Buddhist cosmology - Hindu Caste System Indian concept, created to give order to their society. Yet,

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    Buddhist cosmology  Cosmology?

    o “The science of the origin and development of the universe”.

    (Astronomy)

    o “The branch of philosophy dealing with the origin and general

    structure of the universe”

    (Philosophy)

     Several sub-cosmologies. We will focus in one:

    o Vertical Cosmology

     According with the Vertical Cosmology, the universe consists

    of several worlds (realms/layers/levels)

  •  The 3 vertical realms:

    o Formless Realm or Arupyadhatu

    o Form Realm or Rupadhatu

    o Desire Realm or Kamadhatu

     Inside the Desire Realm there is:

    o Mount Sumeru which is said to be surrounded by four

    island-continents.

    o The southernmost island is called Jambudvipa.

    o The other three island-continents are not accessible to

    humans from Jambudvipa

  •  Jambudvipa

    o Jambudvipa is shaped like a triangle with a rounded corner

    facing south. (Could it be southern India?)

    o In its center there’s a gigantic Jambu (rose Apple) tree from

    which the continent takes its name, meaning "Jambu Island".

  • o Jambudvipa is the only region where humans can live.

    o Where one may receive the gift of Dharma (cosmic laws on

    right behavior and social order)

    o And come to understand the Four Noble Truths,

    o And the Noble Eightfold Path and ultimately realize the

    liberation from the cycle of life and death.

    https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/dharma https://thebuddhistcentre.com/text/four-noble-truths https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noble_Eightfold_Path

  • To know more:

     http://www.dictionary.com/browse/cosmology?s=t

     https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/cosmology

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology#Temporal_cosmology

     https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/dharma

     https://thebuddhistcentre.com/text/four-noble-truths

     https://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/bs-s02.htm

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noble_Eightfold_Path

    http://www.dictionary.com/browse/cosmology?s=t https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/cosmology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology#Temporal_cosmology https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/dharma https://thebuddhistcentre.com/text/four-noble-truths https://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/bs-s02.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noble_Eightfold_Path

  • Hindu Caste System  Indian concept, created to give order to their society.

     Yet, it resembles, in some ways, Plato's ideal society of philosophers,

    warriors and commoners.

     A caste is a division of society based on occupation and family lineage.

     Hindu caste system recognizes four distinct classes or divisions among

    people based in certain criteria.

     Enforced through a rigid code of conduct specific to each class and

    rooted in the dharmashastras (law books).

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plato https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmaśāstra

  • 1. Indian caste system is based on people’s occupation.

    2. Why?

    2.1. The need to organize and optimize the society in general

    3. Who did it?

    3.1. Imagine a wise man, on the top of a rock, saying:

    “Fellows, there is lot of growing to do and for that to happen everyone

    has to chip in with some work, so, who’s going to do what?”

    4. How?

    4.1. DIVIDING SOCIETY INTO CASTES

  • Education - everyone knowledgeable enough, willing to pass it on to

    future generations, form a group of teachers to educate the children.

    They are called as Brahmin (not Brahman).

    Protection - all the muscular men and women, they must protect their

    land and their people. They are called as Kshatriya.

    Food - everyone who knows how to produce food (vegetables, rice, etc.)

    are called as Vaisya.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahman

  • And the remaining ones, they will provide some assistance to the above

    all. Since there is no concept of money, everyone has to put in some work

    to get along. They are called as Sudras.

    But…

    After sometime, some people understood that, some others were not

    doing anything, only enjoying the results of this caste system.

    They decided to exclude these lazy people from the caste system.

    And so we have the outcasts / outlaws. They are called as Dalits

    (Untouchables).

  • Real divisions inside the Hindu caste system:

     Originally a necessity (to organize society)

     Static and perpetual system Social injustice

     Therefore: not based on real skills but on social heritage

    Brahmins (priests)

     They were the priestly class, who are entitled to study the Vedas,

    perform rituals for themselves and for others.

     They were the middle men between gods and men.

     They should act as temple priests and invoke gods on behalf of

    others.

     They were expected to show exemplary behavior

     They would spend their lives in the pursuit of divine knowledge

    and preservation of traditions.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedas

  • Kshatriyas (nobles)

     They were the warrior class, with the responsibility to protect the

    people.

     Bestow gifts to the Brahmins, offer sacrifices to gods and ancestors,

    study the Vedas, and dispense justice.

     A king should not be despised even if he was an infant. His authority

    should not be questioned except when he ignored his duties in

    supporting and protecting Brahmins.

     The king had the right to punish, but he had to be fair in his

    punishments.

     It was king's responsibility to protect the caste system and,

    therefore, the social order.

  • Vaisyas (upper labor class: landowners / merchants / traders)

     Provide sustenance for those on higher classes.

     They were the peasant and merchant classes:

    o Cultivating the land

    o Producing goods

    o Trading

    o Lending money

     They were expected to offer sacrifices and study the Vedas.

     They had the right to perform and participate in certain Vedic rituals.

     They were not allowed to marry women from higher castes.

  • Sudras – (lower labor class)

     Their only duty was to serve the other three castes.

     They were not required to observe any Vedic rituals.

     They were not allowed to study the Vedas or even hear the sacred

    chants.

     They were not allowed to eat food in the company of higher castes.

     They were not allowed to marry women from higher castes.

    Dalits (Untouchables)

     From Classical Sanskrit, it means "divided, split, broken"

     Considered to be the impure ones.

  •  They were treated as untouchables because of their tendency to:

    o gory religious practices

    o sacrifices

    o perform magical rituals

    o unclean habits

     In ancient times they were not allowed to enter a village or city

    during day time or walk in the same street where men of other castes

    would be walking (Even their shadow was considered impure and their

    very sight a bad omen/presage).

     So they lived mostly on the fringes of society, unknown and uncared

    for.

     Following some strange religion of their own.

  •  Working mostly in the graveyards and cremation grounds or as

    hunters, butchers and professional cleaners of human waste (worst

    jobs/tasks).

  • Muslim caste system, in South Asia:

     Early Delhi Sultanates

     It’s in direct violation of Islam’s

    view that everyone is equal

     The Hindu caste system is based

    on occupation while the Muslim

    caste system is based on ancestry.

     Divided in

    o Ashrafs

    o Aljafs

    o Arzals

  • To know more:

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plato

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmaśāstra

     https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-Indian-caste-system-and-how-does-it-work

     http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/h_caste.asp

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahman

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmin

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kshatriya

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaishya

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shudra

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalit

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedas

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plato https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmaśāstra https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-Indian-caste-system-and-how-does-it-work http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/h_caste.asp https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahman https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmin https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kshatriya https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaishya https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sh