Baroque Music (1600 – 1750)

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Baroque Music (1600 – 1750). IGCSE Year 10 October 13 th , 2009. Baroque Society. Aristocracy was rich and powerful during the 17 th century The word baroque = bizarre, elaborately ornamented Filling up space with action and movement Contrasting light and dark. Baroque Music. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Baroque Music (1600 – 1750)

Baroque Music (1600 1750)

Baroque Music(1600 1750)IGCSE Year 10October 13th, 2009Aristocracy was rich and powerful during the 17th century

The word baroque = bizarre, elaborately ornamented

Filling up space with action and movementContrasting light and darkBaroque Society

Three phasesEarly (1600-1640) Italian composers created operaHomophonic texture emphasized and unstable chordsMiddle (1640-1880) Modes gave way to major and minor scalesNew importance of instrumental musicLate (1680-1750) **Return to Polyphonic textureDominant to tonic chordsInstrumental music = as important as vocal

Baroque Music

MOODOne piece = One mood usuallyException in vocal music changes in emotions correspond to changes in musical changes (but usually not suddenly)

RHYTHMContinuity in rhythmEmphasis on the beat

MELODYAlso feeling on continuity (reoccurring)Elaborate and ornamental = not balanced

DYNAMICSContinuity if shifts occur, usually sudden = TERRACED DYNAMICSUse of ORGAN or HARPSICHORD no finger pressure controlClavichord = slight changes allowed = for amateur usageCharacteristics of Baroque Music

TEXTUREPolyphonicRepetition of the melody in different voicesNot all were polyphonic

CHORDS AND BASSO CONTINUOChords became more significantSometimes composed melody to fit a chord progressionBASSO CONTINUO and FIGURED BASS

WORDS and MUSICSometimes many notes for one syllable of text

Characteristics of Baroque Music ContdInstruments in the violin family

10-40 players

Based on the basso continuo harp and cello, bass, or bassoon

Violins and violas

Woodwinds, percussion, brass were added only some of the time ie. when music was festive

Melody, rhythm and harmony was stressed

Baroque Orchestra

Movements that contrast

Movement = complete and independent, but part of a larger work

ABA, AB, Undivided form = ALL COMMON

Contrasting soundsBaroque FormMusic written to order (mainly from churches and courts, and opera companies)

Good pay and prestige of the music director

Job is at the call of the patron

Some had good relationships with their patrons Ie. CorelliMusic in SocietyChurch also need music organ or choir, or orchestra

Church music contributed to the prestige of the city

Music played in public, for taverns etc.

Usually musician jobs = handed down from father to son

Women were not usually employed performers, but many became musicians (ie. Caccini, Strozzi)

To become a musician = pass exam, or do other non-musical requirementsMusic in Society ContdSmall group pitted against larger group (Tutti)

2-4 soloists

8-20 in TuttiString instruments, harpsichord as part of basso continuo

Usually in 3 movements (fast, slow, fast)

Concerto GrossoUsually the form of the first and last movement of concerto grosso

Alternating between tutti and solo

TUTTI with a theme (ritornello)

Theme returns in different keys in fragments

End of the piece = ritornello in home keyTR (home key)SoloTR (fragment)SoloTR(fragment)SoloTR(home key)Ritornello (refrain) FormHistory of the Concerto:Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 D MajorBachListening Notes:Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 D MajorBachThe fugue: polyphonic composition on one main theme: SUBJECTDifferent melody lines (voices) imitate the subjectTOP LINE soprano voice, bottom is base4-5 voices, but usually starts in single voiceSometimes counter subjectEpisodes with new materialSome are introduced by a prelude

The FugueKey Terms:Stretto

Pedal Point

Inversion

Retrograde

DiminutionThe Fugue ContinuedNotesBachs Fugue in G MinorInstrumental music grew in importance

Sonata = several movements for 1-8 instruments

TRIO sonatas: 2 high instruments, 2 for bassoSonata da cheisa vs. Sonata da cameraBaroque SonataNotes:Arcangelo Corellis Trio Sonata in A MinorLate Italian Baroque born in Venice

Violin teacher, composer, conductor

Composed SOLO CONCERTOS single soloist and orchestraAntonio Vivaldi

Notes:La Primavera (Spring), from The Four Seasons by VivaldiKnown as the town musicians

Church organist, court organist, then concertmaster

First wife died, leaving 3children remarried

Cantor in Leipzig, he was a religious man

J.S. Bach

No opera, his vocal music usually hymns

Polyphonic texture and rich harmony

Several melodic lines at once chord progression

Single idea per piece twisting the inner voices etc

Bachs MusicNotes:Prelude and Fugue in C MinorSame key but different tempo, meter, or characterAllemandeCouratneGavotteSarabandeGigue

AABB

Balance and symmetry

The Baroque Suite

Notes:Suite No. 3 in D Major: BachOpera

Chorale/Cantatas

OratoriosVocal Music in Baroque EraFusion of music, acting, poetry, dance, scenery, constumes

Began 1600

Orchestra and actors with conductor

LIBRETTO textParts:Coloratura sopranoLyric sopranoDramatic sopranoLyric tenorDramatic tenoBasso buffoBasso profondoOpera

ARIA

RECITATIVE

ENSEMBLE

CHORUS

PROMPTER

OVERTURE/PRELUDE

Opera ContinuedCamerata ancient Greek tragedyThey rejected polyphonyEuridice by Peri earliest opera preservedOrfeo by Monteverdi1st opera house in Venice 1637CastratoLate baroque secco recitative/accompanied recitativesABA da capo AriasBaroque Opera WritersEarly Baroque era

Wrote Orfeo

Music directer in Venice

Bridging the 16th and 17th century

Wanted emotional intensity in music

Used dissonances, tremolo and pizzicatosMonteverdi

Notes:Monteverdis OrfeoLondon, choirboy, then composer then organist

English composer, wrote with all music forms

Wrote Dido and Aeneas

Homophonic textures and polyphony

Used GROUND BASS repeated bass patternHenry PurcellLibretto by Nahum Tate inspired by Aeneid by Virgil

Dido Queen and Aeneas king of Trojans

Aeneas lands in Carthage and falls for Dido

False messenger tells Aeneas to leave Dido suicidesDido and AeneasNotes:Didos Lament Act IIIMusic used often in churches 4 hour services!

Chorale: hymn tunes sung to German textsUsually one note to a syllableNew music was often based on traditional melodiesCHORALE PRELUDES before the hymnCantataPiece that was sung usually for chorus, vocal soloists, organ and orchestraResembled the opera at the time

Chorale and Church CantataNotes:Cantata No. 140: Wachet aug, ruft uns die stimme: BachLarge scale for chorus, solo and orchestraNo acting,based on biblical stories

Choruses and arias, duets and recitatives

Longer than cantatas and have story line

Ie. MessiahOratorioItalian opera and English oratorio

Studied law in university

Music director at for Hanover

Wrote Rinaldo (opera)- success

Favorite of Queen Anne

Scapegoat of political struggles

1741: MessiahGeorge Frideric Handel

Late Baroque- just like Bach

His works are nearly always serious, based on Roman and Greek history

English oratorios stories from Old TestamentBut not for the church, just for entertainment

The chorus was his focus!

Changes texture frequently

Sharp changes in mood major and minorHandels MusicNotes:Handels MessiahNotes Continued:

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