Adaptation and Validation of the Brazilian Version of the Hope Index

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  • This article was downloaded by: [University of Chicago Library]On: 06 September 2013, At: 07:22Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH,UK

    International Journal of TestingPublication details, including instructions forauthors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/hijt20

    Adaptation and Validationof the Brazilian Versionof the Hope IndexJuliana Cerentini Pacico a , Cristian Zanon a ,Micheline Roat Bastianello a , Caroline Tozzi Reppoldb & Claudio Simon Hutz aa Department of Psychology , Federal University ofRio Grande do Sul , Brazilb Department of Psychology , Federal University ofHealth Sciences of Porto Alegre , BrazilPublished online: 31 May 2013.

    To cite this article: Juliana Cerentini Pacico , Cristian Zanon , Micheline RoatBastianello , Caroline Tozzi Reppold & Claudio Simon Hutz (2013) Adaptation andValidation of the Brazilian Version of the Hope Index, International Journal of Testing,13:3, 193-200, DOI: 10.1080/15305058.2012.664833

    To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15305058.2012.664833

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  • International Journal of Testing, 13: 193200, 2013Copyright C Taylor & Francis Group, LLCISSN: 1530-5058 print / 1532-7574 onlineDOI: 10.1080/15305058.2012.664833

    Adaptation and Validationof the Brazilian Version

    of the Hope Index

    Juliana Cerentini Pacico, Cristian Zanon, and Micheline RoatBastianello

    Department of Psychology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Caroline Tozzi ReppoldDepartment of Psychology, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto

    Alegre, Brazil

    Claudio Simon HutzDepartment of Psychology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    The objective of this study was to adapt and gather validity evidence for a Braziliansample version of the Hope Index and to verify if cultural differences would producedifferent results than those found in the United States. In this study, we presenta set of analyses that together comprise a comprehensive validity argument forthe use of a test in a new language or culture. Participants were 844 undergraduateBrazilian students (mean age 21.3 years). A content validity study suggested that newitems could be added to the scale. Factor analyses extracted two factors replicatingthe original instrument structure. The internal consistency was adequate with andwithout the added items. The results illustrate how different validation procedurescan be used to support the use of an adapted version of a test, suggesting that inBrazil, researchers may choose the original adapted version (16 items) or the moreemic version (21 items) depending on the objectives of their study. The indicationthat the Hope Index is valid in a Brazilian sample strengthens the idea that thisconstruct may be universal. The results also stress the importance of conductingcontent validity studies as part of a cross-cultural adaptation of a test.

    Keywords: hope, positive psychology, test adaptation, validity

    This work was supported by CNPq and CAPES Foundation. The authors want to thank ProfessorThomas Oakland for his contributions to this article and also the reviewers who gave suggestions thatimproved very much the quality of this manuscript.

    This article was accepted under the previous co-editor team, Rob R. Meijer and Stephen G. Sireci.Correspondence should be sent to Cristian Zanon, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul,

    Ramiro Barcelos, 2600/101, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. E-mail: cristianzanon@yahoo.com.br

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  • 194 PACICO ET AL.

    The construct ofHopewas defined by Staats (1989) as a future event that is wishedfor by the individual combined with positive affect and cognitive perception of itsprobability of occurrence. Therefore, hope contains an affective component and acognitive component. Staats suggested hope be divided into a cognitive dimensionand an emotional dimension. The emotional component can be measured by theExpected Balance Scale, which was modeled after Bradburns Affective BalanceScale (Staats, 1989). The cognitive component of hope was originally assessedusing the Hope Index (Staats, 1987).

    The Hope Index was based on Becks theory of depression (Staats, 1989) and,although it has an associated affective component, it is focused on the cognitive di-mension of hope. Staats scale has 16 items divided into two subscales: hope-selfand hope-other. The hope-self subscale contains self-reporting items includingstatements that express the individuals wishes and expectations regarding him-self/herself (to be competent; to do well in school, in job, or in daily tasks). Thehope-other subscale contains items expressing wishes and expectations related toothers and to global circumstances (other people to be helpful, peace in the world).The objective of the present study was to adapt and gather validity evidence forthe Hope Index for the Brazilian adult population and to verify if the results foundin southern Brazil would be similar to those found by Staats in the United Stateswith this scale.

    The internationalization of psychology is expanding around the world and thereis an increasing interest in cross-cultural research (Bontempo, 1993; Brehm, 2007).Bontempo (1993) argued that it is essential for the progress of the psychologicalscience to have equivalent psychological tests that allow adequate comparisonsamong countries, cultures, and regions. To achieve this equivalence, tests shouldbe adapted according to specific rules (as the International Test CommissionsGuidelines, 2010). Examples with descriptions of the procedures involved on theadaptationmight be useful to researchers to implement this process. In this context,we believe that content validity studies are an important step of test adaptationand might contribute to cross-cultural test adaptation methodology.

    Therefore, a content validity study was conducted in order to verify if the sametopics present in the U.S. version of the Hope scale would also appear amongBrazilian university students. If Staats results can be replicated, the present studywill give a contribution to the validity of her scale to measure hope in differentcultures.

    Defining HopeThe Hope Index has been used to relate cognitive hope to other positive aspects ofdevelopment. Hope is associated with psychological adjustment (Edwards, Rand,Lopez, & Snyder, 2006), optimism (Pacico, Bastianello, Zanon, Reppold, & Hutz,in press), self-esteem (Hutz & Zanon, 2011), and higher athletic and academic

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  • BRAZILIAN VERSION OF THE HOPE INDEX 195

    performance (Ciarrochi, Heaven, & Davies, 2007). High scores on satisfactionwith life also seem to be directly related to hope (Valle, Huebner, & Suldo, 2006).

