep heemperaure above 55° F o bring he plan ino ruiing.

    Check he soil 1-4 inches deep and waer he plan only when’s geting dry. Waer deeply, so he soil is sauraed and waer

    drains ou he drainage holes o he po, bu no more han wice week.Do no allow he po o si in waer. Mainain humidiy around

    he plans by mising daily or keeping a ray o pebbles in waerbeneah he po.

    Cirus plans are also sensiive o drafs, which can cause

    hem o lose heir leaves. Se he po in a sunny window so ies brigh sunligh, or use grow lighs. See page 2 or repoting

    nsrucions.Don’ erilize when you ransplan. For a healhy lea color and

    eady growh, erilize several imes a year wih a suiable er-ilizer. Rainree sells “All Naural Cirus Mix”, iem #T148, offeredn he caalog. Don’ overdo he erilizer, however, and don’ evererilize hirsy plans.

    In an indoor environmen cirus (and mos plans) can rapidlydevelop severe insec inesaions due o he absence o he na-ural predaors ha would oherwise keep hese pess under con-rol. (See he pes conrol char on page 22.) I his happens, you

    may wan o use organic pes conrol producs. “Cirus: Selecing

    nd Growing” (#S064) is a good reerence.


    We offer oher subropicals ha are commonly grown ousiden warm climaes, bu are less ofen seen in cooler regions. Some,ike he loqua and pineapple guava can even survive brie ex-

    posure o emperaure o 12° F or colder, bu in he Pacific Norh-wes, hey are ofen damaged and will usually ail o maure heirrui wihou winer proecion and a avorable locaion. Remem-

    ber ha even milder areas will evenually ge hi wih record coldweaher. While i is no possible o keep subropicals ouside yearound in mos regions o he counry, many people have oundha hey can hrive as poted plans i placed in a sunny windowr greenhouse or he winer.Sugar Lea (Sevia) needs a well drained poting mix, pH abou

    .2. Harves when flower buds orm or he highes level oweeness, and o keep his oherwise annual ros ender planrowing. In winer provide very brigh ligh, emp. abou 60°F,nd avoid soggy soil which would ro he roos.Lemon Grass, i kep a 50-60°F in brigh ligh will coninue

    o grow in winer. Ferilize wih a good nirogen source whencively growing. Roos will ro i kep soggy. Avoid planing in aonainer ha is more han 2” wider han is curren conainer.

    Harves leaves as needed, or cu all he leaves back o abou 2”nd dehydrae o preserve. In cold winer climaes clumps can be

    dug lae each all and sored in mulch or sawdus in a po. Sorehem in a building ha is cool, bu says above reezing, and plan

    u again in he spring. Keep he roos mois, bu no soggy.


    Pomegranaes are surdy plans, and should esablish quicklCu he plan back o abou wo ee all and le several branchdevelop. Good drainage is imporan, especially in areas wherehey are marginally hardy. Full sun and summer hea are necessary o ripen and ully flavor heir rui. Gardeners in areas wicooler summers may need o keep he plans in pos and bringhem indoors in he all o ripen he rui. Frui is borne on hecurren-year wood, so prune o develop a large bearing area.


    The hardy bananas have come ou o a greenhouse, so heywill be damaged i exposed immediaely o cold emperaures.They should be kep in a warm well-li place unil he weahersays above reezing, and gradually be hardened off or planinoudoors. Good drainage is essenial in choosing heir planingsie! In mild winer areas, he plan may spread o orm a ropihicke.


    Mos o he bam-boos we carry arewiner hardy in hePacific Norhwesand will do fine inareas where mini-mum emperauresdon’ all belowzero. Some bam-boo varieies arehardy o -20° F. I isimporan o planbamboo where iis proeced romwind. Cold winerwinds are very dry-ing and leaves can

    desiccae and die.Ho dry winds willalso desiccae leaves. Even in shipping he plans o you, leavescan dry ou. Usually new ones will emerge in he spring o replhe dry leaves.

    In planing your bamboo, remember ha bamboo loves largeamouns o well aged compos, or nirogen, and hrives wihrequen spring and summer waering. See our caalog’s planiinsrucions. Be paien: i can ake he larger bamboo en yeao reach is ull heigh! There is a saying ha bamboo akes onyear o sleep, one year o creep, and one year o leap afer beingransplaned. As he amoun o oliage increases, each year’s ngrowh will be larger.

    SOIL REQUIREMENTS: Bamboos are oleran o a wide vari

    o soil ypes, preerring slighly mois, well drained sies, noswampy sies.

    HOW TO PLANT: Make a rench beween 1-1/2 and wo eedeep or he Phyllosachys varieies; slighly shallower orshorer varieies. Tamp down he dir a he boom o herench. Bamboo will always grow beer in loose raher hancompaced soil. Fill in he rench wih loose, rich soil, high inorganic maer and nirogen. Don’ amp i down aer planas you would wih a ree bu do waer well. Make he renchwide as you would like he bamboo o spread — 3’-6’ is a nicewidh or a backyard screen. The bamboo will ill in whaevshape you make he rench. Be creaive. Bamboo loves o bewaered regularly and deeply. Evenually he alling leaves a


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    HOW TO CONTROL: Unless you have loose or sandy soil, bam-boo will fill and mosly say wihin your culivaed and waered

    rea. You can dig a V shaped rench around he perimeer a oowide and deep and remove spreading shoos wo or hree imes

    year. Don’ allow he rench o fill in wih soil. Or conain heplans wih a hick galvanized meal or heavy duy plasic barrierha is a leas 30 inches high, insalled 24” deep when planing.


