Upload
dangngoc
View
238
Download
3
Embed Size (px)
Citation preview
IDT Open Seminar p
ALAN TURING ANDALAN TURING AND HIS LEGACY
100 Years Turing celebration
Gordana Dodig Crnkovic, Computer Science and Network Departmentp p
Mälardalen UniversityMarch 8th 2012
http://www.mrtc.mdh.se/~gdc/work/TuringCentenary.pdf
http://www mrtc mdh se/~gdc/work/TuringMachine pdf
1
http://www.mrtc.mdh.se/ gdc/work/TuringMachine.pdf
2012 ALAN TURING YEAR
2012 has been officially d l d Al T i Ydeclared Alan Turing Year to celebrate the centenary of his birthof his birth.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3BEAxoknHgo (2 min) Alan Turing Documentary
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iKk8qYIf4oI (4.27 min) Remembering Alan Turing
2
TURING RESOURCES
Alan Turing as a • founder of computability theory, • mathematician• mathematician, • philosopher, • codebreaker, • natural philosopher,• visionary man before his time:
http://www.cs.usfca.edu/www.AlanTuring.net/turing_archive/index.htmlJack Copeland and Diane Proudfoothttp://www.turing.org.uk/turing The Alan Turing Home Page, Andrew Hodges
3
VIDEOhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3BEAxoknHgo (2 min) Alan Turing Documentary Teaserp y g ( ) g y
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iKk8qYIf4oI (4.27 min) Remembering Alan Turing
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61s2_UEhJg8&feature=related (6 min) The Dream Machine - BBC - Giant Brains 4
http://www youtube com/watch?v=S23yie-779k&feature=youtube gdata player (90 min) Turing Biographyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v S23yie 779k&feature youtube_gdata_player (90 min) Turing Biography
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jhhXy8TITqM&feature=related (44 min) Dangerous Knowledge (part 2)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WMhfuQ16SS0&feature=related (44 min) Dangerous Knowledge (part 1)
http://www youtube com/watch?NR=1&v=i 1LxIEMC58&feature=endscreen (0 26 min) LEGO Turing machinehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=i-1LxIEMC58&feature=endscreen (0.26 min) LEGO Turing machine
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=983lhh20rGY&feature=related (3 min) DNA Transcription and Protein Assembly
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uya91t4rAlE&feature=related (3.17 min) (in Spanish, beautiful documentary material)
htt // t b / t h? ZU J6 C 4A&f t l t d ( t 1) (5 53 i ) (It li d d t t i l)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZUxJ6rCx4A&feature=related (part 1) (5.53 min) (Italian, very good documentary material)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T8mxeIDw-0s&feature=related (part 2) (7.29 min) (Italian, rich documentary material)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AgW6HplOZV0&feature=youtubegdata_player (7.27 min) Alan Turing, Enigma
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7_WzNzHwJY (9.58 min) The Death of Alan Turing
4
TIMELINE OF ALAN TURING’S LIFETIMELINE OF ALAN TURING S LIFE
1912 (23 June): Birth, London
1926-31: Sherborne School
1930: Death of friend Christopher Morcom
1931 34: Undergraduate at King's College Cambridge University1931-34: Undergraduate at King's College, Cambridge University
1932-35: Quantum mechanics, probability, logic
1935: Elected fellow of King's College, Cambridge
1936: The Turing machine, computability, universal machine
1936-38: Princeton University. Ph.D. Logic, algebra, number theory
1938-39: Return to Cambridge Introduced to German Enigma cipher machine1938-39: Return to Cambridge. Introduced to German Enigma cipher machine
1939-40: The Bombe, machine for Enigma decryption
1939-42: Breaking of U-boat Enigma, saving battle of the Atlantic
5
TIMELINE OF ALAN TURING’S LIFETIMELINE OF ALAN TURING S LIFE
1943-45: Chief Anglo-American crypto consultant. Electronic work.
1945: National Physical Laboratory, London
1946: Computer and software design, world leading.
