A Selected Bibliography of
Typographical Research Relevant
to the Production of Instructional
In preparing this bibliography of research in typography relevant to the design of instructional materials we have tried to be comprehensive, but in a limited way. We have tried to make the coverage broad, but to select within differ- ent areas only those papers that have comprehensive refer- ence lists, or that have been recently published and thus are not included in other bibliographies. For a complete overview of the field, readers are especially referred to Herbert Spencer's (1969) The Visible Word which has a bibliography contain- ing over 400 entries.
In this bibliography we have divided the material as
1The authors express appreciation to friends and colleagues who com- mented on an earlier version of this bibliography, and to the Social Science Research Council who financed its preparation.
]ames Hartley is senior lecturer in psychology and Susan Fraser is research assistant in the Department of Psychology, The University of Keele, Staf- fordshire, England. Peter Burnhill is head of the Design Department, Staf- ford College of Further Education, England.
AVCR VOL. 22, No. 2, SUMMER 1974 181
AV COMMUNICAT ION REVIEW 1974 SUMMER : 182
1. Basic texts 2. General overview chapters or papers 3. Bibliographies 4. Research Issues:
a. Type-styles, faces, weights, etc. b. Typesize, line length, and interline space c. Colored papers and inks d. Unjustified composition e. Single-column versus two-, three-columns f. Organization of space g. Headings, subheadings, underlining, etc. h. The effects of questions and tests i. Illustrations j. Tables, diagrams, and graphs k. Algorithms 1. Instructional symbols m. Instructional leaflets, guides, etc. n. Computer-assisted instruction and displays o. Special needs
5. Measurement and methodological problems 6. Standards and print production
Most of these headings we think are self-explanatory, but with work of this kind, there has been a problem with papers that fit into two or more categories. Occasionally, when this has happened, we have repeated the reference.
The section on measurement and methodological problems perhaps needs further explanation. In this section, we have tried to indicate a general problem area by choosing a paper illustrating it. Thus there are problems with different kinds of measures (e.g., reader preferences, reading speed, comprehen- sion, physiological measures), their reliability and validity, and there are general problems of experimental design (e.g., see the papers by Poulton).
Finally we have concentrated on material useful for educa- tion and training: we have only indirectly touched on mate- rial relevant to manufacturing, operating, maintenance, servicing instructions, etc.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TYPOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH : 183
1. BASIC TEXTS
2. GENERAL OVERVIEW CHAPTERS/
3. BIBLI- OGRAPHIES
4. RESEARCH ISSUES
(a) Type-Styles, Faces, Weights,
Spencer, H. The Visible Word. London: Lund Humphries, 1969. Tinker, M. A. Legibility of Print. (2nd ed.) Ames: Iowa State
University Press, 1964. Zachrisson, B. Legibility of Printed Text. Stockholm: Almqvist and
Foster, J. J. Legibility research-the ergonomics of print. [cographic, 1973, 6, 20-24.
Gilliland, J. Readability. London: University Press, 1972. Part 2. Poulton, E. C. How efficient is print? In I. K. Davies, & J. Hartley,
(Eds). Contributions to an Educational Technology. London: Butterworths, 1972.
Smith, K. U. & Smith, M. F. Cybernetic Principles of Learning and Educational Design. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966. Chapter 13, Text book design.
Tinker, M. A. Bases for Effective Reading. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1965. Part Ill.
Cornog, D. Y. & Rose, F. C. Legibility of Alphanumeric Characters and Other Symbols, II. A Reference Handbook. U.S. Depart- ment of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards. Miscella- neous Publication 262-2, 1967.
Foster, J. J. (Ed). Legibility Research Abstracts 1970. London: Lund Humphries, 1971.
Foster, J. J. (Ed). Legibility Research Abstracts 1971. London: Lund Humphries, 1973.
MacDonald-Ross, M. & Smith, E. B. Bibliography of textual com- munication. Monograph No. 3. Institute of Educational Tech- nology: The Open University, Milton Keynes, U.K., 1973.
Parker, J. H. A Select Annotated Bibliography on Textbooks in Education. Keele University Library, Occasional Publications, No. 9. Keele, U.K., 1972.
Tinker, M. A. Experimental studies on the legibility of print--an annotated bibliography. Reading Research Quarterly, 1966, 1(4), 68-118.
Poulton, E. C. How efficient is print? In I. K. Davies & J. Hartley (Eds)., Contributions to an Educational Technology. London: Butterworths, 1972.
Robinson, D. O., Abbamonte, M. & Evans, S. H. Why serifs are important: The perception of small print. Visible Language, 1971, 5(4), 353-359.
Spencer, H., Reynolds, L. & Coe, B. A comparison of the effective- ness of selected typographic variations. Readability of Print Research Unit, Royal College of Art, Kensington Gore, London, 1973.
