2D or not 2D, what is the question? Introduction to the Technologies Wednesday 5 th May 2010 Aston Science Park, Birmingham Prof Anthony Furness Technical

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  • 2D or not 2D, what is the question? Introduction to the Technologies Wednesday 5 th May 2010 Aston Science Park, Birmingham Prof Anthony Furness Technical Director, AIM UK
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  • A message in the parody View different technologies in relation to their complementary attributes Technology in relation to needs Consider too Positioning with respect to other technologies Object- connected ICT (aka Item-attendant ICT) Integration of technologies Standards Practicalities Change
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  • AIDC Technologies Data Carrier identification Secondary Identification and Data Capture Linear Full Matrix Dot Codes Electronic Magnetic Optical RF Transponder (RFID) Contact Memory Magnetic Stripe MICR * Stacked (or multi-row) Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Optical Mark Reading (OMR) Matrix Codes Bar Code Smart Card Memory Card Optical Memory (magneto- optic) Programmable Magnetic Resonance Charge injection Non-Contact Memory Contactless Smart Card Contactless Memory Card
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  • Examples of Bar and 2D Optical Data Carriers Linear Full Matrix Dot Codes Stacked (or multi-row) Matrix Codes Bar Code Each have their variants Each have advantages and disadvantages Each have their attributes Each have their standards Each have their uses
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  • And new 2D Data Carriers - Dotcode Newly announced through AIM Global Dotcode symbology specification Unlike other dotcodes (and there are many) Dotcode has been place in the public domain and supported by an AIM International Symbology Specification as ISS Dotcode Small to medium capacity Designed with GS1 and EPCglobal applications in mind Tackling issues of production speed and marking Tackling issues of high speed Ink-jet printing and laser etch with variable data modern symbology features RFID backup Source: AIM Global
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  • Linear bar codes occupy 2D space, but information contained within the bar /space structure is the same irrespective of where, in the height of the symbol, the scan is performed - hence redundancy in space terms 2D codes occupy 2D space, but information is contained in rows or other suitable arrangement within the 2D space Symbologies, Structure determinants for the symbols and the rules by which the data is encoded, attributes, functional features and the data sets that can be accommodated 2-D Symbologies
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  • Multi-row bar code symbologies - data encoded as bars and spaces, in rows, 1s and 0s distinguished by bar and space structures Matrix codes - data encoded in cells, filled or unfilled to distinguish 1s and 0s Data capacities often in excess of 2000 alpha-numeric (but not always) Density benefit often > 100 characters per square inch Error control (error detection and correction) usually selectable, but requires understanding to apply effectively Code word concept to accommodate different character sets Fast and accurate transfer of data Some 2D Code Generalities Maxicode 135 ASCII characters
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  • Forming 2D Code Symbols 2D Symbols may be printed or direct marked onto objects Quality forming (printing or direct marking) and verification are important to assure effective usage and standards on all manner of objects
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  • 1D and 2D Barcodes Licence Plate and Portable Data Carriers Scan Barcode Database Look-up Application Transaction Data from Database 134768 Code 134768 Key to Database record Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data... 1D Barcode contains item identifier code Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data, Data... Application Transaction Data From 2D Barcode 2D Barcode contains Item Attendant Data
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  • Biometric templates Photograph (or any graphic) Signature Text Name: A N Other Order No. 374656 Ship Date: 12/1/2001 Binary data 011011010111 1011 110101101001 0101 Data Types in Portable Data Files
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  • BG*VOCAM*CFWY*VOCAM* CFWY*921014*1107*001 10 GS*SM*VOCAM*CFWY*92101 4*1107*000000110*T*M2 /8 ST*204*000000001 B2**CFWY****110008*L*PP** C*S****3 B2A*00*BL N9*CN*4440200752 N9*CR*11-99463 N1*SH*PITNEY BOWES N3*EDMOND ROAD N4*NEWTOWN*CT*06470 N1*CN*MIDAS INTERNATIONAL N3*4101 W 42ND PLACE N4*CHICAGO*IL*60632 LX*1 L5*1*G/CTN MACH NOI SU MAILING DIV*G/CTN*N L0*1***1060*N***10*PCS**L L1*1*0.0000**0.00 L7*1******100 L1*2*0.0000**582.92****FFC** **ALG. U, STOP CHG: 0.00 L5*1*G/CTN MACH NOI SU MAILING DIV*G/CTN*N L0*1***1060*N***10*PCS**L L1*1*0.0000**0.00 L7*1******100 LX*2 L5*2***N L0*2***0*N***0*PCS**L L1*2*0.0000**582.92****FFC****ALG. U, STOP CHG: 0.00 L7*2 L3*1060*G***582.92******10*L*555D* 0 SE*23*000000001 GE*1*000000110 EG*00110*1*1*23 BG*VOCAM*CFWY*VOCAM*CFWY* 921014*1107*00110 GS*SM*VOCAM*CFWY*921014*110 7*000000110*T*M2/8 ST*204*000000001 B2**CFWY****110008*L*PP**C*S**** 3 B2A*00*BL N9*CN*4440200752 N9*CR*11-99463 L7*2 L3*1060*G***582.92******10*L*555 D*0 SE*23*000000001 GE*1*000000110 EG*00110*1*1*23 BG*VOCAM*CFWY*VOCAM*CFW Y*921014*1107*00110 GS*SM*VOCAM*CFWY*921014*11 07*000000110*T*M2/8 ST*204*000000001 B2**CFWY****110008*L*PP**C*S** **3 B2A*00*BL N9*CN*4440200752 N9*CR*11-99463 N1*SH*PITNEY BOWES N3*EDMOND ROAD N4*NEWTOWN*CT*06470 N1*CN*MIDAS INTERNATIONAL N3*4101 W 42ND PLACE N4*CHICAGO*IL*60632 LX*1 Bill of Lading (BOL-204) 1320 Characters
