Atomic Timeline (AKA The 7 Dead Dudes of Atomic Theory)

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Atomic Timeline (AKA The 7 Dead Dudes of Atomic Theory) </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Timeline Construction Use the adding machine tape to make your Atomic Timeline Make sure you include Name Date Important Information Picture/or/Symbol </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 1) Democritus 460 BC First to develop the idea that matter was made of particles called Atoms The term Atoms comes from the Greek word atomos which means undivisible </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 2) John Dalton - 1803 Proposed atomic theory An atom is indivisible, indestructible, tiny sphere. Determined that elements have unique atomic masses </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 3) Joseph John Thomson - 1898 Discovered Electrons Proposed an atomic model known as the plum pudding model </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 4) Ernest Rutherford - 1911 Discovered positively charged nucleus by probing atoms of gold foil with positively charged particles. Proposed atomic model with massive nucleus with electrons in a circle around it in a solar system model </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 5) Niels Bohr - 1913 Developed atomic model that placed electrons in specific energy levels to explain why they did not spiral toward and collide with the nucleus Proposed the model with electrons in specific orbits around the nucleus </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 6) James Chadwick - 1932 Discovered neutron as a neutral particle in the nucleus The discovery explained why the mass of an atom could not be attributed entirely to the mass of the protons (+) Positive Protons (0) Neutral Neutrons Nucleus </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 7) Erwin Schrodinger 1933 Described electrons as waves with their probable location viewed as a cloud and introduced a mathematical model of the atom e- </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Highlights 1.DemocritusFirst Atomos - Indivisible 2. John DaltonAtomic Theory 3. J.J. ThomsonElectrons - Plum Pudding 4. Ernest Rutherford+ Charged Nucleus Gold Foil 5. Niels BohrElectrons Specific NRG Levels 6. James ChadwickNeutrons (Jimmy Neutron) 7. Erwin SchrodingerElectron Cloud Wave </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Way to Remember the Order of the Scientists for the Atomic Theory Democritus Discovered Dalton Tiny Thomson Round Rutherford Circular Chadwick Ball-like Bohr Spheres Schrodinger </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> IndivisibleElectronNucleusOrbitElectron Cloud Greek X Dalton X Thomson X Rutherford X X Bohr X X X Wave X X X </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Dont Sweat the Small Stuff! </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Size of Atoms Tiny! Tinier than the cells and germs. Too small to be seen with ordinary microscopes Atoms are so small that it would take 100 million atoms placed side by side to form a row only 1 cm long which is about the width of your pinky finger! </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> How Small is the Small Stuff? Lets check it out a/scienceopticsu/powersof10 a/scienceopticsu/powersof10 ture.html ture.html /cells/scale/ /cells/scale/ ID=1780 ID=1780 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Whats the Matter? Matter </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Whats the Matter? Matter Has Mass= The Amount of Matter in an Object Stuff that Everything is made of! Made of Atoms Has Volume= Takes Up Space </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> What was the Small Stuff anyway? Atoms Elements Molecules Compounds </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Atoms Basic unit of matter The smallest particle of a substance that has all of the properties of that substance. Example= the element Gold is made of gold atoms </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Elements A pure substance made of only one kind of atom. Examples= Gold, Hydrogen, Carbon, etc. Elements are found on the Periodic Table of Elements. Here is a song about them tml </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Molecules Made up of two or more atoms joined tightly together. Small particle of the entire substance or compound Atoms in a molecule may be of the same element or of different elements. Examples= 1 molecule of the element oxygen or 1 molecule of the compound water H2O </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Compounds A substance whose molecules contain atoms of different elements combined chemically. Most matter exists as compounds. Examples= Water, Carbon Dioxide, etc. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> What is the difference between a Compound and a Molecule? A molecule is formed when two or more atoms join together chemically. Molecules can be made up of atoms joined together or elements joined together which form compounds A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Compound vs. Molecule All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds! Molecules that are made of two atoms joined together are not compounds Compound = entire substance Molecule = small particle of entire substance </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Atom Smallest part of a substance Has all of the properties of that substance Element Pure Substance Made of 1 kind of atom Compound Molecules containing atoms of different elements Molecule 2 or more atoms joined tightly together Smallest part of compound </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Atom Smallest part of a substance Has all of the properties of that substance </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Element Pure Substance Made of 1 kind of atom </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Molecule 2 or more atoms joined tightly together Smallest part of compound </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Compound Molecules containing atoms of different elements </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Chemical Bonding Elements bond together to form compounds 2 Main Types of Bonding 1.Colvalent = sharing of e- 1.Ionic = giving or taking of e- </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Covalent Bonding = Sharing e- Covalent Bond= sharing of electrons that occurs between 2 non-metals Ex) Water H 2 O O HH = Hydrogens Electron = Oxygens Electrons </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Ionic Bonding = give or take e- Ionic Bond= giving or taking of electrons that occurs between metals and non-metals Ex) Salt NaCl Na give outer e- to Cl Na Cl Na 1+ Cl 1- </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Ions An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, making it positively or negatively charged. A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons in its electron shells than it has protons in its nuclei, is known as an anion Conversely, a positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a cation </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Ions (cont) An ion consisting of a single atom is called a monatomic ion, but if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a polyatomic ion. Polyatomic ions containing oxygen, such as carbonate and sulfate, are called oxyanions. monatomic ionpolyatomic ionoxygencarbonatesulfateoxyanions Ions are represented by the presence of a superscript indicating the sign of the net electric charge and the number of electrons lost or gained, if more than one. For example: H+ and SO42. HSO </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Elements in the Earth &amp; Air Element Symbol Use 1.Oxygen O Breathing 2.Silicon