Building-Integrated Thermal Energy Systems (BITES) ... Energy Systems (BITES) Professors: Cynthia Cruickshank

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  • Building-Integrated Thermal Energy Systems (BITES)

    Professors: Cynthia Cruickshank Jean Duquette John Gaydos

    Industry Partner: Chris Weissflog

  • • Canada is the fifth largest energy producer in the world and the eighth largest consumer of energy

    • Buildings account for 28% of secondary energy use in Canada and represent a large source of GHGs

    • Approximately 80% of residential use is attributed to space heating and hot water demands

    • Current strategies to reduce building loads typically consider heating, cooling and hot water needs separately

    Hydro Nuclear Coal

    Non-hydro renewables

    Natural gas and oil

    Nuclear 15%

    Hydro 59%

    Coal 9%

    Natural gas and oil

    10%

    Non-hydro renewables

    7%

    Canada’s Energy Mix

    Presenter Presentation Notes Buildings represent 28% of secondary energy use in Canada and contribute significantly towards the country’s greenhouse gas emissions. The BITES project is focused on an integrated approach for heating, cooling, ventilation, dehumidification, and domestic hot water heating for low-rise multi-unit residential buildings Approach blends characteristics of very high-performance building envelopes with passive solar architecture, innovative multi-function heat pump systems, and heat recovery techniques Design optimization is required to dimension key components, such as heat pump capacities, geothermal fields, building thermal mass, and fenestration, as well as to select control strategies to minimize energy use while delivering high levels of thermal comfort. The goal is the development of replicable designs that delivery net-zero-energy-ready levels of performance for a 10-year payback.

  • • Project focus is on an integrated approach for heating, cooling, ventilation, dehumidification, and domestic hot water heating for low-rise multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs)

    • Design and optimization is required: • Passive solar architecture • High-performance envelope • Multi-function heat pumps • Heat recovery • Geothermal storage • Control strategies

    • Goal is to design a building integrated thermal energy system (BITES) that is replicable and delivers net-zero-energy-ready levels of performance for a 10-year payback

    Presenter Presentation Notes Buildings represent 28% of secondary energy use in Canada and contribute significantly towards the country’s greenhouse gas emissions. The BITES project is focused on an integrated approach for heating, cooling, ventilation, dehumidification, and domestic hot water heating for low-rise multi-unit residential buildings Approach blends characteristics of very high-performance building envelopes with passive solar architecture, innovative multi-function heat pump systems, and heat recovery techniques Design optimization is required to dimension key components, such as heat pump capacities, geothermal fields, building thermal mass, and fenestration, as well as to select control strategies to minimize energy use while delivering high levels of thermal comfort. The goal is the development of replicable designs that delivery net-zero-energy-ready levels of performance for a 10-year payback.

  • • Year 1 (2018-19):

    • Analyze performance of BITES prototype (single-family residential scale) and identify opportunities for improving design

    • Size key components (heat pumps, thermal storage, hydronic floor, geothermal field, thermal mass, windows) using simplified models and develop recommendations for MURB

    • Develop detailed design of heat pump prototype

    • Year 2 (2019-20):

    • Fabricate and measure performance of a CO2 heat pump prototype in laboratory setting

    • Optimize heat pump design based on preliminary results; optimize design to balance performance with cost

    • Develop detailed heat transfer model using building simulation tool representing functioning of complete MURB/BITES

    • Develop control strategies to optimize energy use and thermal comfort

    • Develop detailed design for HRV for fabrication in Year 3

  • Ground Heat Exchanger Glycol

    Loop Main Heat Pump

    Effluent Heat Reclamation

    System

    Domestic Hot Water Tank

    Thermal Energy Storage

    Tanks Excess Heat

    Dumped to Ground

    Reclaimed Hot Water from Drains

    Hot Water to Consumers

    Secondary Heat Source for TES Tank

    Primary Heat Source for TES Tank

    Cooling for TES Tank

    Primary Heating for Heat Pump

    Fan Coil Unit

    Heating for Fan Coil Units

    Heating and Cooling for Hydronics Flooring

    Dehumidification for Fan Coil Units

    Fresh Air in, Exhaust Air out

    Hydronics Flooring Coils in the MURB

    BITES Concept

    Illustration courtesy of K. Firempong-Boakye

  • Heat Pump Expansion Valves and Pumps

    Ground Loop

    Fan Coil Unit# 1

    To the MURB Exhaust Air

    from MURB

    Exhaust Air to Outside

    Fresh Air from Outside

    Domestic Hot Water Tank

    Thermal Energy Storage Tanks

    Mains Water

    Recirculatory Loop

    From Hydronics loop

    To Hydronics Loop

    Injection of hydronics water into the loop

    To Consumers

    Heat Pump #2

    Effluent heat pump with Evaporator and

    Condenser inside

    Effluent Water in Effluent Water out

    23℃ Water

    5℃ Water

    Heat Pump #1

    ERV #1

    55℃ Water

    8℃ Water

    Temperature to be kept at about 50℃

    24℃ for Heating 19.5℃ for Cooling

    60℃ Water

    24℃ to -5℃ Temperature RangeGlycol

    P#1

    HX#1 (Water to Glycol HX)

    P#2

    P#3 P#4

    P#11 HX#4 (Glycol to Water HX)

    HX#2 HX#3

    P#7

    P#10

    P#8

    P#5

    P#6

    P#9

    V#1

    V#2

    V#3

    V#4

    V#5

    V#6

    V#7

    V#8

    V#9

    V#10

    V#11

    V#12 V#13

    V#14

    V#15

    V#16 V#17

    V#18

    V#19 V#20

    HX# - Heat Exchanger

    P#- Pump

    V#- Valves

    SE#- Sensor

    SE#1

    SE#2

    SE#3

    SE#4

    SE#5

    SE#6

    SE#7

    SE#8

    SE#9

    SE#10

    SE#11

    SE#12

    SE#13

    SE#14

    SE#15

    SE#16

    SE#17

    SE#18 SE#19

    SE#20

    SE#21

    Condensor

    Evaporators

    BITES Design

    Illustration courtesy of K. Firempong-Boakye

  • TRNSYS Model Revit Model

    Illustration courtesy of T. Walker

    Illustration courtesy of B. Legault

  • EnergyPlus Model SketchUp Model Illustrations courtesy of M. Katukurunda

    Illustration courtesy of J. Aalab

    SolidWorks Model

  • • Year 1 (2018-19):

    • Analyze performance of BITES prototype (single-family residential scale) and identify opportunities for improving design

    • Size key components (heat pumps, thermal storage, hydronic floor, geothermal field, thermal mass, windows) using simplified models and develop recommendations for MURB

    • Develop detailed design of heat pump prototype

    • Year 2 (2019-20):

    • Fabricate and measure performance of a CO2 heat pump prototype in laboratory setting

    • Optimize heat pump design based on preliminary results; optimize design to balance performance with cost

    • Develop detailed heat transfer model using building simulation tool representing functioning of complete MURB/BITES

    • Develop control strategies to optimize energy use and thermal comfort

    • Develop detailed design for HRV for fabrication in Year 3

  • 2018-19 Class

    Thank you for your interest in BITES!

    Building-Integrated Thermal Energy Systems (BITES) Slide Number 2 Slide Number 3 Slide Number 4 Slide Number 5 Slide Number 6 Slide Number 7 Slide Number 8 Slide Number 9 Slide Number 10