    In he Pacific Norhwes rees can grow very rapidly during henice summer weaher. Empress rees someimes grow 5-6 ee

    r even more a year. Ofen, however, he new growh o youngplans remains somewha ender and i is common or here obe considerable dieback or he firs wo or hree seasons romhe winer cold. Don’ be oo alarmed i dieback occurs. Regrowhn he spring is rapid. As he rees ge older, winer dieback sops,nd he rees are really quie hardy, down o -10° F. Selec a newrong leader and hin ou compeing shoos.


    The colder he climae where figs are being grown, he moremporan good drainage becomes! These lovers o hea andun will reward he houghul gardener wih abundan rui.

    They appreciae any effors o keep hem warm and proeced

    rom exreme flucuaions in emperaures. Growers in colderlimaes someimes even build hem litle shelers, heaed wihigh bulbs, o be sure hey are no damaged by winer cold! Theyre grown on heir own roos, and will ofen come back sronglyfer seeming o die o he ground. Figs are no hardy below 10° F.

    Young plans can be severely damaged a higher emperaures.


    As a Medierranean naive, he olive needs excellen drainage andmaximum o hea and sun o do well. While i may no rui or

    ipen rui in mos American climaes, i can grow as an ornamenalwhere emperaures don’ all much below reezing. I makes a good

    onainer plan or bonsai subjec, and can live or many years.


    Paw Paws naurally grow wih a ap roo and hey have delicaeoos. Disurb he roos as litle as possible, as hey are britle andre easily damaged! Genly slide he plan ou o is po (don’ pull

    ou) and careully place i in he prepared hole. Young rees growaser and do much beter in parial shade han hey do in ull sun.

    This is especially rue in ho dry regions. Plan hem in he shade oaller rees or shrubs or make some srucure o provide shade. Oncesablished or a ew years, paw paws produce bes in direc sun,lhough in ho summer regions coninued parial shade is bes. Ifen akes a couple o years or he above ground pars o he paw

    paw ree o grow much. During ha ime, he roo sysem is expand-

    ng and preparing or uure growh.


    We ge more calls on hese han any oher ree. Persimmons arene o he laes plans o break dormancy. When hey have jusome rom cold sorage, hey can be very slow o lea ou. Warmemperaures in he roo zone wake hem up and someimes hey

    will no produce heir leaves unil auumn- jus in ime o havehem urn color and all off! Planing he new ree in a po willpeed up leafing, as i increases he hea available o he roos. A-er i sars growing, i can hen be careully planed rom he pono he ground, bu be very careul wih he roos as new roosre britle. Replan i during a cloudy period i possible or give i

    ome iniial shade as i ges re-esablished.


    Your asparagus roos may arrive dused wih lime, which loolike a fine whie powder, o preven blue mold. Soak he roos iwaer or 24 hours beore planing. I necessary, sore roos in acool DRY place ha is above reezing beore you soak and planA planing, add good amouns o manure and compos. Digrenches 8 o 10 inches deep and plan he crowns 12 o 18 incheapar. Some new mehods call or shallower planing. Spreadou he roos. Cover wih 3-4 inches o soil. As he shoos emerconinue o fill wih soil. Waer, i weaher is dry. Do no cuspears unil he hird season afer planing. Then be sure o so

    harvesing afer June so ern growh can ake place. This buildup he ood reserves or he ollowing year’s crop. Cu oliagewhen i yellows in he all.


    For hose o you wih paience and access o resh cu logs rhardwood rees such as alder, oak or birch , or coniers or conispecies, you can grow los o mushrooms a home. Mushroomsgrown rom dowels are very winer hardy and can be grownhroughou mos o he naion. Using our “dowel plug spawn” can inoculae logs wih he Shiiake, Oyser or oher mushroomculures. I is imporan ha he logs are reshly cu, and hebark in good condiion.

    I is bes o cu he logs in lae winer or early spring beore buds break and leaves appear. A 4-6” diameer and 4 oo lenghis convenien, bu no essenial, sumps and odd sized pieces caalso work. Using a 5/16 drill bi, drill holes abou 1.5” deep andspace hem 5 or 6” apar. A 4’ log will need abou 30 or more doels. More will resul in aser colonizaion and perhaps quickerproducion. Hammer a plug in each hole and seal wih paraffina compound like Doc Farwell’s Tree Heal. #T180.

     The logs are hen sacked in a shady locaion where moisurcan be mainained. Mushrooms should begin o appear in rom6 monhs o 2 years and can coninue o appear on he logs orseveral years. Sofer woods like alder or cotonwood will pro-duce ewer mushrooms han denser woods like oak, bu may

    sar sooner. Or use he dowels in sumps. Leave your newly cufirewood ree sump several ee all and innoculae wih doweand you will ge mushrooms saring in a couple o years, or uo en years wihou doing anyhing urher. Full direcions arprovided.


    Jus mix resh hardwood chips or sawdus wih our spawn,mulch around your garden wih he spawned chips and keepmois. In 6 o 12 monhs he mushrooms will begin o appear ain many pars o he counry will coninue ruiing rom sprinhrough all. Once inroduced o your garden, his species will en become ruly perennial, appearing year afer year. King Sr

    pharia is very hea and cold oleran and can be grown in moshe counry. I hardwood chips or sawdus are no available, uncomposed sraw will also work. Or grow hem on sraw bales.One 4 lb bag o spawn should inoculae a wheelbarrow ull ochips. Insrucions are provided wih each spawn order. #P275


    Mulberries olerae a wide range o soil ypes, pH, and sun exposure; sal spray and oher polluans; and we soils or a shoperiod. They break dormancy lae in he spring, be paien. Colhardiness varies by variey; reer o he caalog or specifics. Fris produced on 1 and 2 year old wood. To keep he rees small,prune o an open cener or pollard. See ‘Pruning and Training

    Revised’ #S325 or deails.

