A Case Study on Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Case Study on Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete ... strong and solid development material. ... Chemical Industries is released into the ground which

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


  • International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 34 Number 2- April 2016

    ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 58

    A Case Study on Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer


    K. Sandeep Dutt 1, K. Vinay Kumar

    1, I. Siva Kishore

    2, Ch. Mallika Chowdary


    1 Final year B.Tech Student, Department of Civil engineering, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur.

    2 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil engineering, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur.

    Abstract: - Cement is the world's most adaptable,

    strong and solid development material. By water,

    cement is the most utilized material, which required

    expansive amounts of Portland cement. Conventional

    Portland cement generation is the second just to the

    vehicles as the significant generator of carbon di

    oxide, which dirtied the air. Notwithstanding that

    huge sum vitality was likewise devoured for the bond

    creation. Subsequently, it is unavoidable to locate an

    option material to the current most costly, most asset

    expending Portland cement. Geopolymer cement is a

    creative development material which might be

    delivered by the compound activity of inorganic

    particles. Fly Ash, a by-result of coal got from the

    warm power plant is bounty accessible around the

    world. Fly ash is rich in silica and alumina

    responded with soluble arrangement delivered

    aluminosilicate gel that gone about as the coupling

    material for the solid. It is a brilliant option

    development material to the current plain bond

    concrete. Geopolymer cement should be delivered

    without utilizing any measure of conventional

    Portland bond. This paper quickly surveys the

    constituents of geopolymer solid, its quality and

    potential applications.

    Keywords: - Fly fiery, Alkali Activators, GPC,

    Curing, strength.


    Utilization of cement and environmental impact

    use of concrete as a noteworthy development material

    is an overall marvel and the solid industry is the

    biggest client of common assets on the planet (1).

    This utilization of cement is driving the monstrous

    worldwide creation of bond, assessed at more

    Than 2.8 billion tons as per late industry information

    (2). Connected with this is the inescapable carbon

    dioxide outflows assessed tobe in charge of 5 to 7%

    of the aggregate worldwide creation of carbon

    dioxide (3). Critical increments in bond creation have

    been watched and were foreseen to increment

    because of the huge increment in foundation and

    industrialization in India, China and South America.


    a) Fine aggregate:

    Sand is a normally happening granular

    material made out of finely isolated rock and mineral

    particles. It is characterized by size, being better than

    rock and coarser than residue. Sand can likewise

    allude to a textural class of soil or soil sort; i.e. a dirt

    containing more than 85% sand-sized particles. Set

    up of sand we can likewise utilize base fiery remains

    which can be a substitution of sand up to a level of

    20% substitution of sand gives a decent compressive


    b)Corse aggregate:-

    Fundamentally course total assumes an

    essential part in blend configuration of solid .Size of

    the course total is 40mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm,

    and 10mm. In this blend outline methods size

    obviously total takes 20mm and 10mm. Coarse totals

    utilized as a part of instance of bond cement can be

    utilized as a part of instance of Geo-polymer concrete

    (GPC) additionally where the coarse total ought to

    adjust to IS-383-1970.

    C) Alkaline activator:-

    Basic initiation is a compound procedure in

    which a fine aluminosilicate, for example, a fly

    powder is blended with a soluble activator to deliver

    a glue fit for setting and solidifying inside of a

    sensibly brief timeframe . The utilization of this

    activator is which ties the total. In this blend

    configuration of Fly fiery debris based Geopolymer


  • International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 34 Number 2- April 2016

    ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 59

    Concrete, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide

    (Na2SiO3+NaOH) is utilized as alkaline activator.


    Geopolymer is a term used to characterize a

    classification of manufactured alumino-silicate

    materials with potential use, basically as substitution

    of standard Portland concrete in concrete, for cutting

    edge hello tech composites, earthenware application

    or as a type of cast stone. Geopolymer as a name was

    initially connected to these materials by Joseph

    Davidovits in the year 1970s, albeit comparable

    materials have been created in the previous Soviet

    Union since the year 1950s, yet was called soil

    cements. This name however was utilized to portray

    soils which are solidified with a little measure of

    Portland concrete to improve its quality and



    Geopolymer cement is concrete which does

    not use any Portland bond in its generation. Maybe,

    the fastener is delivered by the response of a basic

    fluid with a source material that is rich in silica and

    alumina. Geopolymers were produced as a

    consequence of exploration into warmth safe

    materials after a progression of disastrous flames.

