24307574 Introduction to Electrical Engineering the Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering

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Introduction to Electrical EngineeringMulukutla S. SarmaOXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESSI NTRODUCTI ON TOE L E CTRI CAL E NGI NE E RI NGthe oxford series in electrical and computer engineeringAdel S. Sedra, Series EditorAllen and Holberg, CMOS Analog Circuit DesignBobrow, Elementary Linear Circuit Analysis, 2nd EditionBobrow, Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering, 2nd EditionBurns and Roberts, Introduction to Mixed Signal IC Test and MeasurementCampbell, The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic FabricationChen, Analog & Digital Control System DesignChen, Digital Signal ProcessingChen, Linear System Theory and Design, 3rd EditionChen, System and Signal Analysis, 2nd EditionDeCarlo and Lin, Linear Circuit Analysis, 2nd EditionDimitrijev, Understanding Semiconductor DevicesFortney, Principles of Electronics: Analog & DigitalFranco, Electric Circuits FundamentalsGranzow, Digital Transmission LinesGuru and Hiziro glu, Electric Machinery and Transformers, 3rd EditionHoole and Hoole, A Modern Short Course in Engineering ElectromagneticsJones, Introduction to Optical Fiber Communication SystemsKrein, Elements of Power ElectronicsKuo, Digital Control Systems, 3rd EditionLathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communications Systems, 3rd EditionMartin, Digital Integrated Circuit DesignMcGillemand Cooper, Continuous and Discrete Signal and SystemAnalysis, 3rd EditionMiner, Lines and Electromagnetic Fields for EngineersRoberts and Sedra, SPICE, 2nd EditionRoulston, An Introduction to the Physics of Semiconductor DevicesSadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics, 3rd EditionSantina, Stubberud, and Hostetter, Digital Control System Design, 2nd EditionSarma, Introduction to Electrical EngineeringSchaumann and Van Valkenburg, Design of Analog FiltersSchwarz, Electromagnetics for EngineersSchwarz and Oldham, Electrical Engineering: An Introduction, 2nd EditionSedra and Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, 4th EditionStefani, Savant, Shahian, and Hostetter, Design of Feedback Control Systems, 3rd EditionVan Valkenburg, Analog Filter DesignWarner and Grung, Semiconductor Device ElectronicsWolovich, Automatic Control SystemsYariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th EditionINTRODUCTION TOELECTRICAL ENGINEERINGMulukutla S. SarmaNort heast ern Uni versi t yNew York OxfordOXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS2001Oxford University PressOxford New YorkAthens Auckland Bangkok Bogot a Buenos Aires CalcuttaCape Town Chennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong IstanbulKarachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City MumbaiNairobi Paris S ao Paulo Shanghai Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsawand associated companies inBerlin IbadanCopyright 2001 by Oxford University Press, Inc.Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.,198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York, 10016http://www.oup-usa.orgOxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University PressAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior permission of Oxford University Press.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataSarma, Mulukutla S., 1938Introduction to electrical engineering / Mulukutla S. Sarmap. cm. (The Oxford series in electrical and computer engineering)ISBN 0-19-513604-7 (cloth)1. Electrical engineering. I. Title. II. Series.TK146.S18 2001621.3dc21 00-020033AcknowledgmentsTable 1.2.2 is adapted from Principles of Electrical Engineering (McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical Engineering), by Peyton Z.Peebles Jr. and Tayeb A. Giuma, reprinted with the permission of McGraw-Hill, 1991; gures 2.6.1, 2.6.2 are adapted from Getting Started withMATLAB 5: Quick Introduction, by Rudra Pratap, reprinted with the permission of Oxford University Press, 1998; gures 4.1.24.1.5, 4.2.14.2.3,4.3.14.3.2, are adapted from Electric Machines: Steady-State Theory and Dynamic Performance, Second Edition, by Mulukutla S. Sarma, reprintedwith the permission of Brooks/Cole Publishing, 1994; gure 4.6.1 is adapted fromMedical Instrumentation Application and Design, by John G. Webster,reprinted with the permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1978; table 4.6.1 is adapted from Electrical Safety in Industrial Plants, IEEE Spectrum, byRalph Lee, reprinted with the permission of IEEE, 1971; gure P5.3.1 is reprinted with the permission of Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation; gures5.6.1, 6.6.1, 9.5.1 are adapted fromElectrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, by Allen R. Hambley, reprinted with the permission of PrenticeHall, 1997; gure 10.5.1 is adapted from Power System Analysis and Design, Second Edition, by Duncan J. Glover and Mulukutla S. Sarma, reprintedwith the permission of Brooks/Cole Publishing, 1994; gures 11.1.2, 13.2.10 are adapted from Introduction to Electrical Engineering, Second Edition,by Clayton Paul, Syed A. Nasar, and