AD-AL78 AN EUALAT1NQRJ SIfIFU~LQ I/I U14CLASSrFI NPRa-I ... manufactured specifically for this project,

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  • AD-AL78 :831 AN EUALAT1NQRJ Aly SIfIFU~LQ I/I

    U14CLASSrFI NPRa-I -I61 1 l 3/2 IlL

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  • IIIIII ,ESL-TR-86-46

    CT FiLE COPY 0o AN EVALUATION OF ROTARY AIR

    STRIPPING FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANICS FROM GROUNDWATER

    ACHRIS DIETRICH, DIANNE TREICHLER, JOHN ARMSTRONG

    TRAVERSE GROUP, INC.. DTIC 2480 GALE ROAD ELECTE ANN ARBOR MI 48105 APR 0 3 1987

    FEBRUARY 1987 D

    FINAL REPORT MARCH 1985- SEPTEMBER 1986

    APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

    ir

    ENGINEERING & SERVICES LABORATORY AIR FORCE ENGINEERING & SERVICES CENTER TYNDALL AIR FORCE BASE, FLORIDA 32403

    87 4 1047

  • NOTICE

    PLEASE DO NOT REQUEST CCPIES OF THIS REPORT FRCM

    HQ AFESC/RD (ENGINEERING AND SERVICES LABORATORY).

    ADDITIONAL COPIES MAY BE PURCHASED FROM:

    NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE

    5285 PORT ROYAL ROAD

    SPRINGFIELD, VIRGINIA 22161

    FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND THEIR CONTRACTORS

    REGISTERED WITH DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER

    SHOULD DIRECT REQUESTS FOR COPIES OF THIS REPORT TO:

    DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER

    CAMERON STATION

    ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314

  • UNCLASSIFIED

    _e'CURITYCLAS5IFI(ATIONOF THIS PAGE AD~A ~ ' 3 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

    13 REPORT SECURI1Y CLASSIFICATION lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS UNCLASSIFIED

    2a SECURITY CIASSIFICAFION AUTHORITY 3 DISTRIBUTION, AVAILABILITY OF REPORT

    ,b DECLASSIFICA ION / DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.

    4 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5 MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMSER(S)

    ESL-86-46

    6a NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b OFFICE SYMBOL 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION (If applicable)

    Traverse Group, Inc. i US COAST GUARD 6, ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIPCode) 7b ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code.i

    2480 Gale Road 9th Coast Guard District

    Ann Arbor MI 48105 1240 East 9th Street

    -,Qleveland OH 44199 Ba NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING 8b OFFICE SYMBOL 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENT i ,(-ATIOij NUMBI'A'ORGANIZATION (if applicable)

    HQ AFESC I RDVW USAF MIPR No. FY8952-85-10019

    9(- ADDRESS(City, State, and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS Engineering and Services Laboratory PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Tyndall AFB FL 32403-6001 ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO

    __________________________ 63723F I 2103 90 29 '1 TITLE (Include Security Classification)

    An Evaluation of Rotary Air Stripping for Removal of Volatile Organics from Croundwater

    2 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dietrich, Chris; Treichler, Dianne; Armstrong, John

    13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, i)ay) 15, 'AGE , T Final FROM 3/1/85 TO 9/1/86 February 1987 ,,

    16 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Availability of this report is specified on reverse of front cover.

    17 COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identif4 by block number)

    .FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Water treatment, air stripping, rotary air stripper, .2.,:K 7 01 rotating packed beds, acceleration, mass transfer

    04 -4 coefficients, benzene, toluene, xylenes, (continued) -.- ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if'/4iecessdry and identify by block number)

    Rotary air stripping wait researched and developed to remove volatile organic -ontaminants from groundwater. The Traverse Group, Inc., Ann Arbor MI, was contracted under d ,oint funding venture by the US Coast Guard and the US Air Force to evaluate feasibility of using rotary air stripping to treat water contaminated with benzene, toluene, xylenes, trichloroethylene, 1,2,dichloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene. A site of groundwater contamination at the US Coast Guard Station, Traverse City YI provided a readily available source of contaminated water for this work. A prototype rotary air stripper (RAS), manufactured specifically for this project, was installed onsite in Traverse City MT. The RAS (consisting of a packed bed 1.7 feet in diameter by 1.2 feet thick) was evaluated over

    range of contaminant concentrations (63 to 19,000 ppb), liquid flow rates (50 to 120 gpm), air to water ratios (10:1 to 170:1 vol/vol), and rotor speeds (365 to 875 rpms). The effect of each parameter on removal efficiency was analyzed. Generally, renioval effiqienicies in excess of 99 percent were achieved for all contaminants (except 1,2-DCE) at an air-to-water ratio and rotor speed of 30:1 vol/vol and 435 rpms, respectively. A (,',rItnued)

    20. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CL SIFICATION ]UNCLASSIFIEDtLNLIMITEO F SAME As RPT flDTIC USERS UNCLASSIFIED

    22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE(nclude ra Code) 122c OFFiCE SYMBOLRICHARD A. ASHWORTH, Capt, USAF, BSC (904) 28 -46 HQ AFESC/RDVW

    DD FORM 1473,84 MAR 83 APR edition may be used until exhausted SECRITY CLASSIFCATIO F THI',S PAGE All other editions are obsolete - - - . . .I--

  • .18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continued)

    w uel contamination, chlorinated organics.