    The exploration yielded non-combustible and non-

    ignitable geo polymer saps and folios. The utilization

    of fly ash remains has extra environment favourable

    circumstances. The yearly creation of fly ash remains

    in Australia in 2007 was around 14.5 million tons of

    which just million tons were used in helpful courses;

    essentially for the incomplete substitution of Portland

    bond (8). Improvement of geopolymer innovation

    and applications would see a further increment in the

    helpful utilization of fly fiery debris, like what has

    been seen in the most recent 14 years with the

    utilization of fly fiery remains in concrete and other

    building materials. It has been found that geopolymer

    cement has great designing properties.


    Development is one of the quickly

    developing fields around the world. According to the

    present world measurements, each year around

    260,00,00,000 Tons of Cement is required. This

    amount will be expanded by 25% inside a compass of

    an additional 10 years. Since the Lime stone is the

    fundamental source material for the common

    Portland bond an intense lack of limestone may come

    following 25 to 50 years. More over while delivering

    one ton of bond, around one ton of carbon di oxide

    will be transmitted to the climate, which is a real risk

    for nature. Notwithstanding the above immense

    amount of vitality is additionally required for the

    creation of concrete. Henceforth it is most key to

    locate an option fastener. The waste water from the

    Chemical Industries is released into the ground which

    pollutes ground water. By creating Geopolymer

    Concrete all the aforementioned issues should be

    unravelled by reworking them.


    The Following are the constituents of the

    geopolymer concrete: - Source material and Alkali


    a) Source material

    These source materials could be regular

    minerals, for example, kaolinite, dirts, and so forth.

    By-items materials, for example, fly fiery remains,

    silica smoke, slag, rice-husk fiery debris; red mud

    thus on could likewise be utilized for the source

    material relying upon its accessibility, expense, kind

    of utilization and interest by the end client. As per

    (Hardjito and Rangan 2005), any material that

    contains for the most part silicon (Si) and aluminum

    (Al) in nebulous structure is a conceivable source

    material for the generation of geopolymer. Different

    materials that can be utilized as source material

    incorporate Metakaolinite or calcined kaolin

    (Davidovits, 19999; Barbosa, et al., 2000; Teixeira-

    Pinto, et al., 2002), low calcium fly fiery debris

    (Palomo, et al., 1999a; Swanepoel and Strydom,

    2002), regular Al-Si materials (Xu and Deventer,

    2000) , a blend of calcined minerals and noncalcined

    minerals (Xu and Deventer, 2002), a blend of fly

    fiery debris and metakaolinite (Swanepoel and

    Strydom, 2002; Jaarsveld, et al., 2002; Zuhua, et al.,

    2009) furthermore a blend of granulated impact

    heater slag and metakaolinite (Cheng and Chiu,

    2003). Among these materials, metakaolinite is

    favored by the geopolymer item engineers because of

    its high disintegration rate, simplicity of control of

    Si/Al proportion and its white shading (Gourley,

    2003). Davidovits, (1999) calcined kaolinite dirt for

    six hours at 750oC and termed it as KANDOXI

    what's more, utilized it to make geopolymer. He

    included that the molar proportion of Si-Al of the

    material ought to be around 2.0. The high measure of

    calcium in ASTM class C fly fiery debris meddles

    with the polymerization process and modifies the

    microstructure (Gourley, 2003). This make ASTM

    Class F fly fiery debris which is otherwise called low

    calcium fly fiery remains much ideal than the High


  • International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 34 Number 2- April 2016

    ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 60

    calcium (ASTM Class C) fly cinder. The significant

    test is that the quantitative forecast of the suitability

    of a particular mineral as a source is still yet to be

    discovered in light of the perplexing way of the

    response included (Xu and Deventer, 2000). Be that

    as it may, normal Al-Si minerals have demonstrated

    the possibilities to be the source materials for geo-

    polymerization. Fly slag is considered to be more

    worthwhile because of its high reactivity that comes

    in appreciation of its better molecule size than slag.

