An introduction to Nankang Tire Technology Slide 2 OUTLINE Tire Structure Introduction 1 Tire Sidewall Description 2 Tire Production Process 3 Tire Pattern and Characteristics 4 Slide 3 Tire Structure Introduction Slide 4 Tire components Slide 5 Tire Structure Slide 6 Tread For excellent road handling and water drainage. Material Synthetic and natural rubber Functions 1.Wear Resistance 2.Heat Generation Resistance 3.Puncture Resistance Because the tire tread connects with road directly, wear resistance, heat generation resistance, and Puncture resistance are important necessary elements in pattern design. Moreover, tread compound should be flexible and resistant to age. Slide 7 Inner Liner Makes tire airtight and prevents air from leaking. The Inner lining of rubber located inside the carcass rubber prevents air leaking from the tire. A Tire sidewall mark as STEEL BELTED TUBELESS means it's not necessary to use a tube. Material Butyl rubber Functions Prevent air leaking Slide 8 Carcass (Textile cord plies) Keep tire in fixed shape. The tire carcass is a framework to support and fix the tires shape after its been inflated. Material Rayon or polyester Functions Maintain tire shape when pressure inflated. Slide 9 Steel Belt- Keep tire stability and handling performance The Steel belt maintains high shear stress, it also transits from hard tire tread to soft sidewall. Tire steel cord must be high strength and resistant to fatigue. Material High-strength steel cords Functions 1. Keeps tire shape and directionalstability. 2. Reduces rolling resistance. Slide 10 Sidewall Provent damage to tire lateral side. A Radial tire sidewall bending deformation is larger than the Bias tire, therefore it needs bending resistance compound for tire sidewall. Material Natural rubber Functions Protect tire casing from lateral damage. Slide 11 Bead Filler For tire steady ability, handling performance, and comfort level. A harder bead filler made from rubber is normally used to enhance the tire sidewall to ensure radial tire steel layer is kept intact. Material Synthetic rubber Functions 1.Enhances handling ability. 2.Gives steering precision. 3.Improves comfort. Slide 12 Nylon Full Cover (Jointless plies) Protect tire structure in high speed condition. A Traditional Nylon cover coated method is used to enclose an entire layer of tire after the engagement. Material Nylon, embedded in rubber Functions Enhances high-speed stability. Slide 13 Tire Sidewall Description Slide 14 3.Tire Sidewall Description Slide 15 3.1Tire Size Designation PCR: 305/35R24 112V LTR: 31X10.5R15LT 109S 7.50R16 122/120L LT215/75R15 100/97H Slide 16 3.1Tire Size Designation (PCR) 305 / 35 R 24 112 V Speed Symbol Load Index Nominal Rim Diameter (in.) Radial Tire Identification Nominal Aspect Ratio Nominal Section Width (m/m) Slide 17 3.1Tire Size Designation (LTR) 31 X 10.5 R 15 LT 109 S Nominal Overall Diameter (in.) Nominal Section Width (in.) Radial Tire Identification Nominal Rim Diameter (in.) Tire Function Load Index Speed Symbol Slide 18 3.1Tire Size Designation (LTR) 7.50 R 16 122/120 L Nominal Section Width (in.) Radial Tire Identification Nominal Rim Diameter (in.) Load Index (Single/Dual) Speed Symbol Slide 19 3.1Tire Size Designation (LTR) LT 215 / 75 R 15 100/97 S Tire Function Nominal Section Width (m/m) Nominal Aspect Ratio Radial Tire Identification Nominal Rim Diameter (in.) Load Index (Single/Dual) Speed Symbol Slide 20 3.1Tire Size Designation-Tire Dimension Slide 21 Low Aspect Ratio(%) High Aspect Ratio(%) COMFORT SPORT 80 Series 70 Series 65 Series ~55 Series 60 Series High aspect ratio tire provide comfort, where as a Low aspect ratio tire leans towards the more sport related performance tire. Slide 22 Outer Diameter Rim Diameter Inch Up Tire Inch Up Characteristics: 1.Enhance the handling stability 2.Enhance Cornering Performance 3.Less comfortable when driving 4.More road noise Slide 23 3.1Tire Size Designation-Speed & Load Index Load Index (LI) Max load per individual tire