    19. ABSTRACT (Continued). efficiency increased with air-to-water ulti. aid rotor speed, but was not affected by contaminant concentrations. Preliminary calu]ations show the operating cost of the RAS is higher than a conventional countercurrent packed column (CCPC), but for a CCPC to achieve the same removal efficiency requires a much larger packed bed volume.

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  • PREFACE

    This report was prepared by the Traverse Group, Inc. , ot Ann A\r!,r H' 4611U5. This work was contracted under a joint venture by the ;IS V\1 r, ore in' the LIS Coast Guard, MIPR No FY8Y2-8-IlUul.

    [he report is an evaluation ot a prototype rotary air -tripper' tor removing five organic compounds from groundwater. The work was pertoriei between October 1985 and September ot 198b. The AFESC/RLIvw Proj~lct otticer was Captain Richard A. Ashworth.

    The success of this project is due in part Lo the dedication dfldI har; v, , of Mr bill Newman, TGI Environmental Chemist, and tis Kathy HilIlI, Th' i atd Processor. Special thanks goes to Commander John Sammons and Capt Randy rs for their roles in facilitating the installation ot the equipment ancd in initiating this research project.

    Mention of trademarks and trade names of materi l and equiJpmlent (!,PS r constitute endorsement or recommendation tor use hy either the Ai r -orco fr Coast Guard, nor can the report be used for advertisinoi the product.

    This report has been reviewed by the Public Affairs Uttice(-p; dmn1 1,, releasable to the National Technical Information Service (NITIS). At t, will he available to the tieneral public, includjinq Foreiun fainK

    This technical Report nds been reviewed and is approv(es t4or*,r td '

    RICHARD A. ASHWORTH, Capt, UJSAF, IiSC HAS.WLKtdN, Project Utficer Chiet , Envi ronientil ri on,

    RWERT FI. ULF ENbUTTE ), Lt Col , USAlF , t3SC LAWRENCEL U. [wKANSLr4, I-t o) , ,'SA Chiet, Lnvironics Division Pirector, Lnineerinq an.' 'o-rvico-

    L aho rat ory

    NTIS Ci't&l ECT'C TAt

    0 i t -, t,-)I

    A~L hi!Y Codes iiIAv;~ I i Io

    (The Reverse of This Page is Blank)

    A_

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section Title Page

    I INTRODUCTION.......................I

    A. OBJECTIVE......................1 B. BACKGROUND......................1 C. APPROACH.......................2

    11 ROTARY AIR-STRIPPING SYSTEM..............3

    A. ROTARY AIR-STRIPPING THEORY..............3 B. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION..................4 C. INSTRUMENTATION....................8

    III EVALUATION.......................10

    A. DETERMINATION OF OPERATING CONDITIONS........10 B. REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES OF BENZENE AND TOLUENE . . .13 C. REMOVAL EFFICIENCEIES OF CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS. 15 D. CONCENTRATION EFFECTS................15 E. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS................22 F. FLOODING CORRELATIONS................24 G. MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS.............24 H. COMPARING ROTARY AND COUNTERCURRENT PACKED-COLUMN

    AIR-STRIPPING...................26 I. OPERATION AND MAINTAINANCE..............29 J. TREATMENT COSTS FOR RAS..............30

    IV SAMPLING PROCEDURES AND SAMPLE ANALYSIS........33

    A. SAMPLING PROCEDURE.................33 B. SAMPLE ANALYSIS...................33

    V CONCLUSIONS.....................35

    VI RECOMMENDATIONS....................36

    VII REFERENCES . .. .. .. .. ... .. ... .. .. 37

    APPENDIX

    A LABORATORY STANDARDS PREPARATION.............39

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONCLUDED)

    Section Title Page

    APPENDIX

    B SAMPLE CALCULATIONS ....... ................. 40

    A. PERCENT FLOOD CALCULATIONS .... ............ 40 B. PERCENT REMOVAL CALCULATIONS ... ........... 42 C. KLA CALCULATIONS ....... ................. 43

    C CONVERSION FACTORS ....... ................. 45

    D APPENDIX D: DATA FILES ..... ............... 47

    LIQUID TEMPERATURE, GAS-TO-LIQUID RATIO . ....... 48 ROTATIONAL ROTOR VELOCITY (RPM) ... ........... 53 REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF BENZENE AND TOLUENE . ...... 58 REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND 1,2-DICHLOROETHANE ....... ................. 61 REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE . ...... 63 DATA FROM FIGURES 4, 5, 6, 7, AND 8 .. ......... . 64 DATA FROM FIGURES 9, 10, AND 11.. ..... ........... 67 DATA FROM FIGURE 13 ....... ................. 70 DATA FROM FIGURE 14 ....... ................. 75 CALCULATED KLa FROM BENZENE ANALYSES .. ......... 78

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