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  • AT MICROFICHE REFERENCE LIBRARY A project of Volunteers in Asia

    I Silkworm Rearinq

    By: Wu Pang-chuan & Chen Da-chuang FAO Agricultural Services: Bulletin 73/2

    Published by: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Publications Division Via delle Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome Italy

    Available from: UNIPUB 4611 -F Assembly Drive Lan ham MD 20706-4391 U.S.A.

    Reproduced with permission.

    Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

  • Silkworm rearing

    Written by Wu Pang-chuan and Chen Da-chuang Regional Sericulture Training Centre Guangzhou, China Translated by Chen Zuo-pu, Liu Ping-zhang and Tang He Regional Sericulture Training Centre Guangzhou, China

  • The desgnatrons employed and the presentatron of matenal In this publication do not imply the expresson of any opmron whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Natrons

    \ concerning the legal status of any country, territory. city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delrmrtation of its frontiers or boundaries.

    M-24 ISBN 92-5-102692-O

    All rights reserved. No part of thus publication may be reproduced, stored in a retneval system, or transmrtted m any form or by any means, electronrc. mechanical, photocopying or otherwise. wrthout the prior permrsston of the copyright owner. Applrcatrons for such permission, wrth a slafemenl of the purpose and extent of the reproductron. should be addressed to the Director. Publrcalrons Dwrsron. Food and Agriculture Organizatron of the Unrted Nations. Via delle Terme di Caracalla OOiOO Rome, Italy.

  • Silk, "the queen of fibres", is admired by people the world over, and silk and silk products aa always in great demand. Endowed with .favourable conditions for mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing, the Asia-Pacific Region has great potential for sericulture; many developing countries in this region potential.

    are eager to tap this In order to meet their needs and pranote develcpmnt of

    sericulture in the region, the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Food and Agriculture Organization and the United Nations Develownt Programne (F&J/DNDP) have jointly established the Regional Sericulture Training Centre for the Asia-Pacific Region (RSTC) in the South China Agricultural College, Guangzhou, for training professionals in sericulture in 2004ay sessions.

    These manuals, which offer an outline of sericultural science and technology, have been compiled as teaching materials for RSTC participants. In view of the specific circumstances of the partici- pants, the manuals stress technical expertise for sericultural pe duction in trcpical and sub-tropical areas and introduce China's unique experience in silkworm rearing. It is hoped that the manuals will be useful to sericulturists not only in the Asia-Pacific Region but also in other parts of the world.

    'Ihe authors wish to express their deep appreciation to FE0 for making possible the publication of these manuals and place on record their special thanks to Mr. R. Karam for his invaluable advice. mey also wish to thank the Sericulture Research Institute of the Academy of Pqricultural Sciences of China and the Sericulture Department of Zhejiang Agricultural University for their valuable carments on the manuscripts.

    The manuals are a joint effort. The many co-authors and translators

    Volume I

    fran Chinese to English are listed below: -

    Mulberry Cultivation Written by: Zheng Ting-xing, Tan Yun-fang, Huang Guang-

    xian,, and Ma ben Translated by: Chen Die-yun, thou Qi-ming, Hang ~ong-guang,

    and Chen Zuo-pu

    Volume II

    Volume III

    v01ulTE Iv

    Silkworm Rearing I Written by: Wu Pang-chuan and Chen Da-chuang Translated by: Chen Zuo-pu, Liu Ping-zhang and Tang He

    Silk Egg Production Written by: Wang San-ming Translated by: Li Ping-yi, Pan Run-shi, and Gu bing-sen

    Silkworm Diseases Written by: Lu Yun-lian Translated by: Liu Fu-an

  • Tang Wei-Liu, Lu Keng-ming, He Xian-Lai, Zhong Wen-biao, Chen Zhong-tang, and Huo Yong-kang, helped revise and proofread the manu- scripts. Huang Zhen-bang supplied saw of the photographs.

    Prof. W. WA-guang Project Director Regional Sericulture Training Centre for Asia-Pacific Region South China Agricultural College Guangzhou People's Republic of China

  • 7312. Silkwsrin reafing, 988 (I?)

    Availability: C)ctotxW ?EWl Ar - Arabic E - English

    ; I: French Sparrish

    MURK - Multilingua!

