Byzantine Empire Kievan Russia - Empire Kievan Russia ... • Byzantine art often showed religious figures ... • Economically, Byzantine rulers heavily regulated ...

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    09-Mar-2018

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<ul><li><p>Byzantine Empire &amp; Kievan Russia</p><p>ANAGEOFACCELERATINGCONNECTIONS(600 1450)</p></li><li><p> WhiletheremnantsoftheRomanEmpireintheWestwereexperiencingtheDarkAgestheByzantineEmpire(reallytheoldRomanempirethatmovedeasttoConstantinople)maintainedandreinterpretedRomantraditions.</p></li><li><p> TheByzantineEmpiremadeChristianitytheofficialreligionoftheempireandreformedtheirsystemoflawsintoaunifiedcode.</p><p> Therefore,theyavoidedthebreakupandcreationofvariousprincipalitiesaswasoccurringinthewest.</p></li><li><p> EmperorJustinian(527565)iscreditedformakingthereforms/attempttosalvagetheoncegreatempire. JustinianCode(TheBodyofCivilLaw) Helaunchedamassivepublicbuildingprogram</p></li><li><p> TheHagia SophiawasconsideredthemostsplendidchurchintheChristianworld.</p><p> Byzantineartoftenshowedreligiousfiguresagainstgoldbackgrounds;theuseofmosaicswasalsocommon.</p></li><li><p> DespitetheeffortsofJustiniantoresurrectanempirethatencompassedallofEurope,therewerecleardistinctionsemergingbetweentheByzantinesandtheircounterpartsfurtherwest.</p><p> InWesternEurope... Ademographicchangeoccurredthatsawthemovementofpeoplefromurbanareastotheruralcountryside(SomeofthiswasalsooccurringintheeastbecauseofaplagueduringthetimeofJustinianthatencouragedpeopletomovetolesspopulatedplaces,butbyandlargeurbanareasintheeastweremoreprevalentthanthoseinthewest).</p><p> Storiesofsaintscomingfromcitieswerereplacedwithnarrativesaboutsaintswhooriginatedaspeasants.</p><p> Abartersystemreplacedmoneytransactions. TheGreatSchism(1054)dividedChristianityintotheLatinandOrthodoxChurches,whichworsenedtheempiresrelationswithleadersinthewest.</p></li><li><p> ByzantinewomanfoundlessfreedomthantheirRomancounterparts(theywereoftenconfinedtothehomeandconcealedtheirfaceswithveilswhileinpublic).Paradoxically,thewivesofByzantineemperorsdidrulealongsidetheirhusbands(Theodora).</p><p> Economically,Byzantinerulersheavilyregulatedtheeconomy(setprices,organizedtrade).</p></li><li><p> Nevertheless,theexpansionofIslamandArabarmiesdidposeathreattotheByzantines. ArabarmiestookoverByzantineEgypt,Syria,&amp;Tunisia</p><p> ChristiansintheseformerterritoriesadoptedtheMuslimfaith</p></li><li><p> ChristianCrusaderswereabletoreestablishChristianprincipalitiesalongtheeasternedgeoftheMediterranean,butthatwasonlytemporary(TheCrusadeswouldcontinue).</p><p> ConflictwithnewgroupsofpeopleliketheSlavsandTurkswouldfurtherdenttheempire.</p></li><li><p> IntheareaofmodernwesternRussialivedagroupofpeopleknownastheSlavs.</p><p> Theyweremostlyforestdwellersorfarmersanddependeduponlocaltradeoffursandgrains.</p></li><li><p> OvertimetheybegantoblendtheirculturewithemigratedVikingsfromthenorthandtradedwiththepeopleofConstantinople.</p></li><li><p> TheSwedishVikings(Varangians)eventuallycametodominatetheSlavs(880s).ThenativepeopleruledbytheVikingscamebeknownastheRus,hencethenameRussians.</p></li><li><p> TheseearlyRussianprincestendedtodealwiththeByzantinesmorethanwiththeMuslimworldbecauseoftheflowofrivers(DnieperRiver)flowedintotheBlackSea.</p></li><li><p> TheRussiansbecameheavilyinfluencedbyByzantinetraditionsandevenconvertedovertoOrthodoxChristianity(Islamforbidalcohol).</p><p> ByzantinerulerssentmissionariestoRussia;asaresultthestatebecameabarriertoCatholicexpansion(Occasionallypolytheisticuprisingsoccurred,suchasduringfamines).</p></li><li><p> UndertheleadershipofVladimirandYaroslavtheWiseRussian(late900s)citiesbegantoprosper(unlikeWesternEuropepoliticalpowerinRussiaatthistimewasmorecloselyconnectedtotradethantolandholding).</p></li><li><p> Thecity/principalityofKiev(originallysettledbytheVikingleaderOleg)expandedtocontroltheterritorybetweentheBalticandBlackSeas,andtheDanubeandVolgaRivers.</p><p> Kiev&amp;Novgorodmayhavehad50,000peopleequivalenttoLondonorParisatthetime,butmuchsmallerthanConstantinopleorBaghdad.</p></li></ul>