1947-48: Programming, neural nets, and artificial intelligence
1948: Manchester University
1949: First serious mathematical use of a computer1949: First serious mathematical use of a computer
1950: The Turing Test for machine intelligence
1951: Elected FRS. Non-linear theory of biological growth
1952: Arrested as a homosexual, loss of security clearance
1953-54: Unfinished work in biology and physics
1954 (7/6 42 ld) D th ( i id ) b id i i
6
1954 (7/6, 42 years old): Death (suicide) by cyanide poisoning
2009: APOLOGY
In August 2009, petition started urging the British Government to posthumously apologize to Alan Turing for prosecuting him as a homosexual. The petition received thousands of signatures. Prime Minister Gordon Brown acknowledged the petition, releasing a statement on 10 September 2009 apologizing and describing Turing's treatment as "appalling":[
“Thousands of people have come together to demand justice for Alan Turing and recognition of the appalling* way he was treated. While Turing was dealt with under the law of the time and we can't put the clock back his treatment was of coursethe law of the time and we can t put the clock back, his treatment was of course utterly unfair and I am pleased to have the chance to say how deeply sorry I and we all are for what happened to him ... So on behalf of the British government, and all those who live freely thanks to Alan's work I am very proud to say: we're sorry, you deserved so much better.”
* = inexcusable inexcusable
7
TURING’S GROUNDBREAKINGTURING S GROUNDBREAKING CONTRIBUTIONS
• Logic (Computability)
• Computing (Universal Machine Stored program• Computing (Universal Machine, Stored program,
algorithm)
• Artificial intelligence (Turing Test, ”Unorganized
machines”)
• Biology (Morphogenesis)
Codebreaking during the WWII (Enigma machine)• Codebreaking during the WWII (Enigma machine) 8
TURING’S PUBLICATIONS
Even though Turing made truly profound impact on
all of the fields he was active in his production ofall of the fields he was active in, his production of
published articles was modest – less than 30 in total
f 1937 t 1954 *from 1937 to 1954.*
*17 years, less than 2 papers published per yeary p p p p y
9
TURING’S PUBLICATIONS
Mathematical Logic (7)
TURING’S PUBLICATIONS
Mathematical Logic (7)O C t bl N b ith li ti t th E t h id bl P L d M th• On Computable Numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Proc. Lond. Math.
Soc. (2) 42 pp 230-265 (1936); correction ibid. 43, pp 544-546 (1937).
• Computability and λ-definability, J. Symbolic Logic 2 pp 153-163 (1937)
• The p-function in λ-K conversion, J. Symbolic Logic 2 p 164 (1937)
• Systems of logic based on ordinals, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc (2) 45 pp 161-228 (1939) This was also
Turing's Princeton Ph.D. thesis (1938)
• (with M. H. A. Newman) A formal theorem in Church's theory of types, J. Symbolic Logic 7 pp 28-
33 (1942)
• The use of dots as brackets in Church's system, J. Symbolic Logic 7, pp 146-156 (1942)
• Practical forms of type-theory, J. Symbolic Logic 13, pp 80-94 (1948)
10
TURING’S PUBLICATIONS
Mechanical Intelligence (11)TURING S PUBLICATIONS
g ( )• Proposed Electronic Calculator, Turing's ACE computer plan, was produced as a typescript in early 1946, an internal National
Physical Laboratory document. The original copy is in the (British) National Archives, in the file DSIR 10/385. The report was first published as the NPL report, Com. Sci. 57 (1972), with a foreword by Donald W. Davies.
• Lecture to the London Mathematical Society, February 1947. Published in 1986 as a companion to the 1946 report in the same y, y p pMIT Press volume.
• Intelligent Machinery, report written by Turing for the National Physical Laboratory, 1948. The paper was first published in 1968, within the book Cybernetics: Key Papers, eds. C. R. Evans and A. D. J. Robertson, University Park Press, Baltimore Md.and Manchester (1968).
• Programmers' Handbook for the Manchester electronic computer, Manchester University Computing Laboratory (1950) • Local Programming Methods and Conventions, in the Manchester University Computer Inaugural Conference, July 1951. • Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Mind 49, pp 433-460 (1950) • Chess, a subsection of chapter 25, Digital Computers Applied to Games, of Faster than Thought, ed. B. V. Bowden, Pitman,
London (1953) • Intelligent Machinery: A heretical theory, a talk given by Turing at Manchester, typescript in the Turing Archive, included in
S T i ' i ( b l ) N t i l d d i th C ll t d W k b t i l d d ( d B J C l d) i K F k DSara Turing's memoir (see below). Not included in the Collected Works, but included (ed. B. J. Copeland) in K. Furukawa, D. Michie, S. Muggleton (eds.), Machine Intelligence 15, Oxford University Press (1999) and also in The Essential Turing.