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    Combinaion rui reeswih several varieies onhe same plan can be aun way o grow los o

    varieies in a limied area.They can be challenging,

    oo. One or more varie-es (usually he opmos

    branches) will someimesbe much more vigor-

    us han ohers. I hembalance is no careul-y addressed, he more

    vigorous variey(s) willvergrow he ohers and dominae he ree. To bring he ree

    no balance, he over vigorous variey(s) need o be sloweddown; eiher by heading back o a poin even or slighly belowhe weaker variey(s), hinning o a side branch which anglesu a abou 45 degrees in he desired direcion, or genly

    pushing he variey ouwards o abou a 45 degree angle wih apreader. Summer prune i needed.The ulimae goal is o rain he ree as an open cener wih

    ach variey growing ou a abou a 45 degree angle wih equalvigor. Ideally, each year when you are done pruning, he leader o

    ach variey will be he same heigh. On mos combo rees, hevarieies are named on he plasic label atached o he ree wihhe botom budded variey lised firs, he second rom botomised second and so on. Missing varieies are crossed or punchedu on he label. 


    Mini-dwars and columnars are well suied o conainer grow-ng. Apples and oher mini-dwar rees are ofen mainained anly our o six ee all a mauriy. Because hey will be kephor, i is desirable o have branching begin low o he ground, one or wo ee. I he ree doesn’ already have branches aha heigh, pruning back he cenral leader will encourage low

    branching. See he pruning advice in his manual on page 4.Mini-dwar apple rees benei rom permanen saking,

    specially in a windy area or in a loose, sandy soil. Be awareha he rees can be very precocious, and even young reesan develop large crops. The ripening ruis can consume allhe resources o he ree and is growh can be suned and

    delay ruiing 1-2 years. I is bes i you pick o he immaureruis as soon as you can in lae spring or he irs wo yearso ha he ree can coninue o grow. Aer a ew years you

    will have a nice dwar ree and LOTS o rui. Also we oerolumnar apple rees ha se heir rui along he main runk.

    On columnars, cu any side branches shor or o. Allow heeader o grow o he desired heigh. Some evenually reach 10’all or more.


    I is a good idea o soak he roos in waer or a couple o hoursbeore planing. We have ound hese rees ofen do bes i he

    caffold branches are iniially pruned o one oo or less uponplaning. Geneic dwar peaches and necarines don’ need muchpruning when you ge hem excep o prune off any broken ordamaged branches.


    Asian pears should ONLY be pruned in dry weaher in laepring or early summer, in areas wih cool, we springs, like he

    Pacific Norhwes.

    Pruning in winer or early spring grealy increases poenialproblems wih ‘Pseudomonas’, a bacerial disease ha can caudieback or even deah o your Asian pears. I you should ge sio his disease, ofen indicaed by we cardboard-like darkenedbark and dead leaves hanging on he branches, cu off he ineed porion well back ino healhy wood.

    Disinec your pruners (a 5 o 1 waer and bleach soluion orsraigh alcohol works well) afer making cus o remove diseamaerial.


    Follow he pruning and planing inormaion given in hisplan owners manual on pages 4 and 5.


    Afer planing, cu back eachbranch by abou hal o simulaenew growh and srenghen branch-es. Prune o ouside buds and selecscaffold branches o creae an open



    Cu back he dorman brancheso wihin inches o he ground aplaning ime. Black currans ruibes on one year old wood and o alesser exen on wo year old wood,so hin ou older shoos periodically.This will encourage he develop-men o srong new branches obear he crop in uure years.

    STRAWBERRIESBare roo srawberries should be sored in a rerigeraor in hei

    litle bag unil you are ready o plan. Keep hem slighly damp. Ikep oo we or sored in a warm place hey will ro quickly.

    I isn’ necessary o wai unil ross are pas o plan. The op growcan die back in severe weaher, bu should grow back as i warms up

    When you plan bare roo srawberry plans, spread ou heroos o each plan and cover he roos wih soil. Be careul oleave he crown (he poin where he above ground par o heplan and he roos mee) jus above he soil level and keep heroo ips sraigh, rimming he roo ends i necessary.

    Srawberries can be planed in mounds, beds, rows, pos, sraberry planers #T295, or even in hanging baskes. Ulimaely h

    plans should be abou one oo apar, bu hey can be planed18-inch spacing and runners will fill in he beds.

    Musk srawberries will make los o runners, bu alpine srawberries won’ make any a all (alhough hey muliply quie rerom seeds).

     Because hey don’ make runners, alpine srawberries workvery well in pos or ‘srawberry jars’, or o define borders arounflower beds and walkways.


    Plan aronia in a moderaely acidic soil, pH 6.3-6.8, wih goodloam and drainage. Locae in ull sun or bes ruiing. Head neplans back by ½ o encourage branching unless yours is alrea


    Red & WhiCurrans &Gooseberrie


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    Aronia ruis on las year’s new growh. Maure bushes needhinning each winer o mainain heigh a 4-6’. Thin ou a ew ohe oldes shoos o a low poin o encourage new growh. Do nohear i you are using hem or a hedge i you wan flowers andrui.


