Academic Honesty andEffective ResearchMethodsIdentifying and Avoiding PlagiarismPresented byBarbra and Justin
Whoa to Ye PlagiaristYoung Willy was tingling from the top of his head to the very soles of his feet. It was a warm May afternoon. It was graduation day. Things could not be going any better. His grades were stellar, he had three post-degree apprenticeships to choose from, and best of all Sally Berchowski, a formerly bitter ex-girlfriend, was lovingly smiling at him as he stood in line to accept his college degree she must have forgiven me for last fall he thought.But young Willy was in store for a surprise, three days later, wild rumors were circulating about his grades, his course work, and their connection to his former roommate. It came like a whirlwind, and by the end of the month the university investigation was over. Young Willy was degreeless. The truth was that someone had told the authorities his secret. For after being threatened and pressured by university investigators, his old roommate cracked and admitted that for over two years, Willy had paid him to write numerous papers and assignments. Feeling rather guilty for the whole thing, the roommate later confessed to Willy who it was that started the whole messit was none other than Sally Berchowski.
Group TimeBut something like Plagiarism isnt always this cut and dryisnt always this obvious.Group time: Each table brainstorm a definition of plagiarismwhat it is and is not, what can get you in trouble and what cant.
Academic HonestyAt each table we would also like you to consider these questions:Describe the University setting; what is a community of scholars? What is intellectual property and why is it important to maintain academic honesty in this community?How do citations act as breadcrumbs?
Defining PlagiarismRepresenting the ideas of another author as your own For example: the verbatim copying of a sourcePartial: Such as pasting phrases, sentences, even whole paragraphs, of a source without citation or referring back to the sourceComprehensive: Like Willy; purchasing an entire paper or having it written for youCopying the structure of a work or paraphrasing a sources ideas or message without citation
Cat Stevens vs. The Flaming LipsFather & SonThe Flaming Lips were recording a song called Fight Test when band members thought it sounded strikingly similar to Cat Stevens Father & Son. They then tried to change the song to avoid plagiarism. However, when the song was released, it caused a controversy. What do you think? Fight Test
Cat Stevens vs. The Flaming Lips: AftermathLets let the lead singer of The Flaming Lips, Wayne Coyne, explain:
Whoa to Ye:AftermathMedia scandal, story breaks on 20/20USC investigates allegationsDegree returnedFamily business scandalizedFor more information, visit: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9757284/ns/us_news-education/ or http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2004-11-24-walmart-heiress-arena_x.htm or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nancy_Walton_Laurie
Why should students make Citations?First and most importantly, it establishes credibilityIt shows what you know about the topicCitations show that you are well-readIt creates a stronger case for your own ideasCitations show that you are thinking about how others ideas relate to your ownCitations may help prove your point by building on previous knowledge and arguments in the fieldIt prepares you to enter the academic communityThey get you out of trouble!
When do I Cite?WhenReferring directly to the ideas of anotherUsing previous work as a foundation for your own ideasReferencing outside material that might be important to your argument or otherwise of interest to your audienceCiting information that is not common knowledge
What about digital media?What needs to be cited?ImagesLayouts MusicVideo Style manuals have guidelines for digital mediaExample: McDonalds Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts, McDonalds Corporation, accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.
Improper Citation vs. Unintentional PlagiarismImproperly citing a source: Typically constitutes an attempt at citation which does not follow standard formattingUnintentional Plagiarism: This typically happens when one was not aware that a citation was necessary.
Avoiding Intentional PlagiarismWhat are the biggest reasons people plagiarize?Cause #2: Ran out of time. Procrastination.Solution: Backward PlanningStart at your due date and work backward to develop a timeline for drafting, revising, and making an appt. at the WC.