• Can digital computers think?, Radio broadcast, 1951 not included in the Collected Works, but included (ed. B. J. Copeland) in K. Furukawa, D. Michie, S. Muggleton (eds.), Machine Intelligence 15, Oxford University Press (1999), and in The Essential Turing.
• Can automatic calculating machines be said to think? Radio broadcast, 1952: discussion with M. H. A. Newman, G. Jefferson, g , , ,R. B. Braithwaite, not included in the Collected Works, but included (ed. B. J. Copeland) in K. Furukawa, D. Michie, S. Muggleton (eds.), Machine Intelligence 15, Oxford University Press (1999), and in The Essential Turing.
• Solvable and Unsolvable Problems, Science News 31, pp 7-23 (1954) 11
TURING’S PUBLICATIONS
P M th ti (8)
TURING’S PUBLICATIONS
Pure Mathematics (8)• Equivalence of Left and Right Almost Periodicity, J. London Math. Soc. 10, pp 284-285 (1935) • Finite Approximations to Lie Groups, Ann. of Math. 39 (1), pp 105-111 (1938) • The Extensions of a Group, Compositio Math. 5, pp 357-367 (1938) • A Method for the Calculation of the Zeta-Function, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) pp 180-197 (1943, submitted 1939) • Rounding-off Errors in Matrix Processes, Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 1, pp 287-308 (1948) • The Word problem in Semi-Groups with Cancellation, Ann. of Math. 52 (2), pp 491-505 (1950) p p ( ), pp ( )• Some Calculations of the Riemann Zeta-function, Proc. London Math. Soc. (3) pp 99-117 (1953)• Solvable and Unsolvable Problems, Science News 31, pp 7-23 (1954) is included in this volume of the Collected Works as well
as in the Mechanical Intelligence volume.
12
TURING’S PUBLICATIONS
Morphogenesis (1)
TURING’S PUBLICATIONS
Morphogenesis (1)The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis Phil Trans R Soc London B 237 pp 37-72 (1952)The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 237 pp 37 72 (1952). http://www.springerlink.com/content/n5702206663870g9/fulltext.pdf
On Turing’s morphogenesis:On Turing’s morphogenesis:http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/02/turing-patterns/?pid=978&viewall=true
http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/02/turing-patterns/?pid=971
Alan Turing’s Patterns in Nature, and Beyond
13
AXIOMATIZATION/ AUTOMATIZATION OF MATHEMATICSOF MATHEMATICS HILBERT’S PROGRAM, 1900
Hilbert’s hope was that mathematics would be reducible to fi di f ( i l ti th t i f b l ) ffinding proofs (manipulating the strings of symbols) from a fixed system of axioms, axioms that everyone could agree were true.
Can all of mathematics be made algorithmic?
14
TURING MACHINES AND COMPUTABILITY
Turing made the idea of algorithm precise, relating
TURING MACHINES AND COMPUTABILITY
Turing made the idea of algorithm precise, relating algorithm to the property of computability. Turing wrote:
“The "computable" numbers may be described briefly as the p y yreal numbers whose expressions as a decimal are calculable by finite means... a number is computable if its decimal can be written down by a machine “decimal can be written down by a machine. http://www.turing.org.uk/turing/scrapbook/machine.html
15
TURING MACHINES AND COMPUTABILITY
The Turing machine (LCM Logical Computing Machine)
TURING MACHINES AND COMPUTABILITY
The Turing machine (LCM, Logical Computing Machine) concept involves specifying a very simple set of logical operations, but Turing showed how other more complex
th ti l d ld b b ilt t f th t imathematical procedures could be built out of these atomic components.
Turing argued that his formalism was sufficiently general toTuring argued that his formalism was sufficiently general to encompass anything that a human being could do when carrying out a definite (mechanical, effective) method.
16
TURING MACHINES USED IN A MODELLINGTURING MACHINES USED IN A MODELLING OF MORE COMPLEX SYSTEMS
Simplified one can say: anythingSimplified, one can say: anythingcan be used to model anything else– in some way. The question is how
i f l ( li blmeaningful (or applicable or adequate) the model is.