    (Blue Honeysuckle) Plan in a moderaely acidic soil, pH 6.3-6.8,wih good loam and drainage, and ull sun or bes ruiing. Plan-ng in a mound will help i your soil is heavy or drains slowly. Re-

    move overlapping and weak branches as needed. Maure bushes

    may need some hinning o older shoos i hey have become oorowded. I ruis on previous years’ growh.


    Good drainage, ull sun, and good air circulaion are necessaryor he bes growh on seaberries. They do well near he ocean,nd are oleran o sal in he soil and he air.Do no be concerned by any srange lumps on bare rooed

    plans — seaberry (also called sea buckhorn) creaes noduleswhich house nirogen fixing baceria. Plans are drough oleran

    nce esablished!


    Prune back any exising dorman caneso 2 o 4 inches rom he ground a plan-ng. New canes will arise rom he roos.

    Be sure your raspberries are going ino awell drained area — hey canno olerae

    oggy roos! I your drainage is poor, planhem in a conainer or mound he soil

    up or planing. Pu a ence pos a eachnd o your row and pu up wo wires abou 3 and 5 ee high or cane suppor.ummer-bearing varieies like Tulameen,

    Meeker, Cascade Deligh and CascadeGold don’ give a crop he firs year ha

    you plan hem.Jus le he canes grow and atach hemo he wires as hey grow longer. Theseanes will give heir rui he ollowingummer, and when hey are finished wih his crop hey can

    be cu ou. The new shoos ha sprou in spring will be heruiing canes he nex summer. Canes in heir firs year arealled primocanes. In heir second (ruiing) year, hey are called

    floricanes.The new Raspberry Shorcake Brazelberry will grow only 2-3

    ee all. I will spread by he roos o fill a po, no mater hehape. Like oher summer bearing raspberries, once ruiing is

    finished, prune ou canes a he base ha have ruied, leavinghe new canes o rui nex season.


    Follow he planing insrucions or summer bearing raspber-ies above. Some raspberries like Auumn Briten, Polka, Rosannand Caroline are called ‘everbearers’ because hey can give worops each year, one in he lae summer/all and anoher crop heollowing early summer.

    The lae summer and all crop is produced on he upper por-ions o he canes ha came up ha spring (primocanes). Oncehe crop is finished in he all, you can prune off he upper por-ion o he cane ha ruied, bu keep he lower hird or so ha

    didn’ produce. This remaining cane lengh will resume growingnd flower lae he ollowing spring, giving he firs crop o ha

    year (in early summer). Once he firs ruis o he year have been

    picked, you can cu hosecanes off a he ground. Afera ew more weeks he laesummer-all crop will appearon he new shoos o hayear. The year you iniiallyplan your raspberry canesyou won’ ge he early sum-mer crop because here won’have been any overwineringcanes rom he previous year.Bu in subsequen years you’ll

    have he poenial or wocrops a year.

    You may wan o ry wha could be called he NO TRELLIOPTION in which you conen yoursel wih only a lae summer/all crop and sacriice he early summer crop by simplycuing he whole pach o a he ground each winer. You’leliminae he overwinering canes and hereore he poenor an early summer crop, bu you’ll also simpliy your prunand reduce he carryover o disease rom one year o he nexAlso, because he canes will only grow or one season beoreyou remove hem, you may be able o avoid he need or a rlis or wire o suppor he canes. Some canes grow enough inone year o need a leas one wire o hold hem up, especiall

    once rui has se.Pruning raspberries isn’ complicaed. The excellen bookle“Berries, Rasp, and Black”, iem #S040, explains i all quie clearand is highly recommended or pruning and rellising inormaion on boh blackberries and raspberries.


    An easy o grow plan once esablished, elderberries preer amois, well drained soil and ull sun excep in he hoter summareas. They will olerae parial shade. Ofen hey will die backhe roos in heir firs winer afer ransplaning, only o vigorously regrow.


    BLACKBERRIESBlackberries arrive

    eiher as dorman bareroo plans or in 4” pos.Prune he dormancanes o 2 o 6 inchesrom he ground aplaning. You may wisho grow hese on a wirerellis, as mos do beterwih some orm o sup-por. Blackberries bearon canes ha emergedhe previous year. Anesablished plan shouldhave boh older canes (rom las year) ha will give his year’scrop and brand new replacemen canes ha will produce nexyears rui. Since railing blackberries are so vigorous and ofehorny, i’s bes o keep hese wo ses o canes separae, whicheasies using a rellis. There are many ways o rellis blackberr

    One mehod is o se up a srucure wih wo wires srechedbeween poss, one a 2-3 ee off he ground and anoher a4-5 ee. Train your ruiing canes on he upper wires and henew replacemens on he lower wires. Afer canes have finishecropping you should cu hem off alogeher. I you have beenataching he new canes or nex years’ crop on a wire, you canhen move hem all ogeher, no one by one, o he upper wire

    and ree he lower wire or he new canes ha appear nex yea

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    So-called ‘reesanding’ blackberries like he Apache, Nacheznd Ouachia varieies have much less need or a rellis han dohe railing ypes. Cu off he op as each reaches our ee all.

    They will hen send ou side branches, which will produce ruihe ollowing year. New Blackberry culivars in he “Prime” seriesre primocane blackberries. They bear on firs year wood. Careor hem as you do he everbearing raspberries.