LIKgLIKg 6932584500 7033585515 7134586530 7235587545 7336588560 7437589580 7538790600 7640091615 7741292630 7842593650 7943794670 8045095690 8146296710 8247597730 8348798750 Speed Index (SI) SIMax speed for passenger car tire Q160 km/h / 99mph R170 km/h / 106mph S180 km/h / 112mph T190 km/h / 118mph H210 km/h / 130mph V240 km/h / 150mph W270 km/h / 169mph Y300 km/h / 187mph ZRExceeding 240 km/h / 150mph Slide 24 3.2 UTQG Uniform Tire Quality Grade, UTQG, by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NHTSA regulated. It is comprised by Treadwear, Traction, and Temperature. UTQG is required by law for most passenger car tire (PCR), but it is not required for LIGHT TRUCK TIRES, WINTER TIRES, TEMPORARY SPARE TIRES, TRALIER TIRES, AND TIRES UNDER 12 Slide 25 3.2 UTQG TREADWEAR Treadwear means tread lifespan compared to standard tires index 100. Tread wear grades typically range from 60 to 500, each increment of 20 units. In fact tire wear conditions caused from road quality, driving attitude, tire inflation pressure, and vehicle condition. TEMPERATURE TEMERATURE grades range from A, B to C. It represents that tire under the indoor high speed testing conditions, tires properly maintain the cooling capacity until damage. TRACTION Traction test only on specific wet concrete road or asphalt road in a straight line moving forward. Grades range from AA, A, B to C. AA is the best performance. Slide 26 3.3 DOT DOT Code means tires comply with U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) safety standards. The first two letters represent tire manufacturer and factory code. The 3 rd and 4 th letters mean tire size. The 5 th, 6 th, 7 th, and 8 th letters represent tire specific function (SPEC). The 9 th and 10 th of the letter marked the week of tires production. The last number indicates the year of tires production. Slide 27 Tire Production Process Slide 28 1ST2ND3RD4TH MIXING MATERIAL PREPARATION BUILDING And CURING INSPECTION Production Flow Chart Slide 29 Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 Tire Building Procedure 1.Building Process 305/35R24 112V N-990 Inner Liner Extruding Carcass Cutting Jointless Bead Building Combine bead with Carcass Auto Steel Belt Cutting System Jointless Cover System Tread Extruding and Cutting 1 st and 2 nd Steps combination 2.Curing Process 3.DB and UF Inspection 4.Indoor High Speed and Durability Test Slide 34 Tire Testing 1.Safety Test 2.Off-Road Test 3.Rolling Resistance Test 4.Noise Test 5.Cornering Test 6.Braking Test Slide 35 Tire Pattern and Characteristics Slide 36 These are major factors for tire pattern design. 2.Handling performance. 3.Drainage ability. 1.Excellent grip traction on wet/dry roads. And.. 5.A Charming Tire. 4.Avoid irregular tread wear. Slide 37 Tire Basic Design Theory Rib Pattern: 1.Reduce tire rolling resistance. 2.The rib pattern tire used to adopt as comfort ability tire. Lug Pattern: 1.Offer excellent handling and braking ability for off road. Rib-Lug Pattern: 1.Center Rib: Handling, Stability and Skid proof ability. 2.Shoulder Lug: Handling and Braking ability. Block Pattern: 1.Offer excellent handling and braking ability. 2.Keep stability at snow and mud road Slide 38 Tire Category and Characteristic 2. Non-directional Symmetric TireXR-611 1.Directional Symmetric TireNS-2 3. Non-directional Asymmetric TireAS-1 Slide 39 1.Directional Symmetric TireNS-2 Disadvantage 1.Tire pattern cause noisy. 2. Recognize tire direction when mounting/ switching. FLFR Advantage 1.Excellent handling 2.Grip traction 3.Drainage ability Slide 40 2.Non-directional Symmetric TireXR-611 Disadvantage 1.Tire handling 2.Traction 3.Drainage ability Advantage 1.Low noise. 2.No need to recognize the direction of tire when mounting/switching. Slide 41 3. Non-directional Asymmetric TireAS-1 Disadvantage 1. Recognized the inside/outside part when mounting or switch tires. Advantage 1. Outside pattern: Advanced handling, traction and drainage ability. 2. Inside pattern: Low noise, comfort ability.