BUDDHISM. Location of Buddhism Buddhism World Status Buddhism: 360 million 6% of world population Fifth largest world religion Christianity 32% Islam

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  • BUDDHISM
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  • Location of Buddhism
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  • Buddhism World Status Buddhism: 360 million 6% of world population Fifth largest world religion Christianity 32% Islam 22% Hinduism 15% Secular/Non-religious 14%
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  • Buddhism Origin History Main Tenets Worldview Differences with Christianity
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  • Origin of Buddhism Began in the 7 th century BC Buddha is a title signifying The Enlightened One or The Awakened One Title given to Siddartha Gautama who was born in 563 B.C.; died 483 B.C. Biography of his life does not appear until several hundred years later His life was the last of 500 reincarnations
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  • Origin of Buddhism Siddartha Gautama was born into a wealthy family, some propitious signs accompanied his birth Father protected him and groom him to be a king. Father allows him to take a chariot ride but decrees all poor and suffering be hidden however the gods assume human form so he sees an old man near death, a man disfigured by disease, a funeral procession of decomposing body, and a monk who has renounced the world. Decided to forsake his status and wealth and seek the meaning of life at 30 years old Vedantic tradition.
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  • Origin of Buddhism First quest for enlightenment Under the mentoring of two Brahman hermits, Alara and Uddaka They were unable to tell him how to put an end to the cycle of rebirths Second quest for enlightenment Asceticism with five companions Decided that self-mortification did not lead to self-realization but only enfeebled body & mind
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  • Origin of Buddhism Enlightenment obtained Devoted himself to the simple life of intense mental discipline After prolong meditation after seven years while sitting under a fig tree received the answer to his quest Decides to share his way of enlightenment and begins to preach Converts five followers & family Legend has him ascend into heaven but died after eating spoiled pork given as an offering Buddhists would probably say that words cannot truly describe Prince Gautamas enlightenment
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  • History of Buddhism Collection of Teachings and Split First council of followers shortly after his death collected his teachings Called Tripitaka, lit. meaning three baskets Second council (~ 380 B.C.) Some argued for a greater role for the laity Less strict discipline Split between Theravada and Mahayana (~ 200 B.C.)
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  • History of Buddhism Theravada Buddhism Name derived from an expression meaning tradition of the elders Retained emphasis religion centered on monks Also called Hinayana (little raft) in distinction to Mahayana Height of Theravada was in 3 rd century B.C. Now mainly in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia Most other areas have Mahayana Buddhism Mainly a religion for monks
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  • History of Buddhism Theravada Monks (bikhus) Only ones who can obtain nirvana They the focus of religious practice Laitys primary religious work is to support the monks Ordination Shave head and put on orange robes Vow to follow the Ten Precepts
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  • History of Buddhism Theravada Monks Ten Precepts Not to take a life Not to steal Not to commit sexual immorality Not to lie Not to drink intoxicating beverages Not to eat in excess or after noon Not to attend entertainment, e.g. dancing, singing, drama Not to decorate ones self or use cosmetics Not to sleep in high or wide beds Not to touch any gold or silver
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  • History of Buddhism Theravada Monks Life Usually live in a monastery Most of day in meditation Object of meditation on the total impermanence of all existence Focus to avoid being distracted Begging for food in the morning When monk attains full realization he is an arhat or holy man. At death enters nirvana Buddha is perfect in all his incarnations and arhat isnt
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  • History of Buddhism Buddhas Twenty five Buddhas All came to teach the same way of enlightenment Idea emerged there is a Buddha in the final stages of preparation to come to earth. Called Maitreya A Bodhisattva i.e. Buddha-in-the-making He will usher in a golden age of enlightenment for all
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  • History of Buddhism Theravada Buddhism & the Laity Secondary participants Goal is to live a good life Follow the first five of the ten precepts (special occasions will follow eight) Store up merit (good karma) for a better incarnation May even earns some time in heaven between incarnations Universe consists of many levels and higher levels are states of bliss worthy of pursuing but not nirvana Recitation of Three Refuges I seek refuge in the Buddha I seek refuge in the Dharma (duty as in following teachings) I seek refuge in the sangha (order of bikhu or monks) Care for the monks (bikhu)