    The key o getingyour young blueber-

    y bush off o a goodar is o selec sev-ral vigorous uprighhoos growing romhe base. Eliminaehe small bushy

    branches a he base.Remove some o he

    verlapping, crowd-d branches and any

    broken branches.No much prun-

    ng is needed inhe firs ew years,

    bu evenuallyhinning ou older

    branches or heading hem back o newer vigorous shoos canenew he bush. Afer planing, and each spring hereafer, mulch

    wih wood chips, pine needles, oak leaves, or oher acidic maeri-ls o conrol weeds, reain moisure and mainain pH.Mos blueberries require an acid soil wih a pH o abou 4 o 5,

    which can ofen be achieved by adding pea moss o a less acidicoil. In some areas, he pH o he waer may also need acidiying

    wih vinegar. Add sulur o a neural or alkaline soil. Blueberrieshrive in he sun in he Pacific Norhwes, bu in drier and hoterlimaes hey may need o be grown in parial shade. As hey

    have fibrous, shallow roos, be careul no o le hem dry ou.Do no le oher plans (weeds!) compee or space and nuriens,

    nd avoid digging in he roo zone. Blueberries also grow well inonainers.


    Boh o hese small plans require acidic soil (pH 4.5- 5.5).Alhough cranberries are grown commercially in bogs, his ismainly or ease o harves, when he rui can be floaed off ohe plans. They do quie nicely in a well drained soil wih los o

    humus. Their relaives, he lingonberries, are more demanding oood drainage and less hirsy once esablished. I is imporan oonrol weeds.

    TEA PLANTSThese are in he camellia amily, and enjoy growing condi-

    ions o a mois bu well drained, slighly acidic soil wih a highpercenage o organic mater. Proec rom ho afernoon sun anddrying winds. They appreciae a couple o inches o mulch o helpmodiy soil moisure and emperaures.


    Passiflora varieies vary dramaically in winer hardiness. Ou-doors, hardy passion vines do bes in a well drained no-oo-rich

    oil, pH 6.5-7.5. Mulch he surace in winer i emperaures maydrop below 0-10°F o proec he roos. Tops will die back o he

    round. Tropical, cold sensiive varieies may be planed oudoors

    n ropical locaions, or in he ground in a winer heaed green-

    house. To keep your passiflora in a conainer use a poting mixha provides good drainage. Indoors provide brigh ligh, 10-12hours per day, wih a 50°F minimum emperaure.


    There are several mehods o raining grapes, bu hey are allbased on esablishing a runk rom which new growh is encour-aged each year. Prune your new dorman grape plan o wo viabbuds, rom which you will develop he runk.

    Training mehods or grapes are based on eiher cane replace-men or spur sysems. This is deermined by wheher a variey

    produces rui bearing shoos saring wih he firs bud, or sara he 4h-7h bud, o las year’s shoo. Generally, a cane replace-men sysem works wih all ypes o grape, while he spur sysemdoes no work wih mos able grapes. For advice on spur and ohraining sysems, consul he grape growing books we offer such ‘The Grape Grower’ #S185 (spur sysem), and ‘Pruning and TraininRevised’ #S325 (many raining mehods).

     The verical curain mehod (a cane replacemen sysem) workwell or grapes grown in a mariime climae. The rui is exposed he sun or maximum sugar and flavor developmen, and he vinare easily draped wih wide bird neting #T431.

    The verical curain mehod requires a rellis wih wires sea abou 3’ and 5’. As he growing season sars, selec he mosvigorous cane o rain up a sake as a runk, rim ou compeingside shoos. The firs winer head he leader a a bud 2-3” below hbotom wire o encourage branching. Season wo selec a srongshoo o rain along he botom wire in each direcion plus one mo grow up in he cener. In he winer keep he wo canes on eachside o he runk and prune hem o abou 15 buds or 2 ee each aie o he botom wire. Prune he hird uprigh cane o hree buds

    In he spring each o he buds will produce new canes, ruiing showill be produced rom abou he ourh bud on o able grapes.

    As hey grow, creae a hird line o suppor midway beweenhe botom and op wire by weaving some wine back and orhbeween he shoos.

    Fasen he shoos o he op wire as hey ge here, and rim a fifh lea above he wire (excep he hree vigorous shoos growin

    up he cener rom he hree bud spur). The leaves provide he phosynhesis ha will ripen he grapes ha orm a he base o eacshoo. Since he vegeaion is ied up, i won’ shade he rui.

    The ollowing winer and each winer hereafer, prune off hehorizonal canes ha produced ruiing shoos in summer. Selecwo replacemen shoos ha grew rom he hree bud spur youmade las winer. Tie he seleced shoos down o he botom wirein each direcion) and prune o 15 buds or abou wo ee in lenghPrune he hird uprigh shoo o hree buds. This will produce hreplacemen canes and spur or he nex season and complees hcycle. Winer prune well beore new spring growh sars, oherwcus bleed prousely. Summer pruned new shoos won’ bleed.

    Cane Replacement System

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  • 8/9/2019 2015 Raintree Nursery Plant Owners Manual



    oil, so long as hey are mois, wih a pH range o 5.3-7.5. Supporr pleny o space will be needed or he vigorous railing vines.

    Hilling afer firs emergence and a firs flower may increase har-ves. The ubers are ready or harves in 6-8 monhs, or ollowingfirs ros. They orm near he surace and are harvesed likepoaoes. Sore he ubers up o 6 monhs in a cool, well venila-

    d locaion ha is proeced rom srong ligh. Tubers lef behindn he ground will sprou he ollowing spring.