    In addition, hope also has an impact on important life aspects such as workand marital relationships. It was demonstrated that hope is correlated with highjob performance (Peterson & Byron, 2007). These authors evaluated the impactof hope on job performance using three samples of employees of different joblevels and industries. Employees with higher hope scores suggested more andbetter solutions to work-related problems. The explanation for this finding is thatthe cognitive processes underlying hope promote better performance because theindividual has clear goals and is able to develop different strategies to achieve suchgoals. Peterson and Byron (2007) also found that teams with high hope managersare more productive.

    METHOD

    ParticipantsParticipants were 844 undergraduate students from two public universities inSouthern Brazil. Of these, 42.6% were male and 57.4% were female. The agerange was from 17 to 36 years (M = 21.3, SD = 3.5). A convenience sample wasused and students participation was voluntary. Another 60 students participatedin a qualitative content validity study. Their mean age was 35.6 (SD = 12), and50% were male.

    Instrument

    The Staats scale has 16 items that are scored in two and 0-to-5 points Likert scales.In the first scale, the participants indicate how much they wish the occurrence ofthe situations suggested by the item (0 indicates not at all, and 5 indicates verymuch). In the second scale, the participants indicate how likely they expect thesituations described in the item to occur. Therefore, each item has two scores:one for how much the participant desires the situation described in the item, andthe other for how much they expect that the situation will occur. The scores aremultiplied and added up to produce the global score of cognitive hope. The originalscale (Staats & Stassen, 1986) presented an internal consistency (alpha coefficient)of .86.

    Validation ProceduresIn the original content validity study (Staats & Stassen, 1986), 234 students fromintroductory classes in Psychology were asked to list the circumstances or thingsthey would hope to achieve. They were also asked to take to their parents a

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  • 196 PACICO ET AL.

    sheet with the phrase I hope . . . to complete the sentence. This step had 303noncollege adults (their parents). The responses of the two groups formed an initialset of items. Those that appeared most frequently were selected for the scale.

    To verify if the items in the original scale would also be representative ofBrazilian wishes, a content validity study was conducted. Initially, students wereasked to write down the things theymost hoped for. Similar answers were clusteredin categories. Data collection was done until no new answers were found. Thisprocedurewas described byBerg (2001) and is known as saturation.When the samecategories started to repeat themselves and the responses become redundant, theprocedure was stopped. It required the participation of 60 students until saturationwas reached. These participants were selected by convenience from a populationsimilar to the target population.

    Although this procedure is not, by itself, enough to guarantee content validityfor the scale, it does provide information in this regard. Despite slightly differentfrom the American qualitative study, both methods might be useful to collectevidences of content validity.

    Translation and Adaptation Procedures. The items of the original in-strument were translated by one bilingual faculty with academic background inpsychology and familiar with the construct of hope. The translator was instructedto emphasize the conceptual similarity of the items during the process of trans-lating, instead of focusing on literal similarities. This procedure can maximizethe equivalence between the original and the adapted version (Jeanrie & Bertrand,1999).

    The translation was reviewed by two of the authors who have Portuguese asfirst language, are fluent in English, and have psychometric background. Alongwith the translator, the reviewers did some adjustments on the sentences to makethem closer to the Brazilian Portuguese spoken language. Two items had theircontents slightly changed. Following the D.2 recommendation of the InternationalTest Commissions Guidelines (2010) that states that Test developers/publishersshould provide evidence that the language use in the directions, rubrics, and itemsthemselves as well as in the handbook are appropriate for all cultural and languagepopulations for whom the test or instrument is intended; we preferred to keepthese two items with some change in content because they make more sense inPortuguese. The original item (to have money) has two meanings in Portuguese.The first one means to have money at the moment (situational perspective), and thesecond meaning is related to financial security (stable perspective). Because theidea is not just to have money but to access the expectation of a secure monetarysituation, the item was adapted to To have money/financial security. The otheritem (resources for all) was adapted to To have good conditions of life to allbecause the term resources in Portuguese does not have the meaning of essentialthings to everyones life.

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  • BRAZILIAN VERSION OF THE HOPE INDEX 197

    The adapted version was back-translated twice and independently by two bilin-gual psychologists familiar with the construct of hope. Both versions were com-pared with each other and finally compared with the original version by an Englishnative speaker. No significant changes were found (except for those two items thatwere changed) and the content of the Brazilian and U.S. versions were preserved.Despite the fact that similarities between the original and the back-translatedversion do not guarantee the quality of the adaptation, they provide evidence oftranslation equivalence (van deVijver&Hambleton, 1996). Finally, a pilot sample,with the same characteristics of the sample of the main study, completed the scaleto check the adequacy of the 21 items and the instructions on how to complete theinstrument.

    Data Collection ProceduresThe instrument was administered in the classroom to groups of students by tworesearchers. After being informed about the objectives and importance of thestudy, participants were also told that participation was voluntary, anonymous,and confidential. There were no refusals to participate in the study. Data collectionwas performed in one single session that lasted approximately 20 minutes.

    RESULTS

    Regarding the qualitative study, the response categories based on Brazilian stu-dents wishes contempl...

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