Avoiding PlagiarismWhat are the biggest reasons people plagiarize? (cont.)Cause #1: Didnt know it was plagiarism.Solution: Familiarize yourself with the standards of the academic community your working in. Establish your own system for keeping track of sourcesCompose your works cited page as you goUse different colored text for integrated quotesKeep a bibliography for all visited sourcesUse citation tools (Zotero)
Doing ResearchDirect QuotesIntegratedBlockParaphrasingSummarizing
Ineffective use of sourcesThrowing in disconnected quotesThis is highly ineffective; although it looks like you are using the source material, you are simply littering your paper with vague or irrelevant ideas.Switching the words aroundThis is not paraphrasing or summarizing, but constitutes plagiarism because you are simply altering a direct quotation without actually quoting it in your text.
Direct QuotesIntroduceSignaling phrasesInsertBlock quoteIntegrated quoteInterpretExplain relevance
Direct Quotes: the block quoteIn Moving Europeans, Professor Leslie Moch illustrates the effect nascent 19th century market capitalism had on the French rural economy: Western Europe saw drastic changes in rural economies in the nineteenth century, as chances to earn a living year-round by rural manufacture, agricultural work, or a combination of the two were endangeredrather than hire agricultural servants by the year, large farms tended to hire labor for shorter periods, because labor demand became focused in short seasons as farm production narrowed to one or two labor-intensive crops. (Moch, 111-112)Indeed, because agricultural land owners switched to short term cultivation practices during this time, much of the 19th century French peasantry were forced to look to the cities for year long work. This created a fundamental shift in how French society was structured.
Direct Quotes: the integrated quoteMarket capitalism had a direct effect on French rural labor and migration patterns in the 19th century. As professor Leslie Moch illustrates large farms tended to hire labor for shorter periods, because labor demand became focused in short seasons as farm production narrowed to one or two labor-intensive crops. (Moch, 111-112) Indeed, because agricultural land owners switched to short term cultivation practices, a majority of the 19th century French peasantry were forced to look to the cities for year long work. This created a fundamental shift in how French society was structured.
Block QuotesBlock quotes are typically used when one inserts large sections of text:APA = 40 words or moreMLA = 5 lines or longerIntegrate the block quote in the same manner as you would quotes, following directions in a style guide for formatting.
Paraphrasing & SummarizingA paraphrase is the restatement of a text or passage in another form or other words, often to clarify meaning.
A summary is the presentation of the substance of a body of material in a condensed form or by reducing it to its main points; an abstract
How would youWestern Europe saw drastic changes in rural economies in the nineteenth century, as chances to earn a living year-round by rural manufacture, agricultural work, or a combination of the two were endangeredrather than hire agricultural servants by the year, large farms tended to hire labor for shorter periods, because labor demand became focused in short seasons as farm production narrowed to one or two labor-intensive crops. (Moch, 111-112)
How would you Paraphrase? Moch argues that 19th century capitalist agriculture disrupted year long rural working cycles because large land owning farmers focused more on one or two labor-intensive cash crops rather than on a variety of staples, spread over the course of multiple growing seasons. This had a negative impact on the rural laborer and their ability to work year round.
How would you Summarize?In essence, Moch suggests that 19th century capitalism was harmful to rural French wage earners.
Typical Citation StylesAPA: American Psychological Association - Social SciencesMLA: Modern Language Association - HumanitiesCMS/CMoS: Chicago Manual of Style - History, Many Professional PublicationsAP: Associated Press - Journalism
Academic Honesty andEffective ResearchMethodsIdentifying and Avoiding Plagiarism
University setting: (talk about economic viability and accountability) Scholars and authors help create knowledge. They typically do this together, not in isolation. Research and ideas have a tendency to grow more quickly when in contact with other research and ideas. The University is a place where the producers of knowledge come together to build off of each other.
Intellectual Property: is the concept that one has a rightful claim to their ideas. Scholars and authors produce ideas and knowledge for a living. They need to have ownership of their work so that they might exchange it for either services or income. This is no different than when a construction worker builds a house, for instance, and earns the right to exchange his labor for income. If Scholars cannot lay claim to the product of their labor, they cannot make a living, and thus cannot continue to create a body of knowledge. Ultimately, if a researcher cannot receive credit for their ideas and research, the intellectual community cannot continue to exist.