    The FACJ Agricutiurai Wvic ly from Bistributlon and Saks


    -_ i, 1 ,_, ,111 I I .~ 1

  • iii



    a%iPlxRl-I@??clN - 1.1 Significance of Sericulture Development 1.2 The Origin and Spread of Sericulture 1.3 The World Distribution of Sericulture and its

    Present Situation 1.4 World Trends in the Development of Silk Production 1.5 Scope of Study and Objectives of this Publication

    cmmER2-zBESIIJuxlmANDTAE~ 2.1 Life Cycle of the Mulbrry Silkworm 2.2 Meteorological and Fnvirorutmtal Conditions 2.3 Silkworm Feeds 2.4 Cleaning and Disinfection of Rearing Environment

    mm?rER3-ItmBmI~ 3.1 Preparatory Work for Incubation of Silkworm Eggs 3.2 Developmnt of Silkworm Rnbryo 3.3 Environmental Conditions for Incubation 3.4 Sane Technical Management in Incubation

    QlAFiER4-~OFSI~~ 4.1 Mode and Method of Rearing Young Larvae 4.2 Mode and Method of Rearing Grown Larvae

    t2HAEwBs--mOOCOONm 61 5.1 Mounting 61 5.2 Harvesting of Cocoons 69

    CB?U'rm6-'ME --AM) -0NpIANT 71 6.1 The Developmnt Program-e of Silkworm Rearing 71 6.2 The Plan of Silkworm Rearing Produciton 81

    1 1 1

    2 5 5

    7 7 8

    12 17

    23 23 25 30 32

    37 37 51

    Tables l-l Types of silk producing countries and regions in the world 4 1-2 World output of fresh cocoons and raw silk (1981) 6 2-l Standard rearing temperature in South China 9

    .2-2 Relationship of' the rearing humidity to larval duration and health 11

    2-3 Absorption and utilization of the leaves 14 3-l Characteristics of different developmental stages of

    silkworm embryos 25

  • - vi -

    3-2 4-l

    Incubation conditions


    4-3 4-4 4-5 5-l

    The influence of cover and open rearing upon the rate of water loss in mulberry leaves (%I Comparative contents of sugar, starch and water in mulberry leaves Relationship between quality and consumption of leaves Frequency of bed cleaning- Feeds, ingestion , and ingestion rate at the fifth instar Influence of tenperaturc and humidity on reelability of silkworm cocoons

    6-l 6-2


    Space required at different instars Specifications and quantity of the rearing room and rearing tools Size of rearing rooms and quantity of rearing tools required for feeding ten egg cards of polyvoltines in Guangdong Province, China

    6-4 Number of egg sheets handled by skilled techniciaiz

    PiCJUtZS l-l * World distribution of sericulture 3-l JWxyonic development - 15 stages 4-l Types of thatched cottages with shallow ditches 5-1 "Floral" bamboo nrxntages 5-2 Square-frame mntages 5-3 Centipede-shaped nrountages 5-4 Hamboo slip nrxultages 5-5 Fold& mu&ages 6-l Design drawing of a one-storey house (Guangdong Province) 6-2 A two-storey rearing house in Shunde County, Guandong

    Province 6-3 A shallotiitch rearing house in Nanhai County,

    Guangdong Province 6-4 Design drawing of a rearing house in Shunde County,

    Guangdong Province 6-5 The layout of'the rearing house in a production team in

    Shunde County, Guangdong Province



    40 44 45 56

    63 74


    75 83

    3 28/29

    53 65 65 66 66 67 77





  • 1.1 Significance of Sericulture ikuelopumt

    utilized Insects of the order Lepidoptera that produce silk that can be . - _ a. a-. .- . . . bY man 1nClUde mUmerry SllkWXmS (Banbyx mrL), tUSSah

    silkworms (Antheraea), eri silkworms (Fhilcsamia), and others. The focus of this publications is the mulberry silkworm.

    Dcmr?sticated from Bombyx mandarina over a long period of time, the Bunbyx mori has developed into a great variety of geographical species thrmmifferentiation, selection and breeding.

    The silk produced by the nulberry silkworm and its byproducts can be used for many purposes. The filanrent is thin and long, light and soft. It is ell known for its water absorbency, dyeing affinity, thermotolerance, insulation prcperties and lustre. It is a raw material good not only for producing precious fabrics, but also for making parachutes, tire linings, electric insulation materials, artificial blood vessels and surgical sutures. Silkworm pupae pressed for an oil fran which soap and plasticizers can be made and to extract hydrolyzed protein, amino-acids and vitamin B2. Muscardined silkworms or pupae can be used in Chinese medicine. Fhytol, an important raw material that is used to make vitamin E and K, and cholrophyll can be extracted from the faeces of silkworm. The faeces can also be used to make activated carbon and acid-resistant plastic sheets and serve as the raw material for plastic substances. Rich in protein, silkworm faeccs are good feeds for fish, pigs, cattle and sheep. Finally, they are superb organic manure.

    Mulberry cultivation is indispensable to silkworm rearing. 'ihe nulberry tree itself gives a fine wood. Its branches can be used to make farm tools and its bark to make high-grade paper and artificial fibre. The fruit is edible and can be used to make wine. Every part of the mulberry tree is of nredicinal value.

    Mulberry growing and silkworm rear