    USES: The sharp flavor o mos raw mashua ubers is reminis-en o ho radishes. Cooking reduces he radish flavor and bringsu an anise flavor. They are usually boiled wih mea o orm aoup or sew or eaen as a baked or ried vegeable. In addiion

    o he ubers, he ender young leaves are eaen as a boiled greenvegeable. The flowers are also eaen. Mashua is high yielding ands ubers are rich in carbohydraes and oher nuriens, Mashua

    may also have radiional olk-medicine uses.Raw ubers conain isohiocyanaes, which may be oxic in

    arge quaniies, cooking desroys he isohiocyanaes makinghe ubers sae o ea.


    Walnus preer soil a pH 6.5-7.0, well drained bu wih pleny ovailable summer moisure. Plan in a deep soil o accommodaehe long ap roo. I needed, plan in a mound ha is 18-24” high

    by 4-6’ across, o provide he deep well drained soil. Mulch he

    urace well. Be sure o plan o he same deph i was grown be-ore, where he color changes on he runk a he op o he roo. your ree was grafed, keep he graf union a leas 3-4” abovehe soil surace. Walnus grow very quickly uprigh when young.

    When he leader has grown o 2-4” above he poin you wan,o develop your laeral branches, rim off he ip eiher in earlyummer or winer. Oherwise limi your pruning o hinning ourossing, crowded, or weak branches, and o selec your primarycaffolding limbs. Walnus do no respond well o regular heavy

    pruning. Prune in winer o avoid bleeding sap. Do no ip prune you are growing he rees or imber.


    Provide a well-drained soil, pH 6.0-7.0. The firs ew years, mulchnnually wih compos, leaves, or sraw o reain moisure and

    provide nuriens. Like walnus, chesnus end o grow sronglyuprigh he firs ew years, hen sar o develop a crown. In win-er cu he leader back o a ew inches above where you wouldike he firs scaffold limbs o esablish. Oherwise limi your

    pruning o hinning ou crossing, crowded, or weak branches, ando selec your primary scaffolding limbs.


    Filber rees are pruned o an open cener shape. Separae e-male and male flowers are born on wiggy side shoos o vigorousuprigh shoos. Use hinning cus on older shoos o keep he ree

    pen and encourage new vigorous replacemen shoos. Conroluckers o mainain ree shape. Filber hedges are pruned oncourage suckers. Head newly planed hedge rees o 2-3’ oncourage branching. Annually hin ou older suckers o conrol

    heigh and mainain ruiing. Filbers are wind pollinaed in hewiner. The male flowers are he cakins. Pollen blows on o heiny red emale flowers. Plan your pollinaor variey upwind sohe pollen blows on o your main variey. Plan filbers 15’ apar. making a hedge, space only 4’-6’ apar.

    GOOD RESOURCESFollowing are he websies where we find useul inormaion


    A. www.csrees.usda.gov/exension/ or in he couny pages oyour phone book. Your ax dollars a work! These are your locaadvisors.


     www.naex.org A nonprofi associaion o enhusiasic, help

    ul rui and nu growers wih a grea quarerly magazine andousanding websie.


     www.crg.org Fulleron Arboreum-CSUF, PO Box 6850, Ful-leron, CA, 92834-6850 The world’s larges amaeur rui growinorganizaion, wih members in 48 saes and 30 counries. Theyemphasize unusual subropical ruis and vegeables.


    www.wwr.org Los o good inormaion on rui growing i

    he Pacific Norhwes and links o WSU M. Vernon Saion rugrowing.


    www.homeorchardsociey.org A wonderul amaeur educaial rui group or Oregon.


    www.soiloodweb.com 1128 NE 2nd S., Suie 120, Corvallis, OR97330 phone: (541) 752-5066 Tess, inormaion, and producs ohe lie o he soil. This sie will give you a grea educaion oncomposing and making a healhy soil.


    htp://ruisandnus.ucdavis.edu/ Universiy o Caliornia OnShields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-8683




    www.virginiarui.eno.v.edu Good ino and picures o manpess, ocus on ree rui in he mid-Alanic region.




    www.oregonsae.edu/gardening/ On heir sie, selec one ohe handbooks in he righ hand column. They provide helpuidenificaion and conrol inormaion or gardeners in he Paic Norhwes.


    www.arbico.com Large selecion o organic pes conrol pro


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    www.dripworks.com Drip irrigaion or home gardeners.

    BOOKS & SUPPLIESLook on our websie and in our caalog or he books and

    upplies ha will help you be successul in growing rui. Thesenclude books on drip irrigaion, pruning, grafing, unusual ruisnd much more. Go online a www.rainreenursery.com or con-ul he Rainree Nursery caalog or a more complee lis o use-ul books and supplies. Comprehensive books on plan disease

    writen or commercial growers are published by he AmericanPhyopahological Sociey: 3340 Pilo Knob Rd. S. Paul, MN. 55121.Phone (800) 328-7560. Free caalog.


    We recommend Felco pruners. These are he prunersused by proessionals hroughou he world. Easy onhe rees and shrubs and on you. FELCO 8, righhand-d #T190 FELCO 9, #T200 (same as FELCO 8 bu lef

    handed). We also recommend he Felco Pruning Saw#T518 and a good pair o Orchard Loppers wih a leas

    4 inch handles. Look a our websie or an orchardadder #T122Q. We also offer branch spreaders.


    Grafing knives, bands, grafing ools and oher supplies areised on our websie and in he caalog.


    We offer rui picking devices and rui picking bags. Find hemn our websie or caalog.


