Biomolecules Carbohydrates Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids

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  • BiomoleculesCarbohydratesProteins,Lipids,and Nucleic acids

  • Carbon is the central elementAll biomolecules contain a Carbon chain or ringCarbon has 4 outer shell electrons (valence = 4)Therefore its bonding capacity is greatIt forms covalent bonds hence, has strong bondsOnce bound to other elements (or to other Carbons), it is very stable

  • Carbon linkagesSingle chainsRings


  • Carbon binds to more than just hydrogenTo OH groups in sugarsTo NH2 groups in amino acidsTo H2PO4 groups in nucleotides of DNA, ATPAmino acidThese are called functional groups!

  • Carbohydrates (or sugars)Simple sugars (monosaccharides)Only one 6-C chain or ring involvedGeneral formula (CH2O)

  • Carbohydrates (sugars)Double sugars (disaccharides)Two 6-C chains or rings bonded together Lactose

  • Carbohydrates (sugars)Complex carbos (polysaccharides)Starch energy storageCellulose structural supportGlycogen energy storageChitin structural

    Glycogen to glucose in animalsUp to 10,000 glucose units!!

  • ProteinsComposed of chains of amino acids

    20 amino acids exist

    Amino acids containCentral CarbonAmine groupCarboxyl groupR group

  • There are four levels of protein structurePrimary = sequence of aasSecondary = forms pleated sheet, helix, or coilTertiary = entire length of aas folded into a shapeQuaternary = several aa sequences linked together1234

  • Shape is critical to protein function Types of proteins

    EnzymesHormonesStructural proteinsReceptor proteins

  • Nucleic acids: DNA and RNADNA = deoxyribonucleic acidDNA is a double polymer (chain)Each chain is made of nucleotidesThe 2 chains bond together to form a helix

  • DNA nucleotides double stranded polymerEach nucleotide in DNA contains:5-C sugar(deoxyribose)PhosphateNitrogen base-adenine (A)-guanine (G)-cytosine (C)-thymine (T)

  • RNA Nucleotides single-stranded polymerEach nucleotide in RNA contains:5-Carbon sugar Ribose***PhosphateNitrogen baseAdenine (A)Guanine (G)Cytosine Uracil (U)***

  • LipidsMade of the same elements as carbohydrates, but insoluble in waterDo not form polymers!Major function:Energy storageInsulationCell membranes

  • Types of lipids1- glyceridesMake up 90% of lipid in foodDiffer with respect to saturated or unsaturated fatty acid chains

  • Types of lipids2- steroidsContain a central core of 4 ringsDifference in functional groups relates to steroid function in the body3 main forms of steroidsCholesterolEstrogentestosterone

  • Lipids and HealthHierarchy of dietary fats:Fats containing Omega-3 fatty acidsMono- and poly unsaturated fatsSaturated fatsTrans fats

  • Lipids: 3) PhospholipidsMake up cell membranesProduces a bi-layerPolar head region point to outside and inside of cellNon-polar tails only to inside of membrane


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