Breadcrumbs and Accountability: Citations act like a history or trail one can follow from one new idea or innovation to the next. This becomes immensely important regarding issues of accountability. Authors and scholars sort of police each others actions and conduct in this intellectual community by making one accountable for their work. Anonymity is bad here. As you know on the internet anyone can say anything and no one can really police the intellectual discourse. Such an environment is bad for the production of reliable knowledge because the ability to verify findings is what leads to consistent science and intellectual advancement.So what weve done here is break up the concept of plagiarism into two different categories.While Willy was a flagrant example of the first category, lets look at something a little more subtle, something that perhaps fits the second category.Flaming Lips Fight Test vs. Cat Stevens Father and SonWillys story is realat least somewhat.In real life Willy is actually a girl, Elizabeth Paige Laurie, the daughter of Nancy Walton Laurie, daughter of James Lawrence Bud Walton, co-founder of Wal-Mart.After Elizabeth graduated from the University of Southern California in 2004, a former roommate declared that she had been paid $20,000, over the course of four years, to write papers, prepare presentations, and exchange emails with professors on behalf of Elizabeth. Suddenly, the roommate's accusations against Elizabeth were aired on a local radio station, then on ABCs 20/20. Meanwhile, Elizabeths parents were trying to name a newly constructed sports area after their daughter for the University of Missouri. The Lauries, after the scandal broke, relinquished the right to name the arena, which they had given around 25 million for. The facility is now known as the Mizzou Arena. In September 2005, Paige voluntarily surrendered her degree and returned her diploma to USC. I cant tell you how many times, as a T.A., a student just pulls something out of you-know-where when trying to support an argument. These instances are obvious to your professors and T.A.s. They not only fail to support your argument but make you appear juvenile and unsophisticated. If you want people to take your arguments seriously, dont give the impression that your making things up as you go. 2) and 3) Citations, especially from numerous sources, can help demonstrate that you are well acquainted with the literature of your subject; what others have said about the same topic. This gives you further credibility by situating you within an intellectual discourse; making you part of the debate.It prepares you, if your so inclined, to enter graduate school or higher levels of scholarship.Protects you from very bad things.Common Knowledge is a very subjective term but one rule of thumb is that if a fact, like that Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, is uncited in two or more sources, its probably safe to classify it as Common Knowledge.As we saw with the Flaming Lips, things like the structure of a song, its cadence or melody, can also be considered the intellectual property of authors or songwritersespecially by their publishing companies. This can apply also to song lyrics, movie scripts, wikis, websites, video games, pictures, paintings, etc.An example of this could be including a quote from a source without placing it in quotation marks but making the reader aware that the information came from the source (this can be done within the paragraph, i.e. So and so said:, or with a foot note) Another example could be simply leaving out necessary information in the citation (page number, publication date etc.)
A very common example of this could be to structure a paper on Sea Otters, for instance, exactly as an encyclopedia article (e.g. moving from the topic of Sea Otter living habitat, to predators, to harmful human activity, to diet and daily activity)Talk about your personal experience as a T.A. with student plagiarism; the punishment that was used; why the student did it.Wikipedia, JSTOR, zotero, google scholar, google books, Project GutenbergWhen using a quote, one needs to anchor it to the paper. This is typically done by transitioning to the quote with a signaling phrase, then transitioning back to your own work with an explanation of relevance.An example of a block quote, using a signaling phrase, and a concluding explanation of relevance.An example of an integrated quote, using a singling phrase, and a concluding explanation of relevance.Ask the class how they would paraphrase this paragraph.APA: American Psychological Association - used by Social Sciences, privilege author name, year like this: (Burke, 2007)MLA: Modern Language Association - used by disciplines in the Humanitiesprivilege author name, location in text (Burke 134) NO COMMA!CMS/CMoS: Chicago Manual of Style - used by History professionals and in professional publications of the humanities, such as journals. THIS STYLE IS UNIQUE IN USING foot/end notes for citation.AP: Associated Press - used in Journalism
By using these styles, documents code themselves...