    We offer organic erilizers and also beneficial mycorrhizae.Mycorrhizal ungi enable he roo sysem o increase in size and

    apaciy o absorb he nuriens already in your soil. Building upyour soil wih organic mater allows mycorrhizae o hrive. Mycopaks #T185

    Mason BeesBlue Orchard Bees (B.O.B.) and Green Berry Bees (G.B.B.)

    We ship Blue Orchard bees saring approximaely lae Januaryhrough he end o February, or unil supplies run ou. Green Berry

    bees are shipped saring in mid-March. Your new bees will arriven sraws or as loose cocoons in a small box. Mason bees wake up exposed o emperaures above 50°F or more han a day or wo,o i is bes i you pu hem in a rerigeraor as soon as you receivehem. Sore your bees in he rerigeraor (36-39° F is bes) unil youre ready o release hem, even i one or wo have already woken up.

    The bees can be pu ouside when danger o exended hard reezehas passed, or when you are abou 2-4 weeks rom ull bloom (whenhe flower buds have los o color).

    I is imporan o mainain proper humidiy or he bees i youore hem in a ros ree rerigeraor. Pu he cardboard box oocoons inside a plasic bag ha you pu several small holes in,long wih a barely mois paper owel. Close he bag, and pu i inhe rerigeraor.

    Blue Orchard bees will emerge naurally, in response o warmingpring emperaures, i you se up he nes box and release box (wihocoons inside) as soon as you receive hem. Mason bee cocoons will

    urvive shor periods o exposure o emperaures below zero, bu i

    you expec you will have week-long (or longer) periods o sub-reing weaher i will be bes o sore he cocoons in he rerigeraorunil winer has moderaed.

    Insall Mason bee housing on he Souh or Eas side o a buildiwhere i will receive he morning sun and be proeced rom winand rain, generally near he ground or abou 6-8’ above he grounUnder an eave or deck will help keep hem dry. Avoid mouning hbee blocks in he open or atached o rees o minimize movemenor vibraion. Agains a surdy ence can work. The emale bees wifly up o 300’, bu will be more efficien i locaed a litle closer o rui rees. To help he emales find he nes box, especially i youonly have one or wo, ry o have somehing large or hem o localike a piece o plywood pained wih a large moi.

    Place he sraws or small box filled wih cocoons on op o hesacking rays inside he Royal Bee House. For differen ypes o bboxes you may need a release box, such as #T343E 4” release box, oa Sarer Cotage (#T333) which can be used as a release box i youremove he sraws. Locae he release box or Sarer Cotage jusunder or near your bee block a he same or slighly lower level, she emales will find heir new clean block when hey reurn romheir maiden fligh.

    I you are jus saring a populaion, or have less han 20 cocooyou will need o pu all o your cocoons ou a he same ime. In uure, as your populaion o mason bees increases, you can manhem and release a porion as each group o rees comes ino bloo

    Pu he cocoons ou or release as you see flower buds in yourorchard swelling, or abou 3 weeks beore you expec he flowers open. Or pu a quaniy o cocoons ou every six weeks.

    Adul Mason bees need necar o orage on, especially beorehere are many blossoms on your rui rees. Plan early necarorage sources, such as pussy willow, filber, Pieris japonica, IndiaPlum (a norhwes naive), Oregon grape, Siberian Quill, and Lon-icera ragranissima (Winer Honeysuckle). Bumble bee, honey beand oher early oragers will also benefi. Make sure you have necrich flowers available beween bloom cycles in your rui rees aswell o keep your mason bees in op condiion.

    Provide a mud source i your environmen lacks a source nearwhere you locae he bees. A dripping auce over sil or clay soil,

    conainer you mainain wih mois mud will work. Place a ew smsicks on op o he mud, so he emales have easy access.I is imporan o keep naurally occurring mies and parasiic

    wasps o a minimum o mainain he healh o your bee populaiOne mehod is o clean he cocoons afer he bees have maured ihe all. Anoher mehod is o manage he emperaures hey aremainained a during he summer as hey maure, paricularly inhe Pacific Norhwes and oher mild we spring areas across hecounry. See he aricle ‘Mie Conrol or Mason Bees’ on our websie or easy, specific insrucions o keep he mies under conrolwih emperaure managemen.

    Rainree also offers Green Berry Bees (Osmia aglaia), a relaive he Mason Bee. They pollinae lae spring and early summer blooing berries, paricularly raspberry and blackberry, kiwi, and garde

    vegeables. Green Berry bees wake up as he Mason Bees come ohe end o heir cycle, and coninue flying ino he summer. Thisbeauiul litle hard-working shiny green bee is naive o he PaciCoas and suied or and only available o ship o Oregon, Washinon, and Caliornia. Green Berry Bees are acive a emperauresabove 60° F, and ypically emerge when red raspberry and black-berry sar o flower. I your lae spring is unusually cool he BlueOrchard Bees will do a beter job o pollenizing. The Green Berry preers a slighly smaller ube han he Blue Orchard Bee, bu oherwise heir managemen is similar. In heir naive range hey wiover winer ouside, or hey can be sored in a rerigeraor ollowhe guidelines above. Release daes will be laer in he spring, wheday ime emperaures are saring o be in he 60’s and berries ar

    coming in o bloom.

  • 8/9/2019 2015 Raintree Nursery Plant Owners Manual




    Pest Symptoms Control Methods Comments


    Anhracnose • Cankers in bark osems or runk in springappear as waer soakedareas. In summer barkdies and shreds.

    • Excise or cauerize new lesions inJune. Hea o bubble no burnedblack wih a small orch.

    • Prune ou cankered branches• Spray wih copper ungicide afer

    harves beore all rains.

