Abraham LincolnStephen Douglas
The Dred Scott Decision Until 1857 some slaves who had lived in free states or territories were successful when they sued for their freedomMarch 6, 1857, Dred Scott case went to Supreme CourtScott suing for freedom after his owner died, saying he had once lived on free soil
The Courts Decision The decision electrified the nation and Chief Justice Roger B. Taney said that Scott was still a slave An enslaved person was property and Congress could not take away property (per 5th Amend)Taney also wrote Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery (Miss Comp unconstitutional)Basically hes saying the Constitution protected slavery
Reaction to the Decision The decision divided the country even more Southerners were happy-now nothing could legally prevent spread of slavesRepublicans and anti-slave groups were outraged--Greatest crime in nations court
The Lincoln-Douglas (Illinois Senate)Debates, 1858A House divided against itself, cannot stand.
Lincoln Douglas Debates: BackgroundIn 1858, Lincoln challenged incumbent Douglas for his seat in the Senate.(Incumbent the holder of an office or position)Abraham Lincoln (left) and Stephen Douglas (right)
Douglas & Lincoln gave 200 additional speeches to towns and cities across the stateLincoln Douglas Debates: Background A series of 7 face-to-face debates held throughout Illinois.Thousands gathered to watch - bands, parades & fireworks & scenes like this were common Debates followed familiar themes Douglas defended slavery while Lincoln opposed it
Lincoln Douglas DebatesDebates were as much about the men as it was about slavery.The Little GiantHonest Abe
Elected twice to HOR and 3 times in the Senate. Married into wealth wife inherited a Mississippi plantationResume STEPHEN DOUGLAS Crafted the Compromise of 1850
Ran unsuccessfully twice for US Senate but served in HOR Outspoken critic of the Mexican War First Republican Party candidate originally sided with the Whig Party, which dissolved in 1856Resume ABRAHAM LINCOLN Self-taught lawyer
Douglas believed that each territory should be able to decide on its own whether or not to allow slavery by using popular sovereignty.Lincoln Douglas DebatesStephen Douglas: Lincoln was wrong for wanting to end slavery. If Lincoln tried to end slavery, the U.S. could face a civil war.
Lincoln believed that slavery was a moral wrong" and should be kept out of new territories. He did not believe in ending slavery where it already existed, but nevertheless believed that African Americans were guaranteed life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as stated in the DOILincoln Douglas DebatesAbraham Lincoln:
Lincolns Senatorial Campaign Speech LINCOLN (quoting the Bible): 'A house divided against itself cannot stand.' I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved -- I do not expect the house to fall -- but I do expect it will cease to be divided. Either theopponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new -- North as well as South.
ONE OF HIS MOST FAMOUS QUOTES!!!!
Argued that it was the national governments role to prevent the expansion of slavery Douglas was conflicted re: popular sovereignty because the Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional to take away slaveholders property When asked by Lincoln if he thought pop sov could overrule the Supreme Court, Douglas said:The people have the lawful means to introduce it or exclude it as they please.Freeport DoctrineLincoln Gains the Advantage
Freeport Doctrine Could the people of a territory legally exclude slavery before achieving statehood?Douglas replied that the people could exclude slavery by refusing to pass laws protecting slaveholders rights
Douglas replied that whatever the Supreme Court decided was not as important as the actions of the citizens. If a territory refused to have slavery, no laws, no Supreme Court ruling, would force them to permit it. This sentiment would be taken as betrayal to many southern Democrats and would come back to haunt Douglas in his bid to become President in the election of 1860.Freeport Doctrine (Freeport, IL Debate)
However, Lincoln became well known throughout the nation. More than 30,000 copies of the transcripts of the debates were sold in the West and North. Douglas failed in his presidential campaign to even get nominated, while Lincolns won the support of the new Republican Party (leftovers from the Whigs and Free Soil), and eventually won the presidency in 1860.Lincoln Douglas Debates - RESULTS Douglas won the election by a slim margin at that time, the state legislature chose their senators, not the people.
John Browns Raid on Harpers Ferry, 1859After the 1858 Congressional elections, Southerners began to feel threatened by growing Republican power
In late 1859, an act of violence greatly increased their fears
After John Browns raid, his execution became a rallying point for abolitionists.
When Southerners learned of Browns connection to abolitionists, their fears of a great northern conspiracy against them seemed to be confirmed.
John Browns Raid on Harpers Ferry, 1859Very religious and anti-slavery backgroundWitnesses a young slave boy get beaten when he was 12, which would haunt him for years to comeAdvocated for violent means to end slaveryAssisted in the Underground RailroadPottawatomie Creek Massacre
Harpers FerryThe town sits on the fork of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers, on the border of Virginia, Maryland, and now West Virginia, in the Appalachian MountainsIt was home to one of two U.S. Armories, and a large rifle manufacturing plantOn Oct 16, 1859, Brown and 21 followers took possession of the arsenalThis event occurred while Buchanan was President
Harpers FerryJohn Brown received economic support from the Secret Six (most of them fled after the failed attack for fear of being put on trial) As John Brown and his men marched into town, only one guard stood on duty (who thought the men were playing some kind of joke) As the men took the guard hostage, a train came by and the men panicked, making two grave mistakes: they shot an African-American railroad worker and they let the train go
Harpers FerryMeanwhile, a few others, led by Brown, showed up at Colonel Lewis Washingtons door to take from him a sword that the king of Prussia had given to the first President. To Brown it symbolized the fight for American freedom Many people believed Brown was insane because, although he planned the raid for months, he brought with him no food and kept his plans secret.meaning he forgot to tell the slaves to rise up and rebel
Harpers FerryOnce the U.S. Army and Marines arrived, Brown and his men were quickly capturedDuring the trial, Brown justified his attack on the basis that he was Gods chosen one to end slavery Sectionalism was on full display during the trialNorth considered Brown a martyr South considered him a dangerous man; however, used his raid to gain support for secession
Harpers FerryBrown was executed on December 2, 1859Carrying his coffin was John Wilkes Booth, TJ Jackson and Edmund Ruffin
I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.
"I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood."