Argumentation Process

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  • 8/8/2019 Argumentation Process


    Argumentation Process

  • 8/8/2019 Argumentation Process


    Argumentative Appeals LogosLogos facts and logicfacts and logic

    EthosEthos appeals to the authors/readers valuesappeals to the authors/readers values

    PathosPathos appeals to emotionappeals to emotion

    Look at the diction that characterizes/colors theLook at the diction that characterizes/colors the


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    Deduction vs. Induction Murder is a terrible crime (general arg.)

    Abortion is murder

    Abortion is a terrible crime (specific arg.)

    Deductive arguments move from a general

    argument to a specific case.

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    Inductive reasoning More common, but more difficultMore common, but more difficult

    Beginning with specifics and moving towardsBeginning with specifics and moving towards

    general argumentsgeneral arguments

    AIDS in the early 1980sAIDS in the early 1980s

    Specific: AIDS cases were found in gay menSpecific: AIDS cases were found in gay men

    Specific: These men died like cancer patientsSpecific: These men died like cancer patients General: AIDS is the Gay CancerGeneral: AIDS is the Gay Cancer

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    Problem! Hasty Generalization Inductive reasoning


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    What to do next when you determine

    the argument style? Question the evidenceQuestion the evidence

    Suppressed any facts?Suppressed any facts?

    Manipulated any facts?Manipulated any facts?

    Enough evidence?Enough evidence?

    Too much evidence?Too much evidence?

    Is the evidence current, or reputable?Is the evidence current, or reputable?

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    Logical Fallacies Fallacies of Relevance

    Component fallacies

    Fallacies of Ambiguity

    Fallacies of Omission

    Occams Razor (not a fallacy by the way)

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    Appeal to Force Appeal to Force Argumentum ad Baculum/

    might makes right argument

    Uses force, the threat of force, or ANY otherunpleasant backlash to make the audience

    accept the conclusion

    Used as last resort when reason fails

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    Genetic Fallacy An idea must be untrustworthy

    because of its racial, geographic, or

    ethnic origin

    Close to Argumentum Ad Hominem

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    Argumentum Ad Hominem argument towards the man

    Personal attack

    The person making the argument has nothing

    to do with the argument itself! Two types:

    abusive & circumstantial

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    Abusive An argument is false because it originates

    with someone who is a

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    Circumstantial One should accept an argument because

    of the circumstances in ones life.

    Because one is a Republican/Democrat,

    one should vote a certain way.

    If youre a clergyman, you have to votethis way

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    Argumentum Ad Populum Bandwagon Approach Everyone is doing

    it (the Earth was flat?)

    Patriotic Approach- Draping oneself in theflag (overlaps pathos with ad hominem)

    Snob approach- All the BEST people are

    doing it Covering oneself in the Cross- This is the

    Christian thing to do (like patriotic?)

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    Argumentum Ad Traditio Jacksonville has always had a fire

    department with .

    Kind of structure, so this is the way it

    should continue.

    If it isnt broken, dont fix it.

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    Argumentum Ad Verecundium Appeal to an improper authority

    Having a famous spokesperson who isnt

    an authority in the field of the argument

    Attempts to capitalize on the feelings for

    the famous individual

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    Subfield of this Appeal to a BIASED Authority

    The person may be an authority

    Has personal motivations that render his

    professional judgment suspect

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    Argumentum Ad Misericordium Appeal to emotion (lit. to pity)

    An emotional appeal concerning what should

    be a logical issue during a debate

    PATHOS should only reinforce a readers

    sense of duty or outrage

    If a writer uses it merely to get the reader toaccept what should be a logical conclusion,

    then its fallacious

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    Component Fallacies These are deductive or inductive errors

    or syllogistic terms that fail to overlap.

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    Begging the questionBegging the question

    Circular reasoningCircular reasoning

    Hasty generalizationHasty generalization False causeFalse cause

    Non Causa Pro CausaNon Causa Pro Causa

    Post Hoc, Ergo Propter HocPost Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc

    Irrelevant ConclusionIrrelevant Conclusion Straw Man ArgumentStraw Man Argument

    Non SequiturNon Sequitur

    Slippery SlopeSlippery Slope

    FalseDilemma (Black orWhite Fallacy)False Dilemma (Black orWhite Fallacy)

    Faulty AnalogyFaulty Analogy

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    Begging the Question Petitio Principii

    Assuming as evidence for their argument, the

    very argument you wish to prove.Where thefirst claim is initially loaded with the very

    conclusion you wish to prove

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    Circular Reasoning Close to Begging the Question

    Using the same terms in the initialpremises as in the conclusion

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    Hasty Generalization Dicto Simpliciter

    Mistaken use of inductive reasoning when

    there are too few examples to prove a point

    Ex: Susan failed Biology, Herman failed

    Biology, Ernie failed it too, therefore

    everyone who takes Biology will fail. Closely related: misleading statistic

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    Non Causa Pro Causa Not the cause for the cause

    Mistaking a false cause of an eventfor the real cause.

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    Post Hoc, ergo Propter Hoc Lit. After this, therefore because of this

    When the writer mistakenly assumes that,

    because the first event preceded the secondevent, it must mean the first event caused the

    later one.

    Sometimes it does, sometimes NOT though!This is how superstitions begin

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    Irrelevant conclusion Ignorantio Elenchi

    When someone purports to arguetoward a certain conclusion, then

    ends up proving a totally different


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    Straw Man Argument Any lame attempt to prove an argument by

    overstating, exaggerating, or over-simplifying

    the arguments of the other side. When you substitute a cartoon version of the

    opponent instead of addressing the subtle

    points of the opponents argument.

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    Slippery Slope One one step is taken, then the 2nd

    or 3rd will INEVITABLY follow.

    This is a non sequitur argument.