Animal Responses to The Biotic Environment
Animal Responses to The Biotic EnvironmentRemember!!!Intraspecific ResponsesBetween members of the same speciesInterspecific ResponsesBetween members of different speciesIntraspecific Aggressive BehaviourAggression is belligerent behaviour that arises from competition.Killing an animal for food is not aggressive.If an animal turns and fights, this can lead to fear, which is a key part of aggression.FightingAnimals of the same species compete for the same food and resources so competition is strongest between them.When competing for a mate competition is strongest between members of the same sex. the winner is the strongest individual, he produces the offspring so the gene pool is kept strong.Fighting Fighting between members of the same species has become ritualised the moves are known to both opponents, allowing a winner and a loser without anyone getting to badly hurt.
Antelope will push against each other but will not gore each other.
Giraffes fight with neck wrestling, each animal trying to unbalance the other.videoVideoMost fights between Elephants turn into pushing matches.
FightingFighting to the death is non-adaptive to most animals.Animals that fight have some sort of protection such as tough skin and padding around their necks.E.g hippos and elephants seals.FightingFighting to the death usually only occurs to eliminate a stranger from another group.
TerritoriesEach organism is surrounded by a personal space. Usually there is a geographical area that the animals seldom leave Home RangeThis is an area that the animal is familiar with and will cover regularly looking for food and mates.They make their home, nest or lair in the home range.TerriroriesThe territory is the area around the home base, which the animal marks and defendsAnimals hold territories through aggressive behaviour.Adaptive features of TerritorialityIt ensures enough space for each animal and sometimes keeps the population in check.Reduces the spread of disease and parasites, and makes it harder for predators to find them.The most successful male holds the best territory, and passes the best genes on.Adaptive features of TerritorialityOnce a territory has been established and the resources divided, the losers will spread out and look for resources elsewhere, rather than fighting.In some species, males without territories cannot attract a mate, so wont breed.Territories ensure enough food for the animals holding them.Adaptive features of TerritorialityTerritories ensure a safe and protected home for the young.The animals know their territories well so they know where to find the resources that they need.Home rangeTerritoryLair or NestMarking and Defending TerritoriesBirds mark their territories by singing on the boundaries of their areas at dusk and dawn.Males advertise when they are looking for a mate by showing bright colours and displays.Animals mark with urine and faeces.Dogs and cats Marking and Defending TerritoriesSome animals have special scent glandsOn the rumpBetween the horns deerOn the wrist ring-tailed lemursBehind the ear - catsCrabs wave their claws in frantic signals on the perimeter of their territory.Howler Monkeys howl in the morning on the boundaries of their territories.Territories Many animals only show territorial behaviour during breeding season.E.g. sea birdsHuman TerritorialityThe Tribal TerritoryLarge cities or countries, the borders are protected with large fences, customs and immigration posts, banners and flags.Gangs, political parties sports clubs, social clubs, social cliques, protest groups etcSports matches face painting, chants etcHuman TerritorialityThe Family TerritoryThis is a breeding unit with parents and young.The bedroom is the nest, we feel safer tucked up in bed.This territory can be marked with a fence, a hedge or a concrete wall.Inside is marked with our personal things.Human TerritorialityPersonal SpaceThis is the area around our bodies that is private.Your personal space travels with you.Many courtship actions are asking permission to invade the personal spaceWhen people are drunk they forget spatial requirements and get in your face.HierarchiesPecking OrdersE.g. in barnyard hensHens arrange themselves in a linear order, the top bird could peck all the other birds, while the bottom bird was pecked by all.
Pecking Order in HensABCDA------304B3------05C78------6D010------Hens being peckedHens peckingHierarchies Dominance is maintained by posture and display.Making yourself look big with a mane, fluffed up feathers or fur, standing on hind legs, holding the tail erect.Loud snarling, quick slaps or bitesThreat displays of large canine teeth, wide-eyed glares, hackles up etcHierarchies A subordinate responds with appeasement gestures which stop the other animal from attacking.Making yourself look small, lowering head and eyes, cringingTucking the tail between the legsFor many animals exposing their most vulnerable parts.
1. Threat ..2. Uncertain threat.. 3. Weak threat.. 4. Faint threat - the dog is very uncertain ..5. Fear.. 6. Expression of uncertainty in presence of dog of superior rank Body LanguageRef pg 83 text book.Intraspecific Co-operative BehaviourThis includes:Group formationCourtship and pair-bondformationParental care.
Group FormationHuntingDefenceProtectionSocial societyClumpingConfusion Breeding
Divide into 7 groups Brainstorm ideas as to why forming a group would benefit your topic. Examples of animals that use this behaviour.
Courtship and Pair-bond FormationMost animals keep an individual distance away from each other.Invading personal space is a threat.The conflicting tendencies to attack, yet let another animal come close enough to mate, are often evident in courtship behaviour.Courtship and Pair-bond FormationThe sex act is adaptive as it requires:Co-operationA temporary suppression of aggressive behaviourA system of communication and species recognitionCourtship and Pair-bond FormationSexual competition by males for the attention of females can be of two types:They fight each other with a kind of ritualised combatThey can compete indirectly by attracting females with special displays or adornments.CourtshipThis ensures that the 2 animals are of the same species, and may also be a sign to start nest-building or trigger ovulation.Aggression is reduced by dances, calls, movements of the whole or part of the body in ritualised sequences, release of chemical pheromones, or touching.Courtship and Pair-bond FormationThis allows the pair-bond to strengthen so that more intimate behaviours become possible.In many arthropods, the female has to be appeased so that she does not eat the male.Courtship and Pair-bond FormationIn birds, the bright colours of courtship make them more vulnerable to predators.videoSome birds, such as the bower bird, build the most beautiful nests decorated with flowers or articles of one colour that the male bird can find. One species makes a bower of dried bones.videoCourtship and Pair-bond FormationA pair-bond is a stable relationship between animals of the opposite sex that ensures co-operative behaviour in mating and raising the young.Parental CareThe survival of the species depends on the breeding population producing adequate numbers to establish a healthy new generation.Animals have 2 strategies for this.Parental CareNo parental care a large number of offspring are produced, at least some will survive.Have only a few offspring the parents invest considerable time, effort and food reserves to increase the probability of survival of these offspring.Parental CareThe degree of parental care varies in different species:Eggs may be buried and abandoned e.g. salmon, turtles and snakesElaborate nests may be constructed and defended e.g. birds and sticklebacksThe offspring may be defended and fed e.g. birds, bees, ants and mammals