    • Disinec ools wih alcohol be-ween cus when removing canker

    • The ungus spreads in waer soprune ou cankers ONLY in dryweaher.

    • View Conrol o Anhracnose DVD#S522D


    • Whie powdery unguson leaves and shoos.

    • Suned or disored newgrowh.

    • Plan resisan varieies. See Rain-ree caalog.

    • Lime sulur, milk soluion, or poas-sium bicarbonae spray spring andearly summer.

    • Minimize shading, maximize airflow.

    • Worse in shady areas.• Avoid excessive nirogen erilizer

    Inecions overwiner in he budsa shoo ips. Prune ou inecedshoos and o mainain good aircirculaion.

    APPLES &

    Firebligh • Shoos wiher, look like ashephard’s crook, leavesdie and urn brown orblack, bu ofen remainon he ree.

    • Prune ou all ineced shoos,cuting a leas 12” below inec-ion. Disinec ools wih alcoholbeween cus.

    • Fixed copper spray in all and earlyspring, or Bordeaux mix.

    • Especially common on pears inwarm we springs (75-85°F) bu maalso affec apples in bad years.

    • Plan resisan varieies, lised inour caalog. Prune o mainain gooairflow.


    • Worms in rui growingo 3/4” long leaving exiunnels and abundandark rass(droppings) inseed caviy.

    • Ryania (organic insecicide) wihfish oil sprayed wo weeks afer ullbloom

    • Maing disrupion using phero-mone raps is effecive in largeorchards.

    • Use Apple Maggo conrol bags#T161 reaed wih Surround.

    • Conrol wih organic mehodsrequires careul iming.

    • Clean up and discard all allenwormy rui as soon as i alls, dono pu in compos piles.

    Apple &Asian PearMaggo

    • Heavily unneled ruifilled wih small mag-gos abou 1/4” long.

    • Sicky raps (2-6 /ree) or monior-ing; enhance wih pheromone ki(#T164) or apple cider vinegar on apiece o sponge.

    • Increase number o raps orconrol.

    • Apple Maggo conrol bags.• Surround, Spinosad, Bioneem.

    • Clean up and dispose o allenmaggo rui immediaely. Trycombining raps wih a preveniveechnique, such as he conrol bagConrol maggos in oher hosplans, i.e. hawhorn and floweringcrabapple.

    Scab • Blackish brown blocheson leaves

    • Scabs on rui

    • Plan resisan varieies. See Rain-ree caalog.

    • Lime sulur, sulur, fixed copperor Bordeaux mix ungicidal sprayswhenever we, (especially warm}condiions occur rom springhrough early summer.

    • Organic approved Serenade, abio-ungicide.

    • Inecion occurs rapidly a emperures greaer han 45 degrees Fahrenhei, ha is also when prevenivsprays are mos effecive. Clean upand discard leaves in all.

    Apple BiterPi, Pear CorkSpo (calciumdeficiency inhe rui)

    • Waer-soaked areas onhe rui skin ollowedby sunken necroicspos, and/or brownishor sreaked necroicareas inside he rui.Spos are more numer-ous on he blossom endo he rui. Spos or ne-croic areas may appearwhile he rui is on heree or laer in sorage.

    • Avoid heavy winer pruning,summer prune o conrol excessivevegeaive growh

    • Spray he rui wih calcium chlo-ride or calcium nirae

    • Avoid excess nirogen erilizer• Thin he rui• Avoid damaging he runk

    • Biter pi resuls rom calciumdeficiency in he rui, brough onby excessive vegeaive growhcombined wih sress in he ree(hea, drough, uneven irrigaion, oexcess rui) or runk damage hainhibis calcium movemen in heree.

    • Inernal sympoms someimesresemble apple maggo damage.

    • Some culivars are more suscepib


  • 8/9/2019 2015 Raintree Nursery Plant Owners Manual




    Pest Symptoms Control Methods Comments


    Pear Slug(Pear sawfly)

    • Dark olive green slug-like larvae skeleonizeleaves, especially com-mon in summer.

    • Insecicidal soap, spinosad• Pyrehrin, roenone dus or bi-

    oneem• Pick off and desroy by hand

    • Trees can olerae up o 25% deoliion wih litle harm.

    • Also iness plum, cherry, hawhorand mounain ash.

    Pear Psylla • Los o very iny yellow/red insecs which secreehoneydew, causing sooymold

    • Insecicidal soap or roenone, sprayin spring

    • Dorman and delayed dorman oiland lime sulur

    • Superior oil spray 2-3 imes inspring

    • Insecs preer sof vigorous growPrune ou suckers and manageerilizer and pruning program ominimize unnecessary vigor.

    Bliser Mie • Small oval, poined, andraised reddish blisers onleaves. Russeted sunkenspos on rui.

    • Pick off and discard affeced leaveswhen discovered, bu don’ deoli-ae compleely.

    • Oil spray wih lime sulur in Oc/Nov and in spring as buds begin oswell.


    Pseudomo-nas or

    Syringaepv. syringae

    • Black cankers on sems,wiling blackened leaves.

    • Can look like firebligh.

    • Plan resisan varieies. See Rain-ree caalog.

    • Fixed copper spray in all/earlyspring.

    • Delay pruning unil warm weaherin lae spring (afer all ross).

    • Foliar micronurien spray mayhelp.

    • This disease is mos severe whenspring ross damage bark or when

    pruning is done in winer or earlyspring beore bud break. Newlyplaned rees are suscepible.


    BacerialCankerSyringaepv. syr