17http://www.mrtc.mdh.se/~gdc/work/TuringMachine.pdf More about Turing Machine
SUCCESSES OF INTELLIGENT MACHINERY,SUCCESSES OF INTELLIGENT MACHINERY, WITHIN TURING MACHINE PARADIGM
DEEP BLUE WINNING OVER CHESS MASTERDEEP BLUE WINNING OVER CHESS MASTER CASPAROV
WATSON WINNING JEOPARDY
But: as soon as it works it is no more considered to be intelligence!
18
BEYOND THE TM MODEL
Turing did not show that his machines can solve any problem that can be solved "by instructions, explicitly stated rules, or procedures", nor did he prove that the universal Turing machine "can compute any function that
t ith hit t t "any computer, with any architecture, can compute".
He proved that his universal machine can compute any function that any Turing machine can computeTuring machine can compute.But a thesis concerning the extent of procedures of a certain sort that a human being unaided by machinery is capable of carrying out -- carries no implication concerning the extent of the procedures that machines are p g pcapable of carrying out, even machines acting in accordance with ‘explicitly stated rules’. For among a machine's repertoire of atomic operations there may be those that no human being unaided by machinery can perform.
Copeland, B. Jack, "The Church-Turing Thesis", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/church-turing/>. 19
BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED ”UNORGANIZED MACHINES”
In a far-sighted 1948 report Alan Turing suggested that the infant human cortex was an "unorganized machine".Turing defined the class of unorganized machines asTuring defined the class of unorganized machines as largely random in their initial construction, but capable of being trained to perform particular tasks.
Turing's unorganized machines were in fact very early examples of randomly-connected, binary neural networks,examples of randomly connected, binary neural networks, and he claimed that these were the simplest possible model of the nervous system.
20Wikipedia
TM AND PHYSICAL (NATURAL)TM AND PHYSICAL (NATURAL) COMPUTINGhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=i-
1LxIEMC58&feature=endscreen (0.26 min) LEGO Turing machine
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=983lhh20rGY&feature=related (3 min)
DNA Transcription and Protein Assembly
21
2012 TURING CELEBRATION
http://www mathcomp leeds ac uk/turing2012/http://www.mathcomp.leeds.ac.uk/turing2012/http://www.mathcomp.leeds.ac.uk/turing2012/give-page.php?4082012 The Alan Turing World
http://www.mathcomp.leeds.ac.uk/turing2012/WScie12/ CiE 2012 - How the World ComputesUniversity of Cambridge18 June - 23 June, 2012: http://www.cie2012.eu
22
AIBS/IACAP WORLD CONGRESS
2-6 June 2012 in Birmingham there will be a World congress celebrating Turing centenary I am together with Raffaela Giovagnoli organizing a symposium onI am, together with Raffaela Giovagnoli organizing a symposium on Natural computing: https://sites.google.com/site/naturalcomputingaisbiacap2012/
and together with Judith Simon and a group of AI researchers a symposium on: Social Computing - Social Cognition - Social
SNetworks and Multiagent Systems https://sites.google.com/site/socialturnsnamasaisbiacap2012/
23
2012 TURING CELEBRATION
Mathematician Barry Cooper is one of the
2012 TURING CELEBRATION
world-leading figures in the computability theory and President of Computability in Europe, also Turing Centenary Advisory Committee president. y y p
He has written on the occasion of Turing centenary in both Nature and Communications of ACM:both Nature and Communications of ACM:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7386/full/482465a.html The incomputable realityThe incomputable reality
http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2012/3/146259-turings-titanic-machine/fulltext Turing's Titanic Machine?g
24
CONCLUSION“So Turing's approach is seminal, illuminating the connection between in-computability,mathematics, and natural phenomena. It has been carried forward by James D. Murray
CONCLUSION
and others, and though things get a lot more complex than the examples tackled byTuring, it is enough to make something more coherent from the confusion of impressionsand models.
All that the hypercomputability theorists are getting excited about is embodiment andreframing of the standard model, with or without oracles. But the embodiment doesextend to the emergent halting set and possibly hierarchically beyond, taking us into ag g p y y y gworld beyond basic algorithms (see Chaitin's recent take on creativity and biology.)There is some elementary but not widely understood theory that glues the whole thingtogether. As more and more people are coming to see, going back to Turing with the
f T i ill d d ”eyes of a Turing will do wonders.”
Barry Cooper: Turing's Titanic Machine? http://cacm acm org/magazines/2012/3/146259 turings titanic machine/fulltexthttp://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2012/3/146259-turings-titanic-machine/fulltext
25