American colonies prelude to revolution

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  • 1. American Colonies- Prelude to the Revolution Paige Ellis
  • 2. Revolutions- Pirates
    • During the 16th and 17th centuries, the British tolerated pirates because they needed all the naval help they could get against the more powerful Spanish.
    • As British commerce and naval might grew stronger, the pirates started plundering their own countrys vessels as well, causing the British officials to outlaw piracy again.
    • The pirates developed a culture that expressed their alienation from authority, and they took pride in their excessive hedonism.
    • in 1701, Parliament passed anti-piracy legislation and began executing, and making examples out of convicted pirates.
    • By 1730 the campaign virtually wiped out the Pirates threatening British trade, and they brought a new security to colonial shipping.
  • 3. The Atlantic- Poverty
    • While lawyers, merchants, and officials in New England grew wealthier, in the 1750s and 60s there was a growing number of poor in the urban seaports.
    • The urban poor population grew because:
      • The imperial wars killed and incapacitated many men in the military, leaving widows and orphans.
      • Emigration surged to the colonies, flooding the seaports with poor newcomers, depressing wages, and unemployment.
      • The colonies shared an economy with England, so urban colonists were basically at the mercy of British creditors, who could curtail credit and call for debts at any time.
    • The poor also grew in rural and frontier areas, due to the harsh conditions and lack of of funds needed to acquire livestock and tools.
  • 4. The Atlantic- Africans
    • Most eighteenth-century emigrants to America were enslaved Africans.
    • The slave trade crippled West Africa by diminishing its inhabitants, while enriching the European Empires, particularly the British Empire.
    • The West Indies provided the greatest demand for slaves, because the sugar plantations there were profitable but deadly.
    • European shippers almost always obtained slaves through African slave traders, not by capturing the laves themselves.
    • Most slaves were captives taken in wars or kidnapped by armed gangs.
    • The voyage over the Atlantic killed about 20 percent of slaves, due to horrible conditions and lack of
    • will to live.
    • Some slaves attempted to
    • revolt on the ship, but most
    • of the times the slavers
    • regained control.
  • 5. Awakenings- Revivals
    • During the early 18th century, there were many evangelical revivals that caused surges in religious fervor and new members.
    • Revivals emphasized the emotional process of conversion, especially fear and hope, rather than reason.
    • They insisted that God bestowed grace only upon those who admitted their helplessness to save themselves.
    • They remained localized
    • and episodic until the
    • 1740s, when evangelical
    • ministers began to interact
    • and cooperate over long
    • distances, leading to
    • intercolonial revivalism.
  • 6. Awakenings- Race
    • Prior to 1740, no ministers challenged the slave system and few bothered to convert slaves.
    • Revivalists rendered Christianity more accessible to the illiterate slaves by appealing to the emotions, and longed to convert even people of lowly status in the world.
    • The Anglican church feared that spirituality would make the slaves believe they were equal to their owners, and imposed penalties on preachers who baptized slaves without owner consent.
    • Evangelicals focused more on preparing slaves for the afterlife than freeing them from slavery in this life, and only the Quakers challenged Indian war and African slavery.
    • Evangelicals had their greatest success
    • among Indians because they brought
    • Christianity closer to traditional
    • shamanism and permitted Indians to
    • make Christianity their own.
  • 7. The Great Plains- Texas
    • The French traded guns for slaves with the Pawnee and Wichita, so the tribes began to raid the Apache and Pueblo for captives.
    • The Hispanics were allied with the Pueblo, so they viewed this as a French act of hostility toward the Spanish and attacked the Pawnee.
    • When they were defeated, the Spanish tried expanding their missions eastward instead of waging war, and founded San Antonio in 1718.
    • The surrounding Indians sought safety and food by learning agriculture at the missions, but werent very interested in Christianity.
  • 8. The Great Plains- Comanche and Apache
    • The horse and gun trade favored some native peoples at the expense of others, making the 18th century of a period of violent flux.
    • The Comanche were the most prosperous under this system, and they forced their way into larger hunting grounds.
    • This created a deadly competition with the Apache, which the Comanche regularly raided for horses and captives.
    • Many Apache migrated to Northwest New Mexico to escape, and adapted to the Pueblo Indians way of life.
    • Other Apache moved southward and sought Hispanic protection at the missions.
  • 9. The Pacific- Islands
    • The Pacific Ocean was hard to reach from Europe and difficult to navigate, so it was largely neglected until the mid-eighteenth century.
    • After the straight of Magellan was discovered, the Spanish established a few small settlements in the Pacific, but tried to keep their discoveries secret.
    • During the 1760s the British and French began probing the Pacific in the name of science.
    • Captain James Cook explored the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, and facilitated British colonization of Australia.
    • He also discovered the Hawaiian islands, where he was killed in a conflict with the natives.