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  • Optical Data Carrier Readers Optical Reader Optical Communication Channel Firmware/ Middleware Symbol Host Information Management System Applications software Application Commands Application Responses Labels may use linear bar codes or two- dimensional codes of the type illustrated Laser scanning or image capture techniques are used to capture data from bar codes or two-dimensional codes Readers can often accommodate a range of popular symbologies
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  • Advertising Dispatch and Receiving Paper EDI Maintenance histories Calibration data Product histories Hazard labels Identification cards Identification badges Manufacturing set-up instructions Software up-date communications Security & Anti- counterfeiting Small item tracking Ticketing, forms 2D code Some areas of Application Portable data files and small item marking adding to the versatility of 2D :
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  • 2D, Colour and Integration Integrated 2D codes and phone-camera technology Exploiting the potential of integrating 2D optical code technologies with reader capability introduced into camera-supported mobile phone technology Current Applications: Leisure and entertainment Advertising Location and Information services Transaction support Information gathering & Communications Counter-hazard instructions Enter the era of Internet applications Source: Colorcode
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  • Enter more colour codes Microsoft Tag High Capacity Color Barcode (HCCB) is the name coined by Microsoft for its proprietary technology of encoding data in a 2D "barcode" using clusters of colored triangles instead of the square pixels traditionally associated with 2D barcodes.[1]Microsoft2D "barcode"[1] [1] Microsoft Research High Capacity Color Barcode Technology Source: www. microsoft.com Custom codes eg for visiting cards, use in blogs, hyperlinks to websites
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  • Coding and decoding Time-multiplexed 2D Colorcodes [1] Colour matrix code in which the matrix cells change in accordance with data to be transmitted over the mobile phone communication channel Integrated 2D codes and phone- camera technology 4D Matrix [1] Source: Langlotz, T & Bimber, O (2007) Unsynchronised 4D Barcodes (Coding and decoding Time-multiplexed 2D Colorcodes) Advances in visual computing third international symposium, Lake Tahoe NV, USA
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  • 2D, RFID and Integration Re-writable paper and variants Physical (PR) and chemical (CR) rewrite mechanisms Integral RFID Current Applications: Process management Kanban (in-out parts and procurement) Parts management Operating instructions Distribution instructions Stock movement in frozen storage Service parts management Medical check navigation Pharmaceutical data management In-house medical logistics Up-datable ticketing (card-based)
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  • 2D, RFID Integration and Near Field Communication Using RFID, high frequency (13.56MHz) technology and associated standards Using mobile phone is an automatic identification data capture is not new Introduced by DoCoMo in Japan in 2002, using barcode data capture Camera acts as data capture device Phone is bar code emulator, tag reader and also a tag writer Phone has no capability to change data on external data carriers
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  • Enter Natural Feature Identification Surface Laser Authentication (LSA) Based upon low power laser scan of material surfaces and digital signature generation from back-scattered signal (speckle features) Image Comparison Methods Based upon image processing techniques to distinguish region of interest and effect authentication by image comparison techniques Fluorescent Fibre Methods (Fibreloc) Based upon UV or IR Fluorescent fibres introduced into object surface and digital signatures derived from image field
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  • Natural-Feature Labels Feature Label - exempla construction magnified and not to scale Label release layer removed on application Label substrate Window Transparent protective layer (optional) Adhesive layer Two-dimensional code providing encrypted location of reference natural-feature signature Feature window through which the natural-feature signature is de