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  • CLACLS Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies

    Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Graduate Center City University of New York 365 Fifth Avenue Room 5419 New York, New York 10016 212-817-8438 clacls@gc.cuny.edu http://web.gc.cuny.edu/lastudies

    The Mommy Tax and Daddy Bonus:

    Parenthood and Personal Income in the United States between

    1990 and 2010

    Justine Calcagno Ph.D. Candidate

    Social & Personality Psychology Ph.D. Program Director of Quantitative Research

    Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies

    Graduate Center, CUNY

    Latino Data Project - Report 58 October 2014

  • The Center for Latin American, Caribbean and Latino Studies is a research institute that works for the advancement of the study of Latin America, the Caribbean, and Latinos in the United States in the doctoral programs at the CUNY Graduate Center. One of its major priorities is to provide funding and research opportunities to Latino students at the Ph.D. level. The Center established and helps administer an interdisciplinary specialization in Latin American, Caribbean and Latino Studies in the Masters of Arts in Liberal Studies program. The Latino Data Project was developed with the goal of making information available on the dynamically growing Latino population of the United States and especially New York City through the analysis of extant data available from a variety of sources such as the U.S. Census Bureau, the National Institute for Health, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and state and local-level data sources. All Latino Data Project reports are available at http://web.gc.cuny.edu/lastudies/

    For additional information you may contact the Center at 212-817-8438 or by e-mail at clacls@gc.cuny.edu.

    Staff:

    Laird W. Bergad, Distinguished Professor, Latin American and Puerto Rican Studies, Lehman College, Ph.D. Program in History, Executive Director, CLACLS Teresita Levy, Assistant Professor, Department of Latin American, Latino and Puerto Rican Studies, Lehman College, Associate Director Mila Burns, Administrative Director Justine Calcagno, Director of Quantitative Research Lawrence Cappello, Research Associate Victoria Stone-Cadena, Director of Outreach and Special Projects Amanda M. Marin-Chollom, Research Associate Karen Okigbo, Research Associate

    Copyright @ 2014 Center for Latin American, Caribbean and Latino Studies

    Room 5419 Graduate Center

    City University of New York 365 Fifth Avenue

    New York, New York 10016 212-817-8438

    clacls@gc.cuny.edu http://web.gc.cuny.edu/lastudies

    ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

  • Parenthood and Personal Income in the U.S. 3

    Latino Data Project Report 58 October 2014

    Table of Contents

    Guide to Tables ............................................................................................................... 4

    Guide to Figures .............................................................................................................. 7

    Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... 10

    A Demographic Profile of Parenthood in the United States ........................................... 12

    Parenthood and Personal Income among the Total Population in the United States .... 23

    Parenthood and Personal Income by Age in the United States ..................................... 26

    Parenthood and Personal Income among Major Race/Ethnic Groups in the United States ............................................................................................................................ 30

    Parenthood and Personal Income among the Five Largest Latino National Subgroups in the United States ........................................................................................................... 36

    Parenthood and Personal Income by Level of Educational Attainment in the United States ............................................................................................................................ 40

    Parenthood and Personal Income by Occupation in the United States ......................... 45

    Parenthood and Personal Income among the Employed Population in the United States ................................................................................................................. 49

    Summary of Key Findings ............................................................................................ 54

    Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 55

    Statistical Appendix ....................................................................................................... 56

  • Parenthood and Personal Income in the U.S. 4

    Latino Data Project Report 58 October 2014

    Guide to Tables

    Table 1: Parenthood by Sex among the Total Population, United States, 1990 - 2010 . 12

    Table 2: Percentage of Men and Women with Children by Race/Ethnicity, United States, 1990 - 2010 ........................................................................................................ 13

    Table 3: Percentage of Men and Women with Children by Latino Nationality, United States, 1990 - 2010 ............................................................................................ 15

    Table 4: Age Distribution by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ............. 18

    Table 5: Educational Attainment by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 . 19

    Table 6: Occupation by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 2010 ............................... 20

    Table 7: Hours Worked per Week by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ................................................................................................................... 21

    Table 8: Employment Status by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ....... 22

    Table 9: Full-Time and Part-Time Employment by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ........................................................................................................ 22

    Table 10: Median Personal Income among the Total Population by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ................................................................................. 24

    Table 11: Difference in Median Personal Income between Men with and without Children, United States, 1990 - 2010 .................................................................. 24

    Table 12: Median Personal Income by Age Group, Parenthood, and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ........................................................................................................ 27

    Table 13: Median Personal Income among the Non-Hispanic White Population by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ............................................... 30

    Table 14: Difference in Median Personal Income between Men with and without Children among the Non-Hispanic White Population, United States, 1990 - 2010 ........................................................................................................ 30

    Table 15: Median Personal Income among the Non-Hispanic Black Population by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ............................................... 31

  • Parenthood and Personal Income in the U.S. 5

    Latino Data Project Report 58 October 2014

    Table 16: Difference in Median Personal Income between Men with and without Children among the Non-Hispanic Black Population, United States, 1990 - 2010 ........................................................................................................ 32

    Table 17: Median Personal Income among the Asian Population by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ......................................................................... 33

    Table 18: Difference in Median Personal Income between Men with and without Children among the Asian Population, United States, 1990 - 2010 .................... 33

    Table 19: Median Personal Income among the Latino Population by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ......................................................................... 34

    Table 20: Difference in Median Personal Income between Men with and without Children among the Latino Population, United States,1990 - 2010 .................... 34

    Table 21: Median Personal Income among the Five Largest Latino National Subgroups by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 .......................................... 37

    Table 22: Median Personal Income by Educational Attainment, Parenthood, and Sex United States, 1990 - 2010 ................................................................................. 42

    Table 23: Median Personal Income by Occupation, Parenthood, and Sex, United States, 2010 ................................................................................................................... 46

    Table 24: Median Personal Income among the Employed Population by Parenthood and Sex, United States, 1990 - 2010 ......................................................................... 50

    Table 25: Difference in Median Personal Income between Employed Men with and without Children, United States, 1990 - 2010 ..................................................... 51

    Table 26: Median Personal Income among the Empl