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  • History of Buddhism Theravada Buddhism & the Laity Three main obligations: Recitation of Three Refuges I seek refuge in the Buddha I seek refuge in the Dharma (duty as in following teachings) I seek refuge in the sangha (order of bikhu or monks) Care for the monks (bikhu) Food, material for clothing and other necessities Care for the temples Usually erected by lay peoples contributions Statue of generous donor with monk robe place in temple Traditionally, contribute by buying gold leafs to be added to statue of Buddha
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  • History of Buddhism Theravada Buddhism & the Laity Position of Buddha statue hands Left hand open and on lap Right hand direct to the earth Calling on earth to witness to his Buddhahood and steadfastness (other positions, e.g. teaching, protecting) Folk religion Laity deify Buddha and worship him Knowledgeable Buddhist do not claim they worship him Storing Merit Can become a bikhu for a period of time Rite of passage in puberty rites
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  • History of Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Means big raft because it accommodates large number of people, monks and laity Innovations Sunyata (void) is interpreted as absolute compassion, Benevolent compassion is the ultimate motivating force of Mahayana Buddhism Multiplication of divine beings Lotus Sutra and other scriptures Other schools
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  • History of Buddhism Mahayana Buddhisms Innovations Multiplication of divine beings Multiple Buddhas and Bodhisattvas Manushi Buddhas achieved enlightenment on earth Died and in Nirvana so not accessible Dhyani Buddhas attained enlightenment in heaven Have not died and are accessible I.e., Amithaba of the Pure Land School Bodhisattvas many Buddhas-in-the-making In Mahayana mythology these are divine beings in heaven who forgo entry into nirvana until the last soul is redeemed from hell which is the lower levels of incarnation. Available in heaven with much merit stored up to assist people in need
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  • History of Buddhism Mahayana Buddhisms Innovations Lotus Sutra and other scriptures Proliferation of Mahayana writings Lotus Sutra has the highest stature Core teachings attributed to Gautama (Called Sakyamuni [sage of the sakya clan] to differentiate him from other Buddhas) Sakyamuni was a manifestation of the true celestial Buddha All human beings have potential to reach Buddhahood References to specific Buddhas and Bodhisattvas by name Asserts that Hinayana is only for selfish uncaring people
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  • History of Buddhism Mahayana Buddhisms Innovations Other schools Tendai (rationalist) Pure Land (compassionate) Zen (intuitive Nichiren (chanting) Vajrayana (lamaist of Tibet) Shingon (combination of Tendai and Vajrayana) Ryobu (combination of Shinto and Shingon See Winfried Corduans chart, p. 230
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  • History of Buddhism Other Schools of Mahayana Buddhism Tendai (rationalist school) Provide compromise between variations Organized by Chinese monk, Chih-I 6 th century A.D. Teachings Superiority of Lotus Sutra inspired scripture Unity of reality all reality is equally a part of Buddhas nature Reality is sunyatta and maya at the same time Universal salvation all people will attain Buddhahood Because all are a part of the same Buddha nature Meditation to receive true insight into true reality
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  • History of Buddhism Other Schools of Mahayana Buddhism Pure Land Schools (multiple) Buddha Amida (Japanese name for Dhyani Buddha) Mythology has Amida while going through his incarnations overwhelmed with human suffering that he vows to provide a way of salvation for all people. Became a Buddha and was able to provide salvation Created a paradise in western regions of heaven (pure land, Buddha field, or western paradise)
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  • History of Buddhism Other Schools of Mahayana Buddhism Pure Land Schools (multiple) Anyone who trusts in Buddha Amida can enter at death In paradise anyone can reach nirvana (equivalent) Some schools say must recite nembutsu (I bow down to the Buddha Amida) to enter paradise Jodo-shin-shu (Japan) recite nembutsu only to express gratitude No demands on followers other than to show Amida their thankfulness Worship performed by clergy, services have chanting, meditation, and adoration
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  • History of Buddhism Other Schools of Mahayana Buddhism Zen Origins Arose in 6 th century A.D. in response to Tendais rationalist speculation Claims its origin come from Gautama (as do they all) Essence of it is enlightenment without words or explination