Spencer, H., Reynolds, L. & Coe, B. A report on the relative legibil- ity of alternative letter faces. Readability of Print Research Unit, Royal College of Art, Kensington Gore, London, 1973.
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Tinker, M. A. Bases for Effective Reading. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1965. Pp. 136-138; 177-180.
(b) Typesize, Line Length and
(c) Colored Papers and Inks
(d) Unjustified Composition
(e) Single-Column Versus Two-,
Burt, C. A Psychological Study of Typography. Cambridge, U.K.: University Press, 1959.
Burt, C. The typography of children's books. Yearbook of Educa- tion, Institute of Education, London University, 1960, 242-256.
Poulton, E. C., Warren, T. R. & Bond, J. Ergonomics in journal design. Applied Ergonomics, 1970, 1(4), 207-209.
Robinson, D. O., Abbamonte, M. & Evans, S. H. Why serifs are important; the perception of small print. Visible Language, 1971, V(4), 353-359.
Tinker, M. A. Print for children's textbooks. Education, 1959, 80(1), 37-40.
Wiggins, R. H. Effects of three typographical variables on speed of reading. Journal of Typographic Research, 1967, 1, 5-18.
Dwyer, F. M. Color as an instructional variable. AV Communica- tion Review, 1971, I9(4), 399-416.
Konz, S., Chanla, S., Sathaye, S. & Shah, P. Attractiveness and legibility of various colours when printed on cardboard. Ergonomics, 1972, 15(2), 189-194.
Tinker, M. A. Bases for Effective Reading. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1965. Chapter 13, Color and surfaces of printing paper.
Carver, R. P. The effect of "chunked" typography on reading rate and comprehension. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1970, 54(3), 288-296.
Gregory, M. & Poulton, E. C. Even versus uneven right-hand margins and rate of comprehension in reading. Ergonomics, 1970, I3(4), 427-434.
Hartley, J. & Burnhill, P. Experiments with unjustified text. Visible Language, 1971, V(3), 265-278.
Hartley, J. & Mills, R. L. Unjustified experiments in typographical research and instructional design. British Journal of Educational Technology, 1973, 4(2), 120-131.
Foster, J. J. A study of the legibility of one and two-column layouts for B.P.S. publications. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 1970, 23, 113-114.
Hartley, J., Burnhill, P'. & Fraser, S. Typographical problems of journal design. Applied Ergonomics, 1974, 5(1), 15-20.
Poulton, E. C. Effects of printing types and formats on the compre- hension of scientific journals. M.R.C. Applied Psychology Unit Report No. 346. Cambridge, U.K. 1959.
Poulton, E. C., Warren, T. R. & Bond, J. Ergonomics in journal design. Applied Ergonomics, 1970, I(4), 207-209.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TYPOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH : 185
(f) Organization of Space
(g) Headings, Subheadings,
(h) The Effects of Questions and
Burnhill, P. Typographic education: Headings in text. Journal of Typographic Research, 1970, 4(4), 353-365.
Conrad, R. The design of information. Occupational Psychology, 1962, 36(3), 159-162.
Hartley, J., Burnhill, P. & Fraser, S. Typography, communication and learning. In The Visual Presentation of Technical Data, Typography Unit, University of Reading, U.K., 1973.
Horn, R. E., Nichol, E. H. & Kleiman, J. C. Information mapping for learning and reference. Electronic Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, U.S.A.F., Bedford, Massachusetts, 1969. ESD-TR-69-296.
Cashen, V. M. & Leicht, K. L. Role of the isolation effect (under- lining) in a formal setting. American Psychological Association Experimental Publication System, 1970, 7, 240-44.
Christensen, C. M. & Stordahl, K. E. The effect of organizational aids on comprehension and retention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1955, 46(2), 65-74.
Dearborn, W. F., Johnston, P. W. & Carmichael, L. Oral stress and meaning in printed material. Science, 1949, II0, 404.
Hershberger, W. A. Self-evaluational reading and typographical cueing; techniques for programming self-instructional reading materials. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1964, 55, 288- 296.
Hershberger, W. A. Typographical cueing in conventional and programmed texts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1965, 49(1), 55-60.
Wendt, D. & Werckerle, H. On effects of indentation and under- lining in reference work. Visible Language, 1972, V/(2), 167-71.
Bull, S. The role of questions in maintaining attention to textual material. Review of Educational Research, 1973, 43(1), 83-87.
Glaser, R. & Resnick, L. B. Instructional psychology. Annual Re- view of Psychology, 1972, 23, 207-276.
Hartley, J. The effect of pre-testing on post-test performance. Instructional Science, 1973, 2, 193-214.
Ladas, H. The mathemagenic effects of factual review questions on the learning of incidental information: A critical review. Review of Educational Research, 1973, 43(1), 71-82.
