CALIFORNIA CROSSPOINT MIDDLE/HIGH SCHOOL GHG EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT 22500 Industrial Boulevard Hayward, California March 28, 2016 Revised April 25, 2016 Prepared for: Ed Ong California Crosspoint High School Prepared by: James A. Reyff
1 Willowbrook Court, Suite 120 Petaluma, CA 94954 (707) 794-0400 Project: 16-008
INTRODUCTION This report summarizes the assessment of greenhouse gas emisisons resulting from this school project, to be located at 25500 Industrial Boulevard in Hayward, California. The project proposes to convert the former Heald College campus into a middle and high school in three phases over a period of about five years. Phase 1 will utilize the existing facility, which contains more than 32 move-in ready classrooms, to host California Crosspoints existing 200 high school students plus an additional 50 middle school students anticipated to attend in the fall of 2016. No major upgrades or renovation will be necessary to open the school for junior high school and high school students. Minor upgrades will include renovation of the former dental and medical tech labs to become laboratory classrooms and the construction of a perimeter fence. Phase 2 will construct a 42,000 square foot (sf) community center with gymnasium, fitness center, multipurpose assembly hall, commercial kitchen, and multi-use classrooms. Phase 3 will construct a student residence hall, dining hall, recreation room, and lounge area. A fourth phase (Phase 4) would potentially acquire adjacent land for the construction of outdoor athletic facilities and additional parking. Phase 4 is not assessed in this document. Full build-out of the project is anticipated to include 400 high school, 150 middle school and 50 pre school students (600 students) total along with 70 staff or workers. After moving on to the site and establishing the middle school and high school, California Crosspoint will then research and poll the surrounding businesses and area to see if there is an interest and support in having a preschool in the area. If there is, then California Crosspoint will assess whether it can accommodate a preschool. A figure of 50 children was used in this analysis. Greenhouse Gases Setting Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere, GHGs, regulate the earths temperature. This phenomenon, known as the greenhouse effect, is responsible for maintaining a habitable climate. The most common GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor but there are also several others, most importantly methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). These are released into the earths atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and human activities. Sources of GHGs are generally as follows:
CO2 and N2O are byproducts of fossil fuel combustion. N2O is associated with agricultural operations such as fertilization of crops. CH4 is commonly created by off-gassing from agricultural practices (e.g., keeping
livestock) and landfill operations. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were widely used as refrigerants, propellants, and cleaning
solvents but their production has been stopped by international treaty. HFCs are now used as a substitute for CFCs in refrigeration and cooling. PFCs and sulfur hexafluoride emissions are commonly created by industries such as
aluminum production and semi-conductor manufacturing.
Each GHG has its own potency and effect upon the earths energy balance. This is expressed in terms of a global warming potential (GWP), with CO2 being assigned a value of 1 and sulfur hexafluoride being several orders of magnitude stronger with a GWP of 23,900. In GHG emission inventories, the weight of each gas is multiplied by its GWP and is measured in units of equivalent CO2 (CO2e). An expanding body of scientific research supports the theory that global warming is currently affecting changes in weather patterns, average sea level, ocean acidification, chemical reaction rates, and precipitation rates, and that it will increasingly do so in the future. The climate and several naturally occurring resources within California could be adversely affected by the global warming trend. Increased precipitation and sea level rise could increase coastal flooding, saltwater intrusion, and degradation of wetlands. Mass migration and/or loss of plant and animal species could also occur. Potential effects of global climate change that could adversely affect human health include more extreme heat waves and heat-related stress; an increase in climate-sensitive diseases; more frequent and intense natural disasters such as flooding, hurricanes and drought; and increased levels of air pollution. Significance Thresholds In June 2010, BAAQMD adopted thresholds of significance to assist in the review of projects under CEQA. These thresholds were designed to establish the level at which BAAQMD believed air pollution emissions would cause significant environmental impacts under CEQA and were posted on BAAQMDs website and included in the Air District's updated CEQA Guidelines (updated May 2011). The significance thresholds identified by BAAQMD and used in this analysis are summarized in Table 1. Table 1. Air Quality Significance Thresholds
Pollutant Operational Thresholds
GHG Annual Emissions Compliance with a Qualified GHG Reduction Strategy
OR 1,100 metric tons or 4.6 metric tons per capita
Note: GHG = greenhouse gas. Source: BAAQMD CEQA Air Quality Guidelines, May 2011
Greenhouse Gas Emisisons
The BAAQMD CEQA Air Quality Guidelines contain methodology and thresholds of significance for evaluating GHG emissions from land use type projects. The BAAQMD thresholds were developed specifically for the Bay Area after considering the latest Bay Area GHG inventory and the effects of Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32) scoping plan measures that would reduce regional emissions. BAAQMD intends to achieve GHG reductions from new land use developments to close the gap between projected regional emissions with AB 32 scoping plan measures and the AB 32 targets. The BAAQMD has developed different thresholds for evaluating GHG emissions from projects:
1. Compliance with a qualified greenhouse gas reduction strategy 2. Annual emissions of less than 1,100 metric tons or 4.6 metric tons per capita per year.
Emissions of GHG are computed as CO2e that considers the global warming potential of other gases emitted from typical land use projects such as methane and nitrous oxide.1 In this analysis, project emissions are computed and then the projects consistency with the Citys GHG reduction strategy is assessed. GHG Emissions Modeling Methodology GHG emissions were computed for the construction period and the build out (or operational) scenario of the proposed project. Specifically, emissions were computed for both construction and operation of the project using the CalEEMod model in the same manner as used to predict criteria air pollutants. The CalEEMod modeling for this project was only conducted for operation of the project. Inputs to the model, other than default settings, are described below: Land Use The project site is 5.5 acres and was modeled to include two different land uses:
High School with 600 students to represent the middle and high school and Congregate Care (Assisted Living) with 100 residents to represent the dormitory.
Note that a Congregate Care facility is the most similar residential land use included in CalEEMod, and therefore, was used for this modeling assessment. Traffic For the school, a trip generation rate of 2.48 trips per student calculated from the traffic data provided by Fehr & Peers was used for weekday trip generation2. The traffic analysis assumed that of the 600 students, 150 would live at the school site and 150 would arrive by bus or shuttle. Default CalEEMod rates rates for the residential use were used. This is likely an overestimate, as students would not need to drive, but there would be associated staff and other trips. In addition, the traffic estimates are likely too high, as many of the students would either be bussed to the site or live on the site. Energy Use Default energy usage rates were used for the school since the building has been constructed and would be recoccupied. The new building is aniticipated to meet the latest 2013 Title 24 code requirements, which would make it at least 25-percent more energy efficient than the default energy usage rates assumed in CalEEMod. This reduction was applied to Title 24 electricity and natural gas usage categories. PG&Es most recent certified CO2 intenisty rate of 429 pounds per megawatt of energy produced was used.
1 BAAQMD. 2009. California Environmental Quality Act Guidelines Update Proposed Thresholds of Significance. December. 2 Fehr & Peers. 2016. California Crosspoint School Transportation Assessment. April 20.
Construction GHG Emissions
Construction phases included rennovations, minor demolition and some construciton. These emisisons are anticipated to be small on an annual basisand certainly below 1,100 metric tons (MT) of CO2e. Neither the City of Hayward nor BAAQMD have quantified thresholds for construction activities. However, the annual emissions would be below the lowest project emission threshold considered by BAAQMD. Operational GHG Emissions
Table 2 presents the results of the CalEEMod model analysis in terms of annual MT of CO2e/yr. These emissions are based on the output of CalEEMod for the proposed project. The project site was assumed to have no existing emissions since