    As indicated by (Fernandes-Jimenez and Palomo,

    2003) , low calcium fly fiery remains should have

    LOI under 5%, Fe203 substance ought not surpass

    10% and 80-90% of the particles ought to be littler

    than 45micro meter to deliver ideal tying properties.

    b) Alkali Activator Liquid:

    Soluble Activator Liquid The geo-

    polymerization is made conceivable by the utilization

    of soluble fluids. Be that as it may, the most normally

    utilized soluble fluids are either the mix of sodium

    hydroxide (NaOH) or Potassium hydroxide (KOH)

    and Sodium Silicate or potassium silicate

    (Davidovits, 1999; (Palomo, et al., 1999b; Barbosa,

    et al., 2000; Other specialists (Xu and Deventer,

    2002) additionally affirmed that the expansion of

    sodium silicate answer for the sodium hydroxide as

    the antacid fluid improved the response between the

    source material and the arrangement. Moreover, it

    was seen after the investigation of geo-

    polymerization of sixteen normal Al-Si minerals that

    for the most part the sodium hydroxide created a

    higher degree of disintegration of minerals than

    potassium hydroxide.


    Geopolymer are inorganic fasteners, which are

    distinguished by the taking after fundamental


    Compressive strength relies on upon curing time and

    curing temperature. As the curing time and

    temperature builds, the compressive quality

    increments. Imperviousness to consumption, since no

    limestone is utilized as a material, Geopolymer bond

    has astounding properties inside both corrosive and

    salt situations. It is particularly suitable for extreme

    ecological conditions. Geopolymer examples are

    having better sturdiness and warm steadiness

    attributes. Geopolymer cement lessened CO2

    discharges of geopolymer concretes make them a

    decent distinct option for normal Portland bond. The

    mechanical conduct of Geo-polymer concrete is

    higher than ostensible solid blend. Toughness

    property of Geo-polymer cement is higher than the

    ostensible solid blend. Geo-polymer Concrete is Eco-

    Friendly. Water retention property is lesser than the

    ostensible cement. Sets at room temperature non-

    lethal, drain free long working life before hardening

    impermeable higher imperviousness to warmth and

    oppose every inorganic dissolvable higher

    compressive quality Compressive quality of

    Geopolymer cement is high contrasted with the

    standard Portland concrete. Geopolymer concrete

    additionally indicated high early quality. The

    compressive quality of Geopolymer cement is around

    1.5 times more than that of the compressive quality

    with the conventional Portland bond concrete, for the

    same blend. Also the Geopolymer Concrete

    demonstrated great workability as of the normal

    Portland cement.


    In the short term, there is vast potential for

    geopolymer solid applications for scaffolds, for

    example, precast auxiliary components and decks and

    also basic retrofits utilizing geopolymer-fiber

    composites. Geopolymer innovation is most

    progressive in precast applications because of the

    relative simplicity in taking care of touchy materials

    (e.g., high-soluble base initiating arrangements) and

    the requirement for a controlled high-temperature

    curing environment required for some current

    geopolymer. Other potential nearterm applications

    are precast pavers and pieces for clearing, blocks and

    precast funnels.


    The followings are the restrictions

    Bringing the base material fly fiery debris to the

    required area. High cost for the soluble arrangement.

    Safety danger connected with the high alkalinity of

    the enacting arrangement. Practical challenges in

    applying Steam curing/high temperature curing

    procedure Impressive examination is continuous to

    create geopolymer frameworks that address.


    J.Liyana, A.M.Mustafa al bakri, H.Kamarudin,

    C.M.Ruzaidi and A.R.Azura investigated about the

    effect of ratio of fly ash to activator (1.0-3.0) and the

    ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH (1.0-3.0) on geopolymer

    coating strength. Both ratios plays a major role of

    determining the Flexural strength of geopolymer

    coating material. Geopolymer coating material was

    prepared by mixing alkaline activator and fly ash

    powder. The ratio of fly ash to activator were


  • International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 34 Number 2- April 2016

    ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 61

    synthesized by 4 different ratios are 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5

    with the ratio of Na2SiO3/Noah which is 1.0, 1.5,

    2.0, 2.5. Concentration of NaOH is kept constant at

    10M. Sodium silicate was added to enhance the

    process of geopolymerization which can be obtain by

    the Geopolymer concrete paste. Resultant mixtures

    are carried out by flexural strength test and were

    placed at room temperature for 24H before sintering

    in the furnace at 1200c for 3H with heating and

    cooling rates at 5c to evaluate the thermal

    properties.From the experimental investigations aft...


View more >