Morasky, R. M. Eyemovements as a function of adjunct question placement. American Educational Research Journal, 1972, 9, 251-261.
Dwyer, F. M. A Guide for Improving Visualized Instruction. Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA: Learning Services, 1972.
Dwyer, F. M. Exploratory studies in the effectiveness of visual illustrations. AV Communication Review, 1970, 18(3), 235-240.
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Fleming, M. L. Perceptual principles for the design of instructional materials. Viewpoints, Bulletin of the School of Education, Indiana University, 46, No. 4, 69-200.
Fleming, M. L. Classification and analysis of instructional illustra- tions. A V Communication Review, 1967, 15, 246-256.
Gropper, G. L. The design of stimulus materials in response- oriented programs. AV Communication Review, 1970, 18(2), 129-159.
Holliday, W. Critical analysis of pictorial research related to science education. Science Education, 1973, 57(2), 201-214.
Koenke, K. & Otto, W. Contribution of pictures to children's com- prehension of the main idea in reading. Psychology in the Schools, 1969, 6(3), 298-302.
Levie, W. H. & Dickie, K. E. The analysis and application of media. In R. M. W. Travers (Ed.), Second Handbook of Research on Teaching. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1973.
Myrick, R. D., Anthony, J. T. & Haldin, W. The student handbook as an aid in orientation: A comparative study. The School Counsellor, 1970, I8(1), 61-65.
Smith, J. & Watkins, H. An Investigation into Some Aspects of the Illustration of Primary School Textbooks. Typography Unit, University of Reading, U.K., 1972.
Smith, K. U. The scientific principles of textbook design and illus- tration. AV Communication Review, 1960, 8, 31-46.
Strang, H. Pictorial and verbal media in self-instructional procedural skills. A V Communication Review, 1973, 21,225-232.
Travers, R. M. W. & Alvarado, V. The design of pictures for teach- ing children in elementary school. AV Communication Review, 1970, 18(1), 47-64.
Vernon, M. D. The instruction of children by pictorial illustration. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1954, 24, 171-179.
(j) Tables, Diagrams and
Carter, L. F. An experiment on the design of tables and graphs used for presenting numerical data. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1947, 31, 640-650.
Culbertson, H. M. & Powers, R. D. A study of graph comprehen- sion difficulties. AV Communication Review, 1959, 7, 97-110.
Feliciano, G. D., Powers, R. D. & Kearl, B. E. The presentation of statistical information. AV Communication Review, 1963, II(3), 32-39.
Frase, L. T. Tabular and diagrammatic presentation of verbal materials. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1969, 29, 320-322.
Lockwood, A. Diagrams. London: Studio Vista, 1969. Martuza, V. R. & Wolfe, M. L. Effects of the amount of informa-
tion, organization of information and study time on the proc- essing of quantitative information presented in graphical form. Available from the authors. College of Education, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware. 1973.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TYPOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH : 187
(l) Instructional Symbols
Peterson, L. V. & Schramm, W. How accurately are different kinds of graphs read? AV Communication Review, 1955, 2(2), 178- 189.
Schutz, H. G. An evaluation of formats for graphic trend displays- Experiment II. Human Factors, 1961, 99-107.
Schutz, H. G. An evaluation of methods for presentation of graphic multiple trends-Experiment III. Human Factors, 1961, 108- 119.
Tinker, M. A. Legibility of mathematical tables. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1960, 44, 83-87.
Vernon, M. D. Presenting information in diagrams. AV Communi- cation Review, 1953, 1,147-158.
Washburne, J. N. An experimental study of various graphic, tabu- lar, and textural methods of presenting quantitative material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1927, 18, 361-376, 465- 476.
Wright, P. Using tabulated information. Ergonomics, 1968, 11(4), 331-343.
Wright, P. & Fox, K. Presenting information in tables. Applied Ergonomics, 1970, I(4), 234-242.
Wright, P. & Fox, K. Explicit and implicit tabulation formats. Ergonomics, 1972, 15(2), 175-187.
Davies, I. K. Competency Based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. Ch. 9.
Gane, C. D., Horabin, I. S. & Lewis, B. N. The simplification and avoidance of instruction. In I. K. Davies & J. Hartley, (Eds). Contributions to an Educational Technology. London: Butter- worths, 1972.
Jones, S. Design of Instruction. London: H.M.S.O. Training Infor- mation Paper No. 1, 1968.
Lewis, B. N. & Woolfenden, P. J. Algorithms and Logical Trees: A Self-lnstructional Course. Cambridge U.K.: Algorithms Press, 1969.
Wheatley, D. M. & Unwin, A. W. The Algorithm Writer's Guide. London: Longmans, 1972.
Wright, P. & Reid, F. Some alternatives to prose for expressing the outcomes of complex contingencies. Journal of Applied Psy- chology, 1973, 57(2), 16...