Louis Unnewehr, reprinted with the permission of McGraw-Hill, 1992; gures E12.2.1(a,b), 12.2.212.2.5, 12.2.912.2.10, 12.3.112.3.3, 12.4.1, E12.4.1, P12.1.2, P12.4.3, P12.4.8, P12.4.12, 13.1.113.1.8, 13.2.113.2.9, 13.2.1113.2.16, 13.3.113.3.3, E13.3.2,13.3.4, E13.3.3, 13.3.513.3.6 are adapted from Electric Machines: Steady-State Theory and Dynamic Performance, Second Edition, by Mulukutla S.Sarma, reprinted with the permission of Brooks/Cole Publishing, 1994; gure 13.3.12 is adapted from Communication Systems Engineering, by John G.Proakis and Masoud Salehi, reprinted with the permission of Prentice Hall, 1994; gures 13.4.113.4.7, E13.4.1(b), 13.4.813.4.12, E13.4.3, 13.4.13,13.6.1 are adapted from Electric Machines: Steady-State Theory and Dynamic Performance, Second Edition, by Mulukutla S. Sarma Brooks/ColePublishing, 1994; gures 14.2.8, 14.2.9 are adapted from Electrical Engineering: Concepts and Applications, Second Edition, by A. Bruce Carlson andDavid Gisser, reprinted with the permission of Prentice Hall, 1990; gure 15.0.1 is adapted from Communication Systems, Third Edition, by A. BruceCarlson, reprinted with the permission of McGraw-Hill, 1986; gures 15.2.15, 15.2.31, 15.3.11 are adapted from Communication Systems Engineering,by John G. Proakis and Masoud Salehi, reprinted with the permission of Prentice Hall, 1994; gures 15.2.19, 15.2.27, 15.2.28, 15.2.30, 15.3.3, 15.3.4,15.3.9, 15.3.10, 15.3.20 are adapted from Principles of Electrical Engineering (McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical Engineering), by Peyton Z. PeeblesJr. and Tayeb A. Giuma, reprinted with the permission of McGraw-Hill, 1991; gures 16.1.116.1.3 are adapted from Electric Machines: Steady-StateTheory and Dynamic Performance, Second Edition, by Mulukutla S. Sarma, reprinted with the permission of Brooks/Cole Publishing, 1994; table16.1.3 is adapted from Electric Machines: Steady-State Theory and Dynamic Performance, Second Edition, by Mulukutla S. Sarma, reprinted with thepermission of Brooks/Cole Publishing, 1994; table 16.1.4 is adapted fromHandbook of Electric Machines, by S. A. Nasar, reprinted with the permissionof McGraw-Hill, 1987; and gures 16.1.413.1.9, E16.1.1, 16.1.1016.1.25 are adapted from Electric Machines: Steady-State Theory and DynamicPerformance, Second Edition, by Mulukutla S. Sarma, reprinted with the permission of Brooks/Cole Publishing, 1994.Printing (last digit): 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Printed in the United States of Americaon acid-free paperTo my grandchildrenPuja SreeSruthi LekhaPallavi Devi* * *and those to comeThis page intentionally left blank CONTENTSList of Case Studies and Computer-Aided Analysis xiiiPreface xvOverview xxiPART1 ELECTRICCIRCUITS1 Circuit Concepts 31.1 Electrical Quantities 41.2 Lumped-Circuit Elements 161.3 Kirchhoffs Laws 391.4 Meters and Measurements 471.5 Analogy between Electrical and Other Nonelectric Physical Systems 501.6 Learning Objectives 521.7 Practical Application: A Case StudyResistance Strain Gauge 52Problems 532 Circuit Analysis Techniques 662.1 Thvenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 662.2 Node-Voltage and Mesh-Current Analyses 712.3 Superposition and Linearity 812.4 WyeDelta Transformation 832.5 Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis: SPICE 852.6 Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis: MATLAB 882.7 Learning Objectives 922.8 Practical Application: A Case StudyJump Starting a Car 92Problems 943 Time-Dependent Circuit Analysis 1023.1 Sinusoidal Steady-State Phasor Analysis 1033.2 Transients in Circuits 1253.3 Laplace Transform 1423.4 Frequency Response 154viiviii CONTENTS3.5 Computer-Aided Circuit Simulation for Transient Analysis, AC Analysis, andFrequency Response Using PSpice and PROBE 1683.6 Use of MATLAB in Computer-Aided Circuit Simulation 1733.7 Learning Objectives 1773.8 Practical Application: A Case StudyAutomotive Ignition System 178Problems 1794 Three-Phase Circuits and Residential Wiring 1984.1 Three-Phase Source Voltages and Phase Sequence 1984.2 Balanced Three-Phase Loads 2024.3 Measurement of Power 2084.4 Residential Wiring and Safety Considerations 2124.5 Learning Objectives 2154.6 Practical Application: A Case StudyPhysiological Effects of Current andElectrical Safety 216Problems 218PART2 ELECTRONICANALOGANDDIGITALSYSTEMS5 Analog Building Blocks and Operational Ampliers 2235.1 The Amplier Block 2245.2 Ideal Operational Amplier 2295.3 Practical Properties of Operational Ampliers 2355.4 Applications of Operational Ampliers 2445.5 Learning Objectives 2565.6 Practical Application: A Case StudyAutomotive Power-Assisted SteeringSystem 257Problems 2586 Digital Building Blocks and Computer Systems 2686.1 Digital Building Blocks 2716.2 Digital System Components 2956.3 Computer Systems 3166.4 Computer Networks 3206.5 Learning Objectives 3256.6 Practical Application: A Case StudyMicrocomputer-ControlledBreadmaking Machine 325Problems 3267 Semiconductor Devices 3397.1 Semiconductors 3397.2 Diodes 3407.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 358CONTENTS ix7.4 Field-Effect Transistors 3677.5 Integrated Circuits 3787.6 Learning Objectives 3797.7 Practical Application: A Case StudyElectron