Si Glass/Rocks 3.Aluminum Al Foil/Cans 4.Iron Fe Steel 5.Calcium Ca Bones/Teeth 6.Potassium K Bones/Muscles 7.Sodium Na Salt </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Elements In Our Bodies O 65% C 17.5% H 10.2% N 2.4% Ca 1.6% Other 3.3% </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Nucleus P+ &amp; N O 1 st = 2 e- 2 nd = 8 e- 3 rd = 18 e- </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Periodic Table Atomic # = # of p+ = # of e- # of n 0 = Atomic Mass Atomic # Period #s = # of orbitals/shells 7 Periods = 7 shell max </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Playing with the Periodic Table Draw the orbitals on your paper plate Use play-doh to represent protons, neutrons, and electrons Choose a different color for each Start with simple elements and work your way up! </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Nucleus P+ &amp; N O 1 st = 2 e- 2 nd = 8 e- 3 rd = 18 e- </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Nucleus P+ &amp; N O 1 st = 2 e- 2 nd = 8 e- 3 rd = 18 e- Acting Out Bohr Models! </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Periodic Tables Check out the Periodic Table in Pictures and in Words Use your other Periodic Table to Color Code the Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids On the other side, color code the Groups/Families </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Awesome Websites </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Blue= Metals Pink= Metalloids Yellow= Nonmetals </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> How to Read the Periodic Table Tracy Arrington-Payne SI560 </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> The Periodic Table Is.. A table of all known elements, A useful tool for scientists, And, it arranges elements according to their properties. </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> The Inventor Created by Dmitri Mendeleev. Mendeleev was a teacher who was discouraged by his teaching tools and decided to create his own. He made note cards of the elements known at that time and arranged them. When there wasnt an element to fit a certain spot, he left it open and predicted an element would be found later to fill it. </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Reading a Periodic Table When reading a periodic table.... Look at the box Look at the columns (group or family) Look at the rows (periods) Look at the location of metals, nonmetals, and semiconductors </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Using the Box Each box represents a different element. Each box contains information that tells.. The elements name The elements symbol The atomic number of the element The atomic weight of the number </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Example Name Oxygen Atomic Number 8 Atomic Symbol O Atomic Weight 16.00 Oxygen 8 16.00 O </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Using the Columns Each column of elements is called a family or group. Elements in a family have similar but not identical properties. The number for the column sometimes indicates the number of electrons in outer shells of the element. Elements in a group have the same number of electrons in their outer orbital. </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Families or Groups Elements in the red group have 1 electron in their outer shell. Elements in the orange group have 2 electrons in their outer shell. As you keep counting the colored columns, you add an additional electron. Purple has 8 electrons in its outer shell. (Dont include the white group) </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Using the Rows Rows represent an elements period. Elements in a period are not alike in properties. Even though some squares are skipped in between, all of the rows go from left to right. </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Using the Rows As a rule.... the first element in a period is usually an active solid. the last element in a period is always a noble gas. Atomic size decreases from left to right across a period. And generally, atomic mass increases form left to right across a period, although there are exceptions. </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Example Every element in the top row (first period) has one orbital for its electrons. Every element in the second row (the second period) have two orbitals available. Atoms on the left are usually larger and lighter. Atoms on the right are usually smaller and heavier. </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Metals, Nonmetals, and Semiconductors Some periodic tables are color coded to show what elements are metals, nonmetals, and semiconductors. In general, elements located in the left two-thirds or so of the periodic table are metals. The nonmetals are on the right side of the table. The dividing line between the metals and nonmetals are elements called semiconductors. </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> The gray area represents the metals. The yellow area represents the semiconductors. The blue area represents the nonmetals. </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Conclusion The Periodic Table is an excellent tool for looking at elements and the key to using it is to understand the code of it structure. Using the boxes, columns, and rows will help you learn about the properties of elements. </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> I.Metals, Metalloids, and Non-Metals II.7 Periods/Rows III.18 Groups/Families </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> I. Metals, Metalloids, &amp; Non-Metals Metals On the _______ of the staircase/zig-zag (except for hydrogen) Most are shiny, hard, and dense. They conduct (transmit) electricity and heat. They have mostly _______ melting and boiling points. They are malleable (pounded into shapes) and ductile (drawn into wire). Ex) Aluminum is a metal that is pounded into aluminum foil. left high </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Metalloids 7 elements _____ the staircase/zig-zag Properties of _______ metals and non- metals. Ex) Silicon is a metalloid. It conducts electricity like a metal and is brittle like a non-metal. It is used to make microchips. on both </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> Non-Metals To the _______ of the staircase/zig-zag Most have low melting points Are dull and brittle if solid. Most are _______ conductors of heat and electricity. Ex) Sulfur is a non-metal. It is often used to make fertilizer. right poor </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> II. 7 Periods/Rows The Period # = the # of Electron Shells/Orbitals/Energy Levels 1.This period contains the two __________ known elements, hydrogen (H) and helium (He). Each element has 2 electron shell. 2.The elements in this period have 2 electron shells. The gases that make up most of our ____________, nitrogen(N) and oxygen(O), are found in this period. 3.The elements in this period have ___ electron shells. Sodium (Na) and chlorine(Cl) are found in this period. lightest atmosphere 3 </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> 4. The elements in this period have 4 electron shells. This period includes the element iron (Fe), a commonly used _____. 5. The elements in this period have 5 electron shells. Silver (___) is found in this period 6. With 6 electron shells, some of these __________ elements are unstable and radioactive. This period includes gold (Au), lead (Pb) and radioactive radon (Rn). 7. With 7 electron shells, these are the heaviest elements. Many are ________________ - some so unstable that they fall apart almost instantly. Uranium (U) is found in this period metal Ag heavier radioactive </li